Wireless Networks


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Welcome this the start of the 1 hour presentation we will allow time for questions. This presentation is aimed on SECURING YOUR HOME Computers This is not meant to replace policies and procedures used in the workplace.
  • These question allow you to understand you audience.
  • Agenda
  • Cross-over cable can be confusing. Hold them side by side and the colors should be the same, otherwise orange and blue are switched
  • 802.11a – 5 GHz OFDM 54 mbps 802.11b – 2.4 GHz DSSS 11 Mbps 802.11g – 2.4 GHz OFDM 54 mbps 3 useful channels DSSS Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum OFDM Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
  • Get and protect you computer by hiding it from the internet by using a firewall
  • Blocking such as FTP or IM services
  • See the vendor a manual for specific instructions on how to do these steps. Also you can download newest versions of the firmware (software that runs inside of router).
  • Wireless Networks

    1. 1. Configuring your Home Wireless Network Adapted from Presentation at APCUG By Jay Ferron ADMT, CISM, CISSP, MCDBA, MCSE, MCT, NSA-IAM Presented by Lou Koch March 14, 2006
    2. 2. Questions <ul><li>How many of you have more than one computer at home? </li></ul><ul><li>How many of you connect to the Internet using broadband (Cable or DSL) </li></ul><ul><li>How many already have a home router? </li></ul><ul><li>Already have a wireless router? </li></ul><ul><li>For those who have not already done so, we will show you how to install a WLAN tonight. </li></ul><ul><li>More critically we will discuss ways to secure your wireless network </li></ul>
    3. 3. Agenda <ul><li>Connecting things together </li></ul><ul><li>Home network - terminology </li></ul><ul><li>Security – Firewalls, Filtering, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Setting up a home router </li></ul><ul><li>Setting up Print and File Sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Questions </li></ul>
    4. 4. Home Network <ul><li>Internet – ISP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wire to home </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Modem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Translates electronic data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Router </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disperses electronic data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Network Adaptor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Required for each Computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wired </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NIC (network interface card) or ethernet card </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless Adaptor </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Network One or more devices connected together <ul><li>To the Internet with a router </li></ul><ul><li>To each other in order to share Resources: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Connections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing Files </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing Printers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>WAN, LAN, WLAN, PAN </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WAN – W ide A rea N etwork … many computers, locations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LAN – L ocal A rea N etwork … few computers, 1 location </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PAN – P ersonal A rea N etwork … home network </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WLAN – W ireless L ocal A rea N etwork </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Wireless <ul><li>Wireless Networking Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>802.11 a, b, and g </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>configuration specifications to insure compatibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Different speed/range capabilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment conforming to “g” is most popular/available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Good for 100-400 feet … in a house </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General rule – don’t mix equipment made to different standards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bluetooth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard which is often used for peripheral devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Printers, scanners, cell phones, etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short range (10 ft), high speed </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. What is a Cable/DSL Modem <ul><li>Modem (modulator/demodulator) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>encodes/decodes information transmitted to the internet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Usually provided and controlled by your ISP </li></ul><ul><li>Connects your home to the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the device that gets your public IP (internet protocol) address </li></ul><ul><li>Normally has no firewall protection </li></ul>
    8. 8. What is a Router <ul><li>Connects one network to another … Sometimes called a “Gateway” </li></ul><ul><li>Connects your computer to the internet (cable modem or DSL Line) – keeps LAN traffic local </li></ul><ul><li>Routers keep track of IP addresses and physical (MAC) addresses of hosts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IP (Internet Protocol) address … your computers internet address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MAC (Media Access Control ) … id for each physical communication device </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. What is an Access Point <ul><li>A point where computers access a network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Device which links wireless users to network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmits and receives data (Transceiver) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bridge between wireless and wired networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can be linked together to cover broad area </li></ul><ul><li>No security or firewall implemented </li></ul>
    10. 10. What is a Firewall <ul><li>A device that filters packets of data or traffic </li></ul><ul><li>Its job is to be a traffic cop </li></ul><ul><li>You configure the firewall: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What will allow to pass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What will it block </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hides your home network from the outside world </li></ul><ul><li>Can be either in hardware or software </li></ul><ul><li>Most popular routers for home have built in firewall protection </li></ul>
    11. 11. What Does a Firewall do? <ul><li>They: </li></ul><ul><li>Protect your home computer from the bad guys </li></ul><ul><li>Keep your information private </li></ul><ul><li>Make you less of a target </li></ul><ul><li>By: </li></ul><ul><li>Stopping viruses </li></ul><ul><li>Hiding your computer from the world </li></ul><ul><li>Making the bad guys work harder to get your info </li></ul>
    12. 12. Firewall Protection <ul><li>Checks incoming traffic from the network before it gets to your home network …. default – Blocks all Incoming connections </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic leaving your home network … default - Allow all outbound connections </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware firewalls protect you home network by stop all traffic before it get to your computers </li></ul><ul><li>Personal software firewall on your computer blocks incoming and outgoing (lets you know what is leaving your computer) </li></ul>Firewall Home Network Internet
    13. 13. Hardware Firewall Routers <ul><li>The idea is layers of protection </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of home combo units include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Belkin (we will demo tonight) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dlink </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linksys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Netgear </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Software Firewalls <ul><li>Adding a second level of protection </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling what leaves your computer </li></ul><ul><li>By being aware of application level attacks </li></ul><ul><li>By allow you to schedule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usage of the internet by time (control access at night) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By location (block content for young children) </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Software Firewalls for Home Use <ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zone Alarm (Free) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>McAfee Firewall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symantec’s Norton Personal Firewall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Associates with Firewall (free) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows Firewall in XP Service Pack 2 (free) </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Configure Wireless Firewall/router Overview <ul><li>Basic Settings … name, ip address, etc </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Check for firmware updates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Set Account name and password </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change name and password … don’t used default </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wireless Settings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SSID broadcast … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>make sure that remote computers are set to automatically connect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not enable DMZ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do enable ping blocking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Security - Blocking and Filtering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless Security encryption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MAC filtering </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Back up settings </li></ul>
    17. 17. Basic Settings and Info <ul><li>Run Install CD that comes with router </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic info will be automatically entered or requested </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To change info: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For Belkin the default IP address is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other manufacturers use different ip addresses (later slide) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enter this into address bar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Setup page will be displayed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Firmware - software that is embedded in a hardware device </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Updated occasionally by manufactures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check whenever you access router </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Account Name <ul><li>Change name </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Default name is set by manufacturer … eg, Belkin54 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bad guys know defaults and default administrative passwords </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Create Administrative Password </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Strong Password </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Record your password where you can find it so you can make changes </li></ul>
    19. 19. Default Info <ul><li>Router default info is easily available on internet for consumers … and the bad guys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.otosoftware.com/wwhelp/Default_Router_Usernames_and_Passwords.htm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://forum.pcmech.com/showthread.php?t=64258 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>So Change Name and Password </li></ul>password admin Netgear admin blank Linksys blank admin D-link blank admin Belkin Password User Name Default IP Mfg
    20. 20. Passwords <ul><li>Your computer password is the foundation of your computer security </li></ul><ul><li>No Password = No Security </li></ul><ul><li>Old Passwords & Same Password = Reduced Security </li></ul><ul><li>Set and change the “administrator” password on router (and your computer logon) </li></ul><ul><li>STRONG PASSWORD … 6-8 digit passwords </li></ul><ul><ul><li>use upper, lower case, numbers and symbols </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Wireless Settings <ul><li>SSID - service set identifier </li></ul><ul><ul><li>name given to your wireless network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadcasting this ID makes network visible to PCs in area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>can be turned off so it will not be detected by other PCs in area </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be sure to set up your own pc to automatically detect and logon to your WLAN </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>DMZ – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>allows you to select a PC to access WLAN outside the firewall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>do not enable unless firewall interferes with some activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ping Blocking –troubleshooting tool </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signal sent and echo received indicates valid ip address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used by hackers to find active computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enable ping blocking … won’t send echo back </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Security Blocking and Filtering <ul><li>Encryption – coding transmissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple variations. 2 most common: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WPA-PSK … Wireless Protected Access (Pre-shared key) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use same password for all computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preferred Choice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WEP … Wired equivalent privacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>64 or 128 bit encryption … doesn’t matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enter Password … converts to hex code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must enter hex code </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd Choice (if WPA not supported) </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. MAC Filtering <ul><li>MAC address … Media Access Control address </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unique ID permanently attached to each communication device by manufacturer – hardware id </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can find MAC address: run  cmd  ipconfig/all </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enter MAC addresses of acceptable network clients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If address is not on filter list, access to network will be denied </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Very effective security method </li></ul>
    24. 24. RECAP Steps to protect your wireless network <ul><li>Change the default password on your router </li></ul><ul><li>2. Enable WPA(PSK) or WEP on router and wireless workstation </li></ul><ul><li>Use MAC address filtering </li></ul><ul><li>SSID broadcast off </li></ul><ul><li>Prohibit Peer-to-peer (Ad Hoc) networking </li></ul><ul><li>5. Keep current on hardware bios upgrades </li></ul>
    25. 25. Print and File Sharing Overview <ul><li>Print and File Sharing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Useful, but Risky if all computers are not secure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Setting up Network for Printer and File sharing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interface card </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Set Interface card to allow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each computer in network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure each computer is part of network </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Printer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure that Print sharing is allowed for printer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Load appropriate print drivers on each computer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firewall Settings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reset network IP range to trusted zone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place files to share in “Shared Documents” folder </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Print and File Sharing Details (1) <ul><li>Be sure WLAN is working and secure </li></ul><ul><li>Interface card </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start  connect to  NIC or WLAN card  properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Check “File and Printer sharing on Microsoft Networks” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Repeat for all PCs on Network </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Printer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start  Printers and Faxes  shared printer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Select properties  sharing  check “share this Printer) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Print and File Sharing Details (2) <ul><li>Firewall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be sure WLAN IPs are allowed in Firewall for all PCs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zone Alarm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Firewall  zones  add  IP range  <enter appropriate range> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Network ID for each computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Under My Computer  Properties  Computer name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Click Change and add WLAN name as Workgroup </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Shared Documents Folder for each computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any files in the Shared Documents folder will be accessible from all computers </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Questions