Windows Network Administration Chapter 5:

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Windows Network Administration Chapter 5:

  1. 1. Windows Network Administration <ul><li>Chapter 5 : </li></ul><ul><li>Troubleshooting Name Resolution </li></ul>
  2. 2. Common NetBIOS Name Resolution Problems <ul><li>Three categories of NetBIOS problems: </li></ul><ul><li>Name resolution problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine node type first </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Browsing problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First identify scope, e.g.: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to browse entire network </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to browse single system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Name registration problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First determine whether there is a naming conflict </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Examining Computer Browser Service
  4. 4. Common DNS Resolution Problems <ul><li>For client configuration problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine DNS configuration on client </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ipconfig </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Properties dialog box for network interface </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>For server configuration problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems with local zones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Check server database for record </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protocol analyzer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems with remote zones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clear DNS server cache or restart service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examine resolution chain </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Clearing the Cache
  6. 6. Using ping, ipconfig, and nbtstat <ul><li>Additional troubleshooting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Validate problem is name resolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ping command </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine whether cause is on client side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ipconfig/all command </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check (if necessary clear) NetBIOS or DNS name cache </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. ping <ul><ul><li>A successful resolution attempt </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. ping <ul><ul><li>A failed resolution attempt </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. nbtstat <ul><li>nbtstat – c </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Displays NetBIOS name cache </li></ul></ul><ul><li>nbtstat – R </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purges and reloads NetBIOS name cache </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. ipconfig <ul><li>ipconfig /displaydns </li></ul><ul><li>ipconfig /flushdns </li></ul><ul><li>ipconfig /registerdns </li></ul><ul><li>net stop dnscache </li></ul><ul><li>net start dnscache </li></ul>
  11. 11. ipconfig
  12. 12. ipconfig
  13. 13. nslookup <ul><li>Allows custom queries to DNS servers </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive mode: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Custom nslookup prompt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Configurable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows multiple queries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-interactive mode: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Run single command-line query </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Syntax </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nslookup [- option ] [ host name to resolve ] [ server to use ] </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. nslookup: Non-Interactive Query
  15. 15. nslookup: Entering Interactive Mode
  16. 16. Interactive Mode: Resolving a Name
  17. 17. Interactive Mode: Available Options
  18. 18. Interactive Mode: Available Options
  19. 19. nslookup: set debug
  20. 20. nslookup: set type
  21. 21. nslookup: Basic ls Listing
  22. 22. ls Listing Specifying SRV Type
  23. 23. Examining NetBIOS Name Resolution <ul><li>Only broadcasts and WINS can be examined with a protocol analyzer </li></ul>
  24. 24. Examining DNS Name Resolution
  25. 25. Examining DNS Name Resolution
  26. 26. Examining DNS Name Resolution
  27. 27. Summary <ul><li>NetBIOS problems fall into three categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For name resolution problems, examine node type first. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For browsing problems, first identify the scope. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For name registration problems, first verify there is a naming conflict. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two basic types of DNS problems: client configuration problems and server configuration problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Two basic types of DNS server configuration problems: problems with local zones and problems with remote zones. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Summary <ul><li>Steps in troubleshooting name resolution problems include using ping to validate problem, using ipconfig /all to validate client configuration problem, and using nbtstat to check or clear NetBIOS or DNS name cache. </li></ul><ul><li>nslookup: Diagnostics command for crafting custom queries to DNS servers with modes: interactive and non-interactive. </li></ul><ul><li>Key to troubleshooting at packet level: Understanding traffic you are analyzing; knowing what to expect in order to understand why the correct activity is not occurring. </li></ul>

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