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Introduction to Computers & NetworkingIntroduction to Computers & Networking
Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Comp...
History of Computing - EarlyHistory of Computing - Early
ComputersComputers
Abacus (ancient orient, still in use)Abacus (a...
IBM 701IBM 701 (Defense Calculator)(Defense Calculator)
Addition time: 60 microsecondsAddition time: 60 microseconds
Multi...
Second Generation (1958-1964)Second Generation (1958-1964)
1958 Philco introduces TRANSAC S-20001958 Philco introduces TRA...
Third Generation (1964-1971)Third Generation (1964-1971)
April 1964 IBM announces the System/360April 1964 IBM announces t...
Fourth Generation (1971- )Fourth Generation (1971- )
Large scale integrated circuits (MSI, LSI)Large scale integrated circ...
Intel processorsIntel processors
CPUCPU YearYear DataData MemoryMemory MIPSMIPS
40044004 19711971 44 1K1K
80088008 1972197...
Type of ComputersType of Computers
Supercomputing: used for scientific computing
Mainframes: used to be primary form of co...
OrganizationOrganization
A computer system consists ofA computer system consists of
– hardwarehardware
– system programssy...
Organization of ComputerOrganization of Computer
Input DevicesInput Devices
– Keyboard; Mouse; Digitiger; Joystick; Punch ...
OrganizationOrganization
Components of a simple personal computerComponents of a simple personal computer
Monitor
Bus
Concept and Implementation of NetworkConcept and Implementation of Network
Transmission Media & TechniquesTransmission Med...
Network TopologiesNetwork Topologies
Physical and Logical TopologiesPhysical and Logical Topologies
TopologiesTopologies
–...
Bus TopologyBus Topology
Bus TopologyBus Topology
Ring TopologyRing Topology
Star TopologyStar Topology
Extended Star TopologyExtended Star Topology
A Star
Network
which has
been
expanded to
include an
additional
hub or hubs.
Hybrid TopologyHybrid Topology
Communication ProtocolsCommunication Protocols
TCP/IPTCP/IP
Novel NetNovel Net
Netbui (Windows Network)Netbui (Windows Net...
Concept of Proxy Server & FirewallsConcept of Proxy Server & Firewalls
Internet Service ProvidersInternet Service Provider...
What Is the Internet?What Is the Internet?
A network of networks, joining many government, university andA network of netw...
Brief History of the InternetBrief History of the Internet
1968 - DARPA1968 - DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Ag...
Internet Growth TrendsInternet Growth Trends
1977: 111 hosts on Internet1977: 111 hosts on Internet
1981: 213 hosts1981: 2...
TCP/IP AddressesTCP/IP Addresses
Every host on the Internet must have a unique IPEvery host on the Internet must have a un...
Internet Applications: PortInternet Applications: Port
AssignmentsAssignments
2121 FTP (sftp)FTP (sftp) : File Transfer: F...
History of Operating SystemsHistory of Operating Systems
(1)(1)
Early batch systemEarly batch system
– bring cards to 1401...
Operating SystemsOperating Systems
Single UserSingle User
– a) CP/M ;a) CP/M ;
– b) MS-DOS;b) MS-DOS;
– c) Macintosh;c) Ma...
What is Unix?What is Unix?
A fully featured modern operating systemA fully featured modern operating system
It is availabl...
Using Other CommandsUsing Other Commands
Syntax:Syntax: commandcommand filefile
catcat Echos file contents to the screenEc...
Other File System UtilitiesOther File System Utilities
lsls Lists all files in a directoryLists all files in a directory
c...
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Various Career Options Available

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  • Transcript of "Various Career Options Available"

    1. 1. Introduction to Computers & NetworkingIntroduction to Computers & Networking Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers – HistoryHistory – OrganizationOrganization – Operating SystemOperating System Introduction to NetworkIntroduction to Network – LAN, MAN and WANLAN, MAN and WAN – Transmission Media, Network TopologiesTransmission Media, Network Topologies – Protocols & InternetProtocols & Internet How to login on server and Unix commandsHow to login on server and Unix commands PINE softwarePINE software – Email , file attachmentEmail , file attachment Servers atServers at http://www.imtech.res.in/raghava/http://www.imtech.res.in/raghava/
    2. 2. History of Computing - EarlyHistory of Computing - Early ComputersComputers Abacus (ancient orient, still in use)Abacus (ancient orient, still in use) Slide rule (17C, John Napier)Slide rule (17C, John Napier) Adding machine with geared wheels (17C, B. Pascal)Adding machine with geared wheels (17C, B. Pascal) Difference Engine (19C, C. Babbage): First device using theDifference Engine (19C, C. Babbage): First device using the principles of modern computer.principles of modern computer. ENIAC (1945, John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert, Jr.)ENIAC (1945, John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert, Jr.) – Vacuum tube computer (18,000 electron tubes)Vacuum tube computer (18,000 electron tubes) Three important inventionsThree important inventions – Stored program concept (John von Neumann)Stored program concept (John von Neumann) – Transistor (J. Bardeen, W.H. Brattain, W. Shockley)Transistor (J. Bardeen, W.H. Brattain, W. Shockley) – Magnetic core memory (J.W. Forrester and colleagues inMagnetic core memory (J.W. Forrester and colleagues in MIT)MIT)
    3. 3. IBM 701IBM 701 (Defense Calculator)(Defense Calculator) Addition time: 60 microsecondsAddition time: 60 microseconds Multiplication: 456 microsecondsMultiplication: 456 microseconds Memory: 2048 (36 bit) words usingMemory: 2048 (36 bit) words using Williams tubesWilliams tubes Secondary memory:Secondary memory: – Magnetic drum: 8192 wordsMagnetic drum: 8192 words – Magnetic tape: plasticMagnetic tape: plastic Delivered:Delivered: December 1952December 1952: IBM World: IBM World Headquarters (total of 19 installed)Headquarters (total of 19 installed)
    4. 4. Second Generation (1958-1964)Second Generation (1958-1964) 1958 Philco introduces TRANSAC S-20001958 Philco introduces TRANSAC S-2000 – first transistorized commercial machinefirst transistorized commercial machine IBM 7070, 7074 (1960), 7072(1961)IBM 7070, 7074 (1960), 7072(1961) 1959 IBM 7090, 7040 (1961), 7094 (1962)1959 IBM 7090, 7040 (1961), 7094 (1962) 1959 IBM 1401, 1410 (1960), 1440 (1962)1959 IBM 1401, 1410 (1960), 1440 (1962) FORTRAN, ALGOLFORTRAN, ALGOL, and, and COBOLCOBOL are first standardizedare first standardized programming languagesprogramming languages
    5. 5. Third Generation (1964-1971)Third Generation (1964-1971) April 1964 IBM announces the System/360April 1964 IBM announces the System/360 – solid logic technology (integrated circuits)solid logic technology (integrated circuits) – family of “compatible” computersfamily of “compatible” computers 1964 Control Data delivers the CDC 66001964 Control Data delivers the CDC 6600 nanosecondsnanoseconds telecommunicationstelecommunications BASICBASIC, Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code, Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code
    6. 6. Fourth Generation (1971- )Fourth Generation (1971- ) Large scale integrated circuits (MSI, LSI)Large scale integrated circuits (MSI, LSI) Nanoseconds and picosecondsNanoseconds and picoseconds Databases (large)Databases (large) Structured languages (Structured languages (PascalPascal)) Structured techniquesStructured techniques Business packagesBusiness packages
    7. 7. Intel processorsIntel processors CPUCPU YearYear DataData MemoryMemory MIPSMIPS 40044004 19711971 44 1K1K 80088008 19721972 88 16K16K 80808080 19741974 88 64K64K 80888088 19801980 88 1M1M .33.33 8028680286 19821982 1616 1M1M 33 8038680386 19851985 3232 4G4G 1111 8048680486 19891989 3232 4G4G 4141 Pentium1993Pentium1993 6464 4G4G 111111 Pentium I to IVPentium I to IV INTEL XeonINTEL Xeon INTEL IteniumINTEL Itenium INTEL Dual/Quodo/ExtremeINTEL Dual/Quodo/Extreme
    8. 8. Type of ComputersType of Computers Supercomputing: used for scientific computing Mainframes: used to be primary form of computer, used in centralized computers, used in businesses for timesharing Servers: computers used to connect other computers to the internet, printer, file sharing, etc. Desktops: Personal Computers Workstations: More powerful version of the personal computer Handheld: Smaller operating Systems for handhelds Laptops/Notebook: Small portable computer Real Time: Operating Systems for information that needs to be updated in real time Embedded Systems: Systems that are found within another System
    9. 9. OrganizationOrganization A computer system consists ofA computer system consists of – hardwarehardware – system programssystem programs – application programsapplication programs
    10. 10. Organization of ComputerOrganization of Computer Input DevicesInput Devices – Keyboard; Mouse; Digitiger; Joystick; Punch card etc.Keyboard; Mouse; Digitiger; Joystick; Punch card etc. Output DevicesOutput Devices – Monitors/Screens (MDA, MGA; CGA; EGA; VGA & SVGA) ;Monitors/Screens (MDA, MGA; CGA; EGA; VGA & SVGA) ; Printers; Plotters; LCD; LED etc.Printers; Plotters; LCD; LED etc. Data StorageData Storage – Primary Storage (RAM)Primary Storage (RAM) – Secondary Storage (floppy disk & hard disk)Secondary Storage (floppy disk & hard disk) Central Processing UnitCentral Processing Unit Microprocessors (INTEL 8080, 8086, 80286,Microprocessors (INTEL 8080, 8086, 80286, 80386, 80486, Pentium I, II, III, IV)80386, 80486, Pentium I, II, III, IV)
    11. 11. OrganizationOrganization Components of a simple personal computerComponents of a simple personal computer Monitor Bus
    12. 12. Concept and Implementation of NetworkConcept and Implementation of Network Transmission Media & TechniquesTransmission Media & Techniques EthernetEthernet – UTP (10base2)UTP (10base2) – Thick ethernet (10base5)Thick ethernet (10base5) – Thin Ethernet (10base2)Thin Ethernet (10base2) Optical FiberOptical Fiber Network TopologiesNetwork Topologies – Star (Easy services, One Device, Centralize cont.)Star (Easy services, One Device, Centralize cont.) – BUS (Short cable; Expandable; simplicity)BUS (Short cable; Expandable; simplicity) – RING (Short cable; suitable for optical Fibers)RING (Short cable; suitable for optical Fibers) – Hybrid (Tree topology; ring-star)Hybrid (Tree topology; ring-star)
    13. 13. Network TopologiesNetwork Topologies Physical and Logical TopologiesPhysical and Logical Topologies TopologiesTopologies – BusBus – RingRing – StarStar – Extended StarExtended Star – MeshMesh – HybridHybrid
    14. 14. Bus TopologyBus Topology
    15. 15. Bus TopologyBus Topology
    16. 16. Ring TopologyRing Topology
    17. 17. Star TopologyStar Topology
    18. 18. Extended Star TopologyExtended Star Topology A Star Network which has been expanded to include an additional hub or hubs.
    19. 19. Hybrid TopologyHybrid Topology
    20. 20. Communication ProtocolsCommunication Protocols TCP/IPTCP/IP Novel NetNovel Net Netbui (Windows Network)Netbui (Windows Network) Digital NetworkDigital Network InternetInternet
    21. 21. Concept of Proxy Server & FirewallsConcept of Proxy Server & Firewalls Internet Service ProvidersInternet Service Providers Telephone LineTelephone Line – ModemModem ISDN LineISDN Line Lease LineLease Line Proxy server IP AddressProxy server IP Address – Port numberPort number
    22. 22. What Is the Internet?What Is the Internet? A network of networks, joining many government, university andA network of networks, joining many government, university and private computers together and providing an infrastructure forprivate computers together and providing an infrastructure for the use of E-mail, bulletin boards, file archives, hypertextthe use of E-mail, bulletin boards, file archives, hypertext documents, databases and other computational resourcesdocuments, databases and other computational resources The vast collection of computer networks which form and act asThe vast collection of computer networks which form and act as a single huge network for transport of data and messagesa single huge network for transport of data and messages across distances which can be anywhere from the same officeacross distances which can be anywhere from the same office to anywhere in the world.to anywhere in the world. Written by William F. Slater, III 1996 President of the Chicago Chapter of the Internet Society Copyright 2002, William F. Slater, III, Chicago, IL, USA
    23. 23. Brief History of the InternetBrief History of the Internet 1968 - DARPA1968 - DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency)(Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) contracts with BBNcontracts with BBN (Bolt, Beranek & Newman)(Bolt, Beranek & Newman) to createto create ARPAnetARPAnet 1970 - First five nodes:1970 - First five nodes: – UCLAUCLA – StanfordStanford – UC Santa BarbaraUC Santa Barbara – U of Utah, andU of Utah, and – BBNBBN 1974 - TCP specification by Vint Cerf1974 - TCP specification by Vint Cerf 1984 – On January 1, the Internet with its 1000 hosts1984 – On January 1, the Internet with its 1000 hosts converts en masse to using TCP/IP for its messagingconverts en masse to using TCP/IP for its messaging
    24. 24. Internet Growth TrendsInternet Growth Trends 1977: 111 hosts on Internet1977: 111 hosts on Internet 1981: 213 hosts1981: 213 hosts 1983: 562 hosts1983: 562 hosts 1984: 1,000 hosts1984: 1,000 hosts 1986: 5,000 hosts1986: 5,000 hosts 1987: 10,000 hosts1987: 10,000 hosts 1989: 100,000 hosts1989: 100,000 hosts 1992: 1,000,000 hosts1992: 1,000,000 hosts 2001: 150 – 175 million hosts2001: 150 – 175 million hosts 2002: over 200 million hosts2002: over 200 million hosts By 2010, about 80% of the planet will be on the InternetBy 2010, about 80% of the planet will be on the Internet
    25. 25. TCP/IP AddressesTCP/IP Addresses Every host on the Internet must have a unique IPEvery host on the Internet must have a unique IP addressaddress The IP address is a 32-bit number which weThe IP address is a 32-bit number which we write in dotted decimal notationwrite in dotted decimal notation The first part of the IP address is the networkThe first part of the IP address is the network address – the remainder is the host IDaddress – the remainder is the host ID A subnet mask is used to determine the networkA subnet mask is used to determine the network address from a IP host addressaddress from a IP host address All hosts on the same network are configuredAll hosts on the same network are configured with the same subnet maskwith the same subnet mask
    26. 26. Internet Applications: PortInternet Applications: Port AssignmentsAssignments 2121 FTP (sftp)FTP (sftp) : File Transfer: File Transfer 23 Telnet (ssh)23 Telnet (ssh) : Remote login: Remote login 25 smtp (mail)25 smtp (mail) : Email transfer: Email transfer 70 gopher70 gopher : Browser: Browser 79 finger79 finger : Checking network: Checking network PINGPING : Network diagnostic: Network diagnostic 80 HTTP80 HTTP : Web browsing: Web browsing
    27. 27. History of Operating SystemsHistory of Operating Systems (1)(1) Early batch systemEarly batch system – bring cards to 1401bring cards to 1401 – read cards to taperead cards to tape – put tape on 7094 which does computingput tape on 7094 which does computing – put tape on 1401 which prints outputput tape on 1401 which prints output
    28. 28. Operating SystemsOperating Systems Single UserSingle User – a) CP/M ;a) CP/M ; – b) MS-DOS;b) MS-DOS; – c) Macintosh;c) Macintosh; – d) Windowsd) Windows Multiple UserMultiple User – UNIX (1969 by Ken Thompson; C; Bell)UNIX (1969 by Ken Thompson; C; Bell) – LinuxLinux – SolarisSolaris – IRIXIRIX – VMS (Digital)VMS (Digital)
    29. 29. What is Unix?What is Unix? A fully featured modern operating systemA fully featured modern operating system It is available in a variety of “flavors.”It is available in a variety of “flavors.” It’s comprised of simple tools that perform aIt’s comprised of simple tools that perform a single function well.single function well. These tools can be used together to performThese tools can be used together to perform complex tasks.complex tasks.
    30. 30. Using Other CommandsUsing Other Commands Syntax:Syntax: commandcommand filefile catcat Echos file contents to the screenEchos file contents to the screen grepgrep Searches a file for a stringSearches a file for a string moremore Echos a file a line at a timeEchos a file a line at a time lessless Same as more but more featuresSame as more but more features wcwc Counts the words in a file and moreCounts the words in a file and more sortsort Sorts the contents of a fileSorts the contents of a file
    31. 31. Other File System UtilitiesOther File System Utilities lsls Lists all files in a directoryLists all files in a directory cpcp Copies filesCopies files mvmv Moves filesMoves files rmrm Deletes filesDeletes files mkdirmkdir Makes directoriesMakes directories rmdirrmdir Removes directoriesRemoves directories
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