Network architecture is the overall design of a network, including how devices and components are connected, how devices and components communicate, and the network protocols needed to establish reliable communication among nodes on the network.
If it hears something other than its own data being transmitted, it stops transmitting and sends out a signal indicating that there has been a collision, which occurs when two computers attempt to send data at the same time.
A collision can cause packets that were just sent to be corrupted.
Each computer waits for a random amount of time and then tries to transmit again, first listening for silence.
Token Ring is an older LAN technology developed by IBM that transmits data at 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps.
A Token Ring network is physically arranged using a star topology, because each node connects to a centralized device.
The centralized device to which the network nodes connect is not a hub or switch, as used in Ethernet networks, but is called a Controlled Access Unit (CAU), a Multistation Access Unit ( MSAU or sometimes just MAU), or a Smart Multistation Access Unit (SMAU) .