TCP/IP

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TCP/IP

  1. 1.  Dean (3 rd ), Chapter 11
  2. 2.  <ul><li>TCP/IP effect on network design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subnetting, CIDR, and NAT </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mail protocols </li></ul><ul><li>Voice over IP (VoIP) </li></ul><ul><li>TCP/IP utilities for network discovery and troubleshooting </li></ul>
  3. 3.  <ul><li>Enhance security </li></ul><ul><li>Improve performance </li></ul><ul><li>Simplify troubleshooting </li></ul><ul><li>Classful Addressing </li></ul><ul><li>Subnet Masks </li></ul>
  4. 4. 
  5. 5.  <ul><li>“ this” network: 0.0.0.0 … 0.255.255.255 </li></ul><ul><li>Private networks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10.0.0.0 … 10.255.255.255 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>172.16.0.0 … 172.31.255.255 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>192.168.0.0 … 192.168.255.255 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Public data networks: 14.0.0.0 … 14.255.255.255 </li></ul><ul><li>Cable operators: 24.0.0.0 … 24.255.255.255 </li></ul><ul><li>Class A Subnet Experiment: 39.0.0.0 … 39.255.255.255 </li></ul><ul><li>Loop back: 127.0.0.0 … 127.255.255.255 </li></ul><ul><li>Auto-configuration: 169.254.0.0 … 169.254.255.255 </li></ul><ul><li>TEST-NET for example code: 192.0.2.0 … 192.0.2.255 </li></ul><ul><li>6to4 relay anycast: 192.88.99.0 … 192.88.99.255 </li></ul><ul><li>Benchmarking devices: 198.18.0.0 … 198.19.255.255 </li></ul><ul><li>Multicast: 224.0.0.0 … 239.255.255.255 </li></ul><ul><li>Reserved for future use: 240.0.0.0 … 255.255.255.254 </li></ul><ul><li>Limited broadcast: 255.255.255.255 </li></ul>
  6. 6. 
  7. 7.  <ul><li>AND operation uses truth value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>true && true == true </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>true && false == false </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>false && false == false </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AND operation used to extract subnet address from IP address </li></ul>
  8. 8. 
  9. 9.  <ul><li>Some addresses are reserved for special purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Reserved classful addresses (byte boundary) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zero in host octets for network address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>255 in host octets for broadcast address </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subnets not on byte boundaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zeroes in host bits for network address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ones in host bits for broadcast address </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. 
  11. 11. 
  12. 13.  <ul><li>Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More efficient use of routing table space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables supernetting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pronounced “ cider ” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Replaces A, B, and C class structure with number of set bits in subnet mask </li></ul><ul><ul><li>xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx/xx –IP address /no.mask bits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>192.168.0.113/16 equivalent of Class C address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://public.pacbell.net/dedicated/cidr.html </li></ul></ul>
  13. 15. 
  14. 16. 
  15. 17.  <ul><li>Combination of software and hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate communications between different networks and subnets </li></ul><ul><li>Default gateway </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every device on TCP/IP network should have one </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First receives outbound requests for other subnets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interprets inbound requests from other subnets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet gateway (backbone) usually assigned IP with last octet of “1” </li></ul>
  16. 18. 
  17. 19.  <ul><li>Gateway for “hiding” internal IP address </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility in assigning IP addresses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal IP address—any IP address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External IP address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Comes from pool of valid Internet IPs (permanent) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only used for duration of transmission (temporary) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Provides a little additional security, since each transmission has new IP </li></ul>
  18. 20. 
  19. 21.  <ul><li>Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formatting of text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in Hypertext Transfer Protocol (http) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Language” of Web pages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intranet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Within an enterprise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extranet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses Internet-like services and protocols </li></ul></ul>
  20. 22.  <ul><li>Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protocol responsible for moving messages from one mail server to another over TCP/IP-based networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for messages that contain no more than 1000 ASCII characters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Post Office Protocol (POP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Application layer protocol used to retrieve messages from a mail server </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet Mail Access Protocol (IMAP) </li></ul>
  21. 23.  <ul><li>Retrieve all or only a portion of any mail message </li></ul><ul><li>Review their messages and delete them while the messages remain on the server </li></ul><ul><li>Create sophisticated methods of organizing messages on the server </li></ul><ul><li>Share a mailbox in a central location </li></ul>
  22. 24.  <ul><li>netstat </li></ul><ul><li>nbstat </li></ul><ul><li>nslookup </li></ul><ul><li>whois </li></ul><ul><li>traceroute </li></ul><ul><li>ipconfig and winipcfg </li></ul><ul><li>ifconfig </li></ul>
  23. 25.  <ul><li>-a—Provides a list of all available TCP and UDP connections </li></ul><ul><li>-e—Displays details about all the packets </li></ul><ul><li>-n—Lists currently connected hosts according to their port and IP address </li></ul><ul><li>-p—Allows you to specify what type of protocol statistics to list </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be followed by a protocol specification (TCP or UDP) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>-r—Provides a list of routing table information </li></ul><ul><li>-s—Provides statistics about each packet transmitted by a host, separated according to protocol type (IP,TCP, UDP, or ICMP) </li></ul>
  24. 26. 
  25. 27.  <ul><li>-a—Displays a machine’s name table given its NetBIOS name </li></ul><ul><li>-A—Displays a machine’s name table given its IP address </li></ul><ul><li>-r—Lists statistics about names that have been resolved </li></ul><ul><li>-s—Displays a list of all the current NetBIOS sessions </li></ul>
  26. 28.  <ul><li>Allows you to query the DNS database </li></ul><ul><li>Returns server and results data </li></ul>
  27. 29.  <ul><li>Allows you to query this DNS registration database and obtain information about a domain </li></ul>
  28. 30.  <ul><li>-d—Instructs the traceroute command not to resolve IP addresses to host names </li></ul><ul><li>-h—Specifies the maximum number of hops </li></ul><ul><li>-w—Identifies a timeout </li></ul>
  29. 31. 
  30. 32.  <ul><li>/?—Displays a list of switches </li></ul><ul><li>/all—Displays complete TCP/IP configuration </li></ul><ul><li>/release—Releases DHCP </li></ul><ul><li>/renew—Renews DHCP </li></ul>
  31. 33. 
  32. 34.  <ul><li>Windows 9x and Me operating systems </li></ul>
  33. 35.  <ul><li>-a </li></ul><ul><li>down </li></ul><ul><li>up </li></ul>
  34. 36. –
  35. 37.  <ul><li>Also known as IP telephony </li></ul><ul><li>Lower costs for voice calls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>toll bypass </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supply new or enhanced features and applications </li></ul><ul><li>Centralize voice and data network management </li></ul>
  36. 38. 
  37. 39. 
  38. 40. 
  39. 41.  <ul><li>Discuss methods of network design unique to TCP/IP networks, including subnetting, CIDR, and NAT </li></ul><ul><li>Describe protocols used between mail clients and mail servers </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the fundamental principles of using a TCP/IP network for packetized voice transmissions </li></ul><ul><li>Employ multiple TCP/IP utilities for network discovery and troubleshooting </li></ul>

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