TCP/IP
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TCP/IP

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    TCP/IP TCP/IP Presentation Transcript

    •  Dean (3 rd ), Chapter 11
    • 
      • TCP/IP effect on network design
        • Subnetting, CIDR, and NAT
      • Mail protocols
      • Voice over IP (VoIP)
      • TCP/IP utilities for network discovery and troubleshooting
    • 
      • Enhance security
      • Improve performance
      • Simplify troubleshooting
      • Classful Addressing
      • Subnet Masks
    • 
    • 
      • “ this” network: 0.0.0.0 … 0.255.255.255
      • Private networks:
        • 10.0.0.0 … 10.255.255.255
        • 172.16.0.0 … 172.31.255.255
        • 192.168.0.0 … 192.168.255.255
      • Public data networks: 14.0.0.0 … 14.255.255.255
      • Cable operators: 24.0.0.0 … 24.255.255.255
      • Class A Subnet Experiment: 39.0.0.0 … 39.255.255.255
      • Loop back: 127.0.0.0 … 127.255.255.255
      • Auto-configuration: 169.254.0.0 … 169.254.255.255
      • TEST-NET for example code: 192.0.2.0 … 192.0.2.255
      • 6to4 relay anycast: 192.88.99.0 … 192.88.99.255
      • Benchmarking devices: 198.18.0.0 … 198.19.255.255
      • Multicast: 224.0.0.0 … 239.255.255.255
      • Reserved for future use: 240.0.0.0 … 255.255.255.254
      • Limited broadcast: 255.255.255.255
    • 
    • 
      • AND operation uses truth value
        • true && true == true
        • true && false == false
        • false && false == false
      • AND operation used to extract subnet address from IP address
    • 
    • 
      • Some addresses are reserved for special purposes
      • Reserved classful addresses (byte boundary)
        • Zero in host octets for network address
        • 255 in host octets for broadcast address
      • Subnets not on byte boundaries
        • Zeroes in host bits for network address
        • Ones in host bits for broadcast address
    • 
    • 
    •  
    • 
      • Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR)
        • More efficient use of routing table space
        • Enables supernetting
        • Pronounced “ cider ”
      • Replaces A, B, and C class structure with number of set bits in subnet mask
        • xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx/xx –IP address /no.mask bits
        • 192.168.0.113/16 equivalent of Class C address
        • http://public.pacbell.net/dedicated/cidr.html
    •  
    • 
    • 
    • 
      • Combination of software and hardware
      • Facilitate communications between different networks and subnets
      • Default gateway
        • Every device on TCP/IP network should have one
        • First receives outbound requests for other subnets
        • Interprets inbound requests from other subnets
      • Internet gateway (backbone) usually assigned IP with last octet of “1”
    • 
    • 
      • Gateway for “hiding” internal IP address
      • Flexibility in assigning IP addresses
        • Internal IP address—any IP address
        • External IP address
          • Comes from pool of valid Internet IPs (permanent)
          • Only used for duration of transmission (temporary)
      • Provides a little additional security, since each transmission has new IP
    • 
    • 
      • Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
        • Formatting of text
        • Used in Hypertext Transfer Protocol (http)
        • “Language” of Web pages
      • Intranet
        • Within an enterprise
      • Extranet
        • Uses Internet-like services and protocols
    • 
      • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
        • Protocol responsible for moving messages from one mail server to another over TCP/IP-based networks
      • Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME)
        • Allows for messages that contain no more than 1000 ASCII characters
      • Post Office Protocol (POP)
        • Application layer protocol used to retrieve messages from a mail server
      • Internet Mail Access Protocol (IMAP)
    • 
      • Retrieve all or only a portion of any mail message
      • Review their messages and delete them while the messages remain on the server
      • Create sophisticated methods of organizing messages on the server
      • Share a mailbox in a central location
    • 
      • netstat
      • nbstat
      • nslookup
      • whois
      • traceroute
      • ipconfig and winipcfg
      • ifconfig
    • 
      • -a—Provides a list of all available TCP and UDP connections
      • -e—Displays details about all the packets
      • -n—Lists currently connected hosts according to their port and IP address
      • -p—Allows you to specify what type of protocol statistics to list
        • Must be followed by a protocol specification (TCP or UDP)
      • -r—Provides a list of routing table information
      • -s—Provides statistics about each packet transmitted by a host, separated according to protocol type (IP,TCP, UDP, or ICMP)
    • 
    • 
      • -a—Displays a machine’s name table given its NetBIOS name
      • -A—Displays a machine’s name table given its IP address
      • -r—Lists statistics about names that have been resolved
      • -s—Displays a list of all the current NetBIOS sessions
    • 
      • Allows you to query the DNS database
      • Returns server and results data
    • 
      • Allows you to query this DNS registration database and obtain information about a domain
    • 
      • -d—Instructs the traceroute command not to resolve IP addresses to host names
      • -h—Specifies the maximum number of hops
      • -w—Identifies a timeout
    • 
    • 
      • /?—Displays a list of switches
      • /all—Displays complete TCP/IP configuration
      • /release—Releases DHCP
      • /renew—Renews DHCP
    • 
    • 
      • Windows 9x and Me operating systems
    • 
      • -a
      • down
      • up
    • –
    • 
      • Also known as IP telephony
      • Lower costs for voice calls
        • toll bypass
      • Supply new or enhanced features and applications
      • Centralize voice and data network management
    • 
    • 
    • 
    • 
      • Discuss methods of network design unique to TCP/IP networks, including subnetting, CIDR, and NAT
      • Describe protocols used between mail clients and mail servers
      • Explain the fundamental principles of using a TCP/IP network for packetized voice transmissions
      • Employ multiple TCP/IP utilities for network discovery and troubleshooting