TCP/IP
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TCP/IP

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TCP/IP TCP/IP Presentation Transcript

  •  Dean (3 rd ), Chapter 11
  • 
    • TCP/IP effect on network design
      • Subnetting, CIDR, and NAT
    • Mail protocols
    • Voice over IP (VoIP)
    • TCP/IP utilities for network discovery and troubleshooting
  • 
    • Enhance security
    • Improve performance
    • Simplify troubleshooting
    • Classful Addressing
    • Subnet Masks
  • 
  • 
    • “ this” network: 0.0.0.0 … 0.255.255.255
    • Private networks:
      • 10.0.0.0 … 10.255.255.255
      • 172.16.0.0 … 172.31.255.255
      • 192.168.0.0 … 192.168.255.255
    • Public data networks: 14.0.0.0 … 14.255.255.255
    • Cable operators: 24.0.0.0 … 24.255.255.255
    • Class A Subnet Experiment: 39.0.0.0 … 39.255.255.255
    • Loop back: 127.0.0.0 … 127.255.255.255
    • Auto-configuration: 169.254.0.0 … 169.254.255.255
    • TEST-NET for example code: 192.0.2.0 … 192.0.2.255
    • 6to4 relay anycast: 192.88.99.0 … 192.88.99.255
    • Benchmarking devices: 198.18.0.0 … 198.19.255.255
    • Multicast: 224.0.0.0 … 239.255.255.255
    • Reserved for future use: 240.0.0.0 … 255.255.255.254
    • Limited broadcast: 255.255.255.255
  • 
  • 
    • AND operation uses truth value
      • true && true == true
      • true && false == false
      • false && false == false
    • AND operation used to extract subnet address from IP address
  • 
  • 
    • Some addresses are reserved for special purposes
    • Reserved classful addresses (byte boundary)
      • Zero in host octets for network address
      • 255 in host octets for broadcast address
    • Subnets not on byte boundaries
      • Zeroes in host bits for network address
      • Ones in host bits for broadcast address
  • 
  • 
  •  
  • 
    • Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR)
      • More efficient use of routing table space
      • Enables supernetting
      • Pronounced “ cider ”
    • Replaces A, B, and C class structure with number of set bits in subnet mask
      • xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx/xx –IP address /no.mask bits
      • 192.168.0.113/16 equivalent of Class C address
      • http://public.pacbell.net/dedicated/cidr.html
  •  
  • 
  • 
  • 
    • Combination of software and hardware
    • Facilitate communications between different networks and subnets
    • Default gateway
      • Every device on TCP/IP network should have one
      • First receives outbound requests for other subnets
      • Interprets inbound requests from other subnets
    • Internet gateway (backbone) usually assigned IP with last octet of “1”
  • 
  • 
    • Gateway for “hiding” internal IP address
    • Flexibility in assigning IP addresses
      • Internal IP address—any IP address
      • External IP address
        • Comes from pool of valid Internet IPs (permanent)
        • Only used for duration of transmission (temporary)
    • Provides a little additional security, since each transmission has new IP
  • 
  • 
    • Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
      • Formatting of text
      • Used in Hypertext Transfer Protocol (http)
      • “Language” of Web pages
    • Intranet
      • Within an enterprise
    • Extranet
      • Uses Internet-like services and protocols
  • 
    • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
      • Protocol responsible for moving messages from one mail server to another over TCP/IP-based networks
    • Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME)
      • Allows for messages that contain no more than 1000 ASCII characters
    • Post Office Protocol (POP)
      • Application layer protocol used to retrieve messages from a mail server
    • Internet Mail Access Protocol (IMAP)
  • 
    • Retrieve all or only a portion of any mail message
    • Review their messages and delete them while the messages remain on the server
    • Create sophisticated methods of organizing messages on the server
    • Share a mailbox in a central location
  • 
    • netstat
    • nbstat
    • nslookup
    • whois
    • traceroute
    • ipconfig and winipcfg
    • ifconfig
  • 
    • -a—Provides a list of all available TCP and UDP connections
    • -e—Displays details about all the packets
    • -n—Lists currently connected hosts according to their port and IP address
    • -p—Allows you to specify what type of protocol statistics to list
      • Must be followed by a protocol specification (TCP or UDP)
    • -r—Provides a list of routing table information
    • -s—Provides statistics about each packet transmitted by a host, separated according to protocol type (IP,TCP, UDP, or ICMP)
  • 
  • 
    • -a—Displays a machine’s name table given its NetBIOS name
    • -A—Displays a machine’s name table given its IP address
    • -r—Lists statistics about names that have been resolved
    • -s—Displays a list of all the current NetBIOS sessions
  • 
    • Allows you to query the DNS database
    • Returns server and results data
  • 
    • Allows you to query this DNS registration database and obtain information about a domain
  • 
    • -d—Instructs the traceroute command not to resolve IP addresses to host names
    • -h—Specifies the maximum number of hops
    • -w—Identifies a timeout
  • 
  • 
    • /?—Displays a list of switches
    • /all—Displays complete TCP/IP configuration
    • /release—Releases DHCP
    • /renew—Renews DHCP
  • 
  • 
    • Windows 9x and Me operating systems
  • 
    • -a
    • down
    • up
  • –
  • 
    • Also known as IP telephony
    • Lower costs for voice calls
      • toll bypass
    • Supply new or enhanced features and applications
    • Centralize voice and data network management
  • 
  • 
  • 
  • 
    • Discuss methods of network design unique to TCP/IP networks, including subnetting, CIDR, and NAT
    • Describe protocols used between mail clients and mail servers
    • Explain the fundamental principles of using a TCP/IP network for packetized voice transmissions
    • Employ multiple TCP/IP utilities for network discovery and troubleshooting