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  • Submission Requirements for your SWC 2005 presentation The purpose of your presentation is to educate the end user. Therefore, your presentation must be vendor-neutral and deliver a balanced view of your subject matter. Slides are limited to 40, total. Presentations must be created using MS PowerPoint 2000 or XP. Your slides are due for a first review on August 14, 2006 . The SWC Educational Committee will review your presentation for content and possible bias, and return them to you in a timely manner. Your final slides are due Monday, August 28, 2006. Please understand that because of production constraints, we cannot make exceptions. Please feel free to personalize the abstract and to reorganize the topic list, but be sure to cover the content of the course. If you do change the abstract, please send the revised copy to Lindsey Mitobe lindseym@storageworldconference.com so we can update the website. Your slides will be returned if they are not in the SWC template Exceptions: SNIA course material Copyright note: you still own the material, the SWC copyright is to keep people from copying your material from the handouts.
  • Copyright note: you still own the material, the SWC copyright is to keep people from copying your material from the handouts.
  • Disk mirroring involves the use of a "shadow" disk that is updated in parallel with the primary disk, providing a real-time or near real-time copy of the primary disk. If one site goes down, the mirrored site can pick up immediately with current data. Disk mirroring often requires high bandwidth transport with low latency and high reliability. With synchronous disk mirroring , each write transaction to the disk is sent to the remote mirror disk and the application cannot continue until that transmission is acknowledged from the remote location. Applications running over long distances (>200km) will degrade or time-out with synchronous disk mirroring. Asynchronous disk mirroring eliminates application performance degradation by allowing the application to “run ahead” of the write ack from the mirrored disk. Asynchronous disk mirroring can run over thousands of km with the two disks running a few minutes out of synch. Disk replication involves periodically copying of a volume’s data onto a secondary storage device, which can be located any distance from the original, preferably far away. If the main storage device should fail, data on the secondary storage device can immediately be promoted to primary status and brought online. The currency of the data depends upon the frequency of the copy (typically hours or days). Tape backup involves periodically (often weekly) copying disk data to a remote tape library. If a site goes down, the tapes will have to be reloaded onto an online storage device.
  • T10_Storage_Extended..

    1. 1. Extended Storage Connectivity Data and Storage Spanning The Globe Greg Schulz Author “Resilient Storage Networks” Founder The StorageIO Group (www.storageio.com) The agony of disaster The victory of availability…
    2. 2. <ul><li>The material contained in this tutorial is copyrighted by Storage World Conference (SWC). </li></ul><ul><li>This presentation is a project of the SWC Education Committee. </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals or companies wishing to use portions of this presentation should contact Lindsey Mitobe [email_address] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This information cannot be used outside SWC without the express permission of SWC management. </li></ul></ul>SWC Legal Notice
    3. 3. <ul><li>What are your applicable threats/risks? </li></ul><ul><li>What are applicable techniques? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mirroring and replication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remote backup and archiving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical transport of tapes/media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic data movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clustering and HA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What are some technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage over SONET/SDH and WDM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage over IP (iSCSI, iFCP, FCIP, NAS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others including WiFi, WAFS, Microwave </li></ul></ul>Agenda
    4. 4. <ul><li>Basic best practices for reliability and availability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RAS, HA, no SPOF etc… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Basic networking (switches, routers, gateways) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SAN, LAN, MAN, WAN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TCP/IP, Fibre Channel, Ethernet, InfiniBand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Switches, routers, directors, gateways </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Basic performance (Bandwidth, I/O, latency) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Block vs. file, SAN, NAS, I/O characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Basic storage, networking and management practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapters, Servers, Storage, Design, BC, DR, etc. </li></ul></ul>What I assume you know
    5. 5. <ul><li>Distance is key to business survivability </li></ul><ul><li>More data is distributed, stored and accessed remotely </li></ul><ul><li>Data volumes and importance continue to increase </li></ul><ul><li>Regulatory and compliance requiring remote data storage </li></ul><ul><li>Mergers and acquisitions along with consolidation </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed and collaborative projects and workforces </li></ul><ul><li>Extended storage connectivity applications include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remote mirroring/replication, vaulting, archiving, clustering, distributed computing, data migration, remote and branch offices, backup, SAN, NAS </li></ul></ul>Why extended storage
    6. 6. <ul><li>Moving and accessing more data in less amount of time </li></ul><ul><li>How far away is enough for data to be safe </li></ul><ul><li>Securing data at rest and while in transit (in-flight) </li></ul><ul><li>Aligning technologies to different distance requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of bandwidth service options in different regions </li></ul><ul><li>Latency is the enemy of synchronous data movement </li></ul><ul><li>Confusion over optic services and solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of effective bandwidth services </li></ul><ul><li>Interoperability, service and support </li></ul>Extended storage challenges
    7. 7. <ul><ul><li>Server to server (host to host) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For host based replication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed lock management (File, Database, Virtualization) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NAS and shared file systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Server (host) to device (storage, disk, VTL, tape) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Local or remote host to device – remote backup and restore </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Server to NAS, and NAS to storage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Device to device (storage to storage) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Local and remote mirroring / replication – disk to disk, disk to tape </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SAN to SAN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Single SAN (Fabric), Multiple Fabrics </li></ul></ul></ul>Storage over distance
    8. 8. Relative Protection Cost Synchronous Data mirroring, replication, Continuous availability, non-stop processing. RTO and RPO near or at zero Distance enabling approaches Cost / Complexity vs. RTO / RPO tradeoffs Asynchronous remote data mirroring, replication, snapshot and copy. HA failover cluster. Longer RTO and/or RPO. Remote tape or disk to disk to tape backup, copies and vaulting. Remote archiving. Extended RTO & RPO. Weeks Months Days Hours Minutes Continuous RTO and RPO timeline and data lifecycle Balance costs and availability
    9. 9. Transports and protocols Distance enabling technologies Acronym Name What is it CWDM Coarse Wave Division Multiplexing Lower cost, shorter distance WDM DWDM Dense Wave Division Multiplexing Long distance, high bandwidth Ethernet 10/100/1000 or GbE or 10Gb E Copper or optical LAN network interface FCIP Fibre Channel over IP Extend Fibre Channel over IP network FC Fibre Channel Storage interface, supports FCP/FICON iFCP Internet FCP Segment and extend FCP over IP iSCSI Internet SCSI SCSI command set mapped to IP Metro Ethernet Metro area Ethernet Extended distance Ethernet OCx Optical Carrier networks OC3, OC12, OC48, etc… SONET/SDH Sync. Optical Network Metro and wide area communications WDM Wave Division Multiplexing Optical multiplexing WiFi / WiMax Wireless networks Wireless LAN networks
    10. 10. Transports and protocols (Continued) Distance enabling technologies Acronym When to use Caveats CWDM Relative short distance Limited compared to WDM/DWDM DWDM Long distance, high bandwidth More expensive than CWDM/WDM Ethernet LANs and IP SANs or NAS Security and load balancing FCIP Fibre Channel over distance Creates tunnel, collapses fabrics FC Mid to high-end storage Costs compared to other interfaces iFCP Span distances with Fibre Channel Supports FCP vs. FICON iSCSI Block based IP storage access Verify operating system support Metro Ethernet Campus and metro area May not be readily available OCx Span wide area distances Determine availability and needs SONET/SDH Span wide area distances Determine amount of OCx bandwidth WDM Medium distances Less bandwidth than DWDM WiFi / WiMax Portable and mobile applications Security and availability of bandwidth
    11. 11. <ul><li>InfiniBand (10Gb+) - High performance, low latency, distance in meters </li></ul><ul><li>Fibre Channel (1Gb, 2Gb, 4Gb, 10Gb) </li></ul><ul><li>Supports multiple protocols (FCP = SCSI, FCBB2=FICON, IP, RDMA, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Various topologies (Point-point, loop, switched, segmented) </li></ul><ul><li>Various distances (short-range, long-range, ultra-long-range, extended) </li></ul><ul><li>ESCON (17-18MBps) - Legacy I/O interconnect protocol for mainframe </li></ul><ul><li>FICON (1Gb, 2Gb, 4Gb) </li></ul><ul><li>Based on Fibre Channel (FCBB2) </li></ul><ul><li>Good ultra long distance support and performance </li></ul><ul><li>Increased addressing vs. ESCON (not just performance) </li></ul><ul><li>Ethernet (10/100, 1Gb, 10Gb, WiFi etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant interface for TCP/IP </li></ul><ul><li>Supports storage via NAS (NFS/CIFS), CAS, iSCSI, iFCP, FCIP </li></ul>Storage interfaces / protocols Distance enabling technologies
    12. 12. DWDM Frame Relay T3/E3 T1/E1 OC-12 Cost $$ $$$ $$$$ 56Kbps 1Mbps 10Mbps 100Mbps 1Gbps 10Gbps Fractional T1 xDSL GbE 10/100 IP Services WAN Plesiochronous ATM Dedicated & Fiber Services SDH/SONET OC-3 OC-192 WDM CWDM TDM WiFi OC-768 Source: “Resilient Storage Networks” (Elsevier) 10 GbE Distance enabling technologies Application RTO & RPO requirements Available of bandwidth services Amount of data to move Available budget Considerations:
    13. 13. Gb Ethernet FCP FICON Gb Ethernet FCP ESCON IP Mainframe Open System FCP FICON Gb Ethernet Dark Fiber MAN DWDM DWDM Storage Mainframe Recovery Site Branch Site Main Site Secondary Site ESCON Fibre Channel WDM/DWDM example Distance enabling technologies Source: “Resilient Storage Networks” (Elsevier) Wave division multiplexing (WDM), dense WDM (DWDM) and coarse WDM (CWDM) provide optical multiplexing to increase bandwidth and distance to Support more networks and applications on a given fiber cable. WDM is used To build SONET/SDH and other networks that form higher level IP networks. Voice Voice Voice
    14. 14. ITU Spacing Grid ITU Spacing Grid GbE ATM FC FDDI FICON ESCON MUX Light Signal (Lambdas) GbE ATM FC FDDI FICON ESCON MUX Optical Amplifiers How CWDM/DWDM/WDM works Lambdas (Wavelengths) Light Signal (Lambdas) Distance enabling technologies Source: “Resilient Storage Networks” (Elsevier) Light Prism  Fibre Channel Gb Ethernet 100Mb Ethernet ATM Lambdas
    15. 15. Redundant SONET/SDH Rings Regeneration Amplifier (Repeater) Regeneration Amplifier (Repeater) SONET/SDH Access Device LAN SONET/SDH example Distance enabling technologies Source: “Resilient Storage Networks” (Elsevier) SONET/SDH as a network transport enables storage to be accessed and Data to be moved over distance using TCP/P with NAS or iSCSI as well as Fibre Channel mapped to SONET/SDH or using FCIP that relies upon an Underlying SONET/SDH based Optical Carrier (OCx) based network. LAN SAN SAN
    16. 16. iFCP example Distance enabling technologies Source: “Resilient Storage Networks” (Elsevier) iFCP maps Fibre Channel SCSI (FCP) frames onto IP for transmission along With providing routing between different fabrics. iFCP has seen adoption by Only McData via their acquisition of Nishan. Note that even though other Vendors support FCIP, each vendors implementation is unique. iFCP Gateway iFCP Gateway Fibre Channel Storage Servers Servers LAN Site-A LAN Site-B Tape IP Based Network iFCP Gateway iFCP Gateway Fibre Channel Storage Fibre Channel Adapters
    17. 17. FC Switch FC Switch Storage Router Extender Storage Servers Servers LAN Site-A LAN Site-B Tape Tunnel Tunnel FCIP example Distance enabling technologies Source: “Resilient Storage Networks” (Elsevier) Fibre Channel (FC) over IP (FCIP) encapsulates and sends FC frames over a IP based network effectively creating a tunnel or virtual FC ISL. FCIP does Not provide segmentation or isolation of fabrics without a segment router. If Two unique fabrics are connected with FCIP they will be come a single fabric. 1 2 3
    18. 18. iSCSI SNICs Ethernet Switch iSCSI Gateway Router FC Storage Ethernet Ethernet Switch iSCSI SNICs Servers FC SAN FC SAN Servers Servers iSCSI Driver MAN and WAN Ethernet Dallas New York Chicago Boston iSCSI SNIC iSCSI example Distance enabling technologies Source: “Resilient Storage Networks” (Elsevier) iSCSI enables block based storage access using the SCSI command set mapped on TCP/IP using Ethernet LAN and WAN interfaces. Applications including Microsoft Exchange and databases are good candidates for iSCSI.
    19. 19. See “Bridging the gap” in Storage Magazine and on SearchStorage.com Fibre Channel Adaptation ATM/POS SONET/SDH Fiber Optics Fibre Channel SONET/SDH Fiber Optics Fibre Channel Fiber Optics FCIP TCP IP SONET/SDH Fiber Optics Latency Effective utilization Effective bandwidth Transport layers Impact of protocols, interfaces and distance “stacking” and “layering” FC/FICON Bandwidth vs. Latency Impact of latency
    20. 20. WAN LAN LAN SAN Storage Servers Switches & Routers <ul><li>Zoning, Port Prohibits, FC-SP </li></ul><ul><li>Authentication, Authorization </li></ul><ul><li>DID Lockdown, Secure Telnet </li></ul><ul><li>Segmentation & VSN, IPsec </li></ul>FC, iSCSI & NAS Storage <ul><li>LUN & Volume map/masking </li></ul><ul><li>IPsec, CHAP, Authentication </li></ul><ul><li>Filesystem access control </li></ul><ul><li>Encryption, trusted platforms </li></ul>Applications and Servers <ul><li>Application, database access </li></ul><ul><li>Filesystem and volume access </li></ul><ul><li>Server and backup security </li></ul>Management Tools <ul><li>Restrict and limit access </li></ul><ul><li>Change default passwords </li></ul><ul><li>Audit and detection alerts </li></ul><ul><li>Password encryption </li></ul><ul><li>Change default passwords </li></ul><ul><li>Audit and detection alerts </li></ul><ul><li>Encrypt data in flight & VPNs </li></ul><ul><li>Firewalls & access detection </li></ul><ul><li>Secure remote mirroring links </li></ul><ul><li>Secure unused & open ports </li></ul><ul><li>Physical security of cabling </li></ul>General Items Storage Switch Switch Firewall Firewall Security Distance enabling technologies MAN
    21. 21. <ul><li>IT wide resource usage, monitoring and analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource usage and monitoring (Storage, Network, Servers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eDiscovery, Classification, Categorization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backup and data protection analysis and monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change control and coverage analysis, event correlation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnostics – Finisar, Anue, Network Instruments and others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data reduction - Terminology has resulted in confusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compression, compaction, differencing, deduplication, factoring, pruning, normalizing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Faster backups, factoring, database performance, network performance and bandwidth reduction, capacity optimization </li></ul></ul></ul>Distance enabling technologies Management and diagnostic tools
    22. 22. Closing Comments <ul><li>Understand bandwidth requirements & needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wire speed differs from effective latency vs. bandwidth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Design for performance and growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate complexity to reduce overhead and cost </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Of course the obligatory plugs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resilient Storage Networks – Elsevier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>www.storageio.com (see portfolio for articles etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>www.snia.com & www.cmg.org & many others… </li></ul></ul>SNIA Recommended and endorsed Reading
    23. 23. Questions? <ul><li>Questions? </li></ul>
    24. 24. Thank You Greg Schulz The StorageIO Group www.storageio.com