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  • E uropean NRENs & GÉANT 2 : Evolution & Global Connectivity Vasilis Maglaris NREN Policy Committee - GÉANT Consortium, National Technical University of Athens - NTUA Geneva, September 2005
  • Revolution: A European R&E Networking Model
    • 30 National Research & Education Networks-NRENs of the extended European Research Area (ERA)
    • More than 3000 Research & Education Institutions
    • Millions of end-users + eScience Projects (e.g. Grids) under Accepted Usage Policy (AUP) rules
    • A 3-tier Federal Architecture, partially subsidized by National and EU Research & Education funds:
      • The Campus Network (LAN/MAN)
      • The NREN (MAN/WAN)
      • The Pan-European Interconnection: TEN34  TEN155  GÉANT (GN1 in FP5)  GÉANT2 (GN2 in FP6)
      • NREN Policy Committee, GN2 Exec, DANTE, TERENA
  • The NREN PC Nordic Countries – Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden ( NORDUNET ) Poland ( PSNC ) Portugal ( FCCN ) Romania ( RoEduNet ) Russia ( JSCC ) Slovakia ( SANET ) Slovenia ( ARNES ) Spain ( RedIRIS ) Switzerland ( SWITCH ) Turkey ( ULAKBIM ) United Kingdom ( UKERNA ) PLUS NON-VOTING MEMBERS: Delivery of Advanced Network Technologies to Europe Ltd. ( DANTE ) Trans-European Research & Education Networking Association ( TERENA ) PERMANENT OBSERVERS: CERN, , AMREJ, , MARNET Austria ( ACOnet ) Belgium ( BELNET ) Bulgaria ( ISTF ) Croatia ( CARNet ) Czech Republic ( CESNET ) Cyprus ( CYNET ) Germany ( DFN ) Estonia ( EENet ) France ( RENATER ) Greece ( GRNET ) Hungary ( HUNGARNET ) Ireland ( HEANet ) Israel ( IUCC ) Italy ( GARR ) Latvia ( LATNET ) Lithuania ( LITNET ) Luxembourg ( RESTENA ) Malta ( UoM ) Netherlands ( SURFNET )
  • Evolution: From GN1 to GN2
    • Build on the G É ANT Pan-European IP R&E network – An international success story
    • Deploy G É ANT2, a new generation HYBRID Network backbone: IP(v6) + switched end-to-end provision across interconnected networks (over DARK FIBER among 15 countries & growing)
    • Ubiquitous global services to users across NRENs & beyond via IPv6 and manageable e2e lower layer paths (e.g. WAN GigEthernet & Light-path switching)
    • Gaining improved understanding of user needs – Grids/eScience
    • End-user support, user access to e2e provisioning, AAA, collaborative services, roaming
    • User basis: Universities, Research Centers, Schools (?), eScience Initiatives (Grids), Digital Libraries …
  • The G É ANT2 Optical Network LU RU EE LV LT DK IT FR BE CH SI AT HR PL DE CZ PT ES IE NL UK RO BG TR CY IL MT GR HU SK 2 2 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1
  • Revolution: Global Hybrid Networking
    • The Internet enabled the ubiquitous global networked community based on IP services & the Web
    • The Next Generation Hybrid Network will enable the global knowledge – based society by providing advanced collaborative platforms via hybrid IPv6 & Manageable Layer 1-2 (Ethernet & Light-path switching over Dark Fiber) Services
    • R&E HPCN and Grid requirements motivated the design and deployment of GÉANT2 as a hybrid, Dark-Fibre (DF) network
    • GÉANT2 offers this new environment to European Researchers & Educators and paves the way for global, ubiquitous advanced networking services (cyber-services)
    • The NREN - Grid /HPC communities test – develop - tailor and deploy network-based services & applications: Collaborative platforms, security, AAA, roaming…
  • GÉANT2 Global Connectivity
  • Global Connectivity Policy in G É ANT: Distributed European Access (DEA)
    • DEA concept dates back to the full IP world (ca. 2000)
      • Homing to G É ANT PoPs with redundant Gigabit access
    • Alternatives:
      • Interconnect via host NREN G É ANT PoPs (e.g. Austria - Ukraine)
      • Establish separate regional PoPs (e.g. EumedConnect)
      • Procure regional network anchored in GEANT NREN PoPs (e.g. SEEREN)
      • Cross-border direct links (e.g. Serbia – Hungary Cross Border Fiber)
      • Satellite links (e.g. Turkey < 2004)
    • Cost sharing issues
    • Accepted Usage Policies (AUPs)
  • Global Connectivity Policy in G É ANT2 (GN2 - SA4)
    • DEA needs redefinition in new HYBRID world (L1, L2 e2e switching & L3 IP routing)
    • Global Connectivity Committee set-up by the NREN PC consisting of:
      • David Foster ( CERN ), Vasilis Maglaris ( NREN PC ), Kees Neggers ( SURFNET ), Esther Robles ( RedIRIS ), Enzo Valente ( GARR ), Dany Vandromme ( RENATER ), Martin Wilhelm ( DFN )
    • Goal: Enable all scientists – educators – students (pupils?) with quality access to the Global Information Society
      • Via ubiquitous high speed, reliable IP routed internetworking amongst R&E Networks world-wide
      • Complemented by the provision of e2e switched Gigabit connections to power users (for international eScience - Grid experiments, e.g. LCG)
    • Bridge the digital divides within Europe and globally:
      • Assist formation of viable NRENs, if not existing
      • Assist formation of Regional Networks if necessary (e.g. EumedConnect )
      • Join forces with non-European NRENs (e.g. Internet2 ) to strengthen impact
      • Seek assistance from EU (DG INFSO, EuropeAid, Regional Funds), EIB, UNESCO ...
  • Evolution: NREN Hot Potatoes
    • Assess NREN – GÉANT requirements & technology trends over the next 10 - 20 years ( foresight )
    • Test & deploy “bleeding edge” technologies (e.g. nx40 Gbps over DF) and adopt novel business models (e.g. DF ownership & Cross-Border Fibre provisioning by neighbouring NRENs)
    • Coordinate between Next Generation Networking & High Performance Computing towards a Global Open HPCN Architecture
    • Test & deploy GÉANT - wide Security & Monitoring (prerequisite for eScience / Grids, eSchools, Digital Libraries, eGovernment, eHealth …)
    • Establish virtual collaborative environments (e.g. VRVS, Access Grid)
    • Enhance global connectivity (USA, Canada, China, Japan, Korea, South Africa, Latin America, SEEREN, EUMED – North Africa, West Africa , India, …)
    • Help to overcome digital divides
    • Promote NRENs – GÉANT – GÉANT2 as a European success story to End-Users & National / EU Decision Makers
    • while at the same time
    • Keep-up the good work and meet new challenges in the eScience world (deploy hybrid optical technologies, provide e2e L1/L2 connectivity, update cost sharing models, test new business models …)
    • Not a mission impossible!
  • Lessons in bridging Digital Divides - 1
    • Digital Divides encountered in European NRENs
    • Within EU nations (North – South, Cities – Rural Areas, IT knowledgeable – IT novices within a Campus)
    • Outside the EU: EumedConnect (North Africa), SEEREN (South East Europe) ….
      • Regions with expensive telecom infrastructure (quasi-monopoly TELCOs)
      • Hard to lease fiber (dark of lit)
      • Political instabilities
      • But
      • Highly qualified human potential in the R&E sector, especially in ICT  brain draining effect
      • Acute needs for e-participation, e-learning
  • Lessons in bridging Digital Divides - 2
    • Positive attitude :
      • Do not settle for expensive short term solutions, if possible (e.g. satellites)
      • Try to leap-frog in advanced solutions. Examples:
        • Balkan dark fiber initiatives for NRENs
        • NRENs of new EU member states (Poland, Czech Republic ….) are champions of optical technologies
      • Use wireless links (license free?) to complement fiber optic feeds (WiMAX)
    • Aggregate funds: EU, National, International Assistance bodies
    • Respect national priorities – 1 NREN per country, AUPs
    • Consider Regional Aggregations if cultural and economic factors allow ( aka. SEEREN, EumedConnect, towards a NORDUNet & US Regional PoPs paradigm)
    • Develop Federation amongst NRENs and/or Regional R&E Networks, well connected and managed, partially funded by constituent NRENs ( aka. GEANT, RedCLARA) - Governance?
    • Be integral part of the Global R&E Networking Community
    • LESSONS APPLICABLE IN AFRICA?
    • YES, a not so distant dream