Large Scale Interconnects Wide Area Network (WAN) Paul Joldersma Hsin-I Huang Richard Thompson  Matt Woicik
Agenda <ul><li>WAN Introductions </li></ul><ul><li>Real-World Example </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless WANs </li></ul><ul><li>WA...
WAN Introductions
WAN   Introductions <ul><li>LAN  (local area network) - Network that links computers, printers and other devices located i...
Interconnections –  To link LANs into a WAN <ul><li>DSL  - Speeds up to a very fast 1.54 Mbps  </li></ul><ul><li>T1 - A di...
Key Components of a WAN I <ul><li>Access Router  - the gateway devices connected to LANs  </li></ul><ul><li>WAN connection...
Key Components of a WAN II <ul><li>DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.54 Mbps  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Real-World Example
WAN (Real-World Example) <ul><li>Large architecture firm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 offices  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>P...
The Past <ul><li>Frame Relay </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Past to 2002 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hub-and-spoke topology </li></u...
The Past
The Recent Past <ul><li>Leased Lines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2002 to 2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time Division Multiplex...
The Recent Past
The Present and Future <ul><li>MPLS – Multi-Protocol Label Switching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2003 to Future </li></ul></ul><...
The Present
The Future
Why not use a VPN? <ul><li>Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality, flexibility, management and ease of use when compared to ...
WAN enhancement <ul><li>Riverbed – Steelhead appliance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces the latency of the WAN </li></ul></ul...
Wireless WANs
Enabling Mobile Users <ul><li>Mobile Users and Wireless Technology: The Beginning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Started with propr...
IP Tunneling:  Roaming Across Networks <ul><li>What if users want to work wirelessly across multiple sites? </li></ul><ul>...
IP Tunneling:  Roaming Across Networks <ul><li>What is IP Tunneling? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IP Tunneling uses encapsulation...
IP Tunneling Example
Wireless Hops: Extending Wired Networks <ul><li>Wireless Hops can connect and extend networks  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alter...
Wireless Hops Example
Wireless WANs <ul><li>But…what if users need to work across a much wider geographic area such as a whole city, or even sev...
Wireless Wide Area Networks: Helping bring your favorite stuff to a store near you! <ul><li>A couple well-known customers…...
Wireless WANs <ul><li>Some WWAN Fun Facts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This technology allows route drivers to receive and transm...
Wireless WANs <ul><li>Some Service Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA) – Uses multiplexing, w...
Wireless WANs <ul><li>WWAN Enables Mobile Users to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Download the day’s deliveries and orders </li></...
Local and Wide Area Wireless
WAN Potential
Upgrade Fast WAN, More Storage <ul><li>SEC upgrades infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Increased traffic in imaging and opti...
Cisco, 3Com fire up new WAN routers <ul><li>Cisco faces more competition than ever  </li></ul><ul><li>Complete refresh of ...
Start-up crams more data onto WAN   <ul><li>Orbit boosts throughput on WAN connections 10 times over TCP </li></ul><ul><li...
VoIP for Global Companies <ul><li>Potential saving of 95%, VoIP averages 2 cents per minute </li></ul><ul><li>Internationa...
How some rural communities are installing high-speed Internet connections <ul><li>Cable franchises are not interested in w...
References <ul><li>Hochmuth, P. (Sep 13, 2004). Cisco, 3Com fire up new WAN routers. Network World, Vol.21, Iss. 37. Retri...
Q & A
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  1. 1. Large Scale Interconnects Wide Area Network (WAN) Paul Joldersma Hsin-I Huang Richard Thompson Matt Woicik
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>WAN Introductions </li></ul><ul><li>Real-World Example </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless WANs </li></ul><ul><li>WAN Potential </li></ul>
  3. 3. WAN Introductions
  4. 4. WAN Introductions <ul><li>LAN (local area network) - Network that links computers, printers and other devices located in an office, a building or even a campus </li></ul><ul><li>WAN (wide area network) - System that extends for greater distances and is used to connect LANs together. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Interconnections – To link LANs into a WAN <ul><li>DSL - Speeds up to a very fast 1.54 Mbps </li></ul><ul><li>T1 - A digital transmission link with a total signaling speed of 1.544 Mbps </li></ul><ul><li>T3 - Comprised of 28 T1 lines - 45 Mbps </li></ul><ul><li>OC1 - 51.85 Mbps </li></ul><ul><li>OC3 - 155.52 Mbps </li></ul><ul><li>Frame Relay - A telecommunication service designed for cost-efficient data transmission for intermittent traffic between LANs and between end-points in a WAN </li></ul>
  6. 6. Key Components of a WAN I <ul><li>Access Router - the gateway devices connected to LANs </li></ul><ul><li>WAN connections - the actual connectivity between sites </li></ul>
  7. 7. Key Components of a WAN II <ul><li>DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.54 Mbps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To delivers reliable, high-speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>office-to-office connectivity over </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>traditional copper wires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affordable to most small businesses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Security - Prevent any unauthorized people from accessing communications between sites </li></ul>
  8. 8. Real-World Example
  9. 9. WAN (Real-World Example) <ul><li>Large architecture firm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 offices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Portland, Seattle, Los Angeles, Washington DC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasons for implementing a WAN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Share Internet connection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Access email </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer files </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Foster the sense of one firm but four offices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Information and graphics based on email conservation with company’s WAN Administrator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>( one person’s view ) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Past <ul><li>Frame Relay </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Past to 2002 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hub-and-spoke topology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Portland was hub </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>64 Kbps, 128 Kbps, 256 Kbps to other offices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inflexible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires routers which needed maintenance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No way to manage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to troubleshoot </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The Past
  12. 12. The Recent Past <ul><li>Leased Lines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2002 to 2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time Division Multiplexed Leased Lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50% cost savings over Frame Relay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased speed to 1.544Mbp for all offices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Still hub-and-spoke </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No more flexibility, just higher speeds and lower costs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The Recent Past
  14. 14. The Present and Future <ul><li>MPLS – Multi-Protocol Label Switching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2003 to Future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fully meshed - 3 Mbps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Layer 2 label switching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A label is added to the packet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>QOS – Quality of Service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Complete control end-to-end </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No IP routing so pre-defined path, no hops </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extend Ethernet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No routers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More secure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost savings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Converged network (voice, data, video) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. The Present
  16. 16. The Future
  17. 17. Why not use a VPN? <ul><li>Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality, flexibility, management and ease of use when compared to a private WAN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet is stable but not a priority in downtime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vendors cannot guarantee Service Level Agreements (SLAs) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires advanced knowledge of IP Security (IPSec) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Required special routers with VPN accelerators </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. WAN enhancement <ul><li>Riverbed – Steelhead appliance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces the latency of the WAN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Latency is the reason why you don’t get your full bandwidth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For example, 1.544 Mbps is actually 900 Kbps </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TCP/IP has inherent limitations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces 87% of protocol overhead and unnecessary round-trips. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing bandwidth by 2.6 times </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses special data sequencing to cache data and only send across changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transaction prediction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Users in DC connecting to Portland like LAN </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Backup warm servers across the WAN and replicate the changes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.riverbed.com/ </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Wireless WANs
  20. 20. Enabling Mobile Users <ul><li>Mobile Users and Wireless Technology: The Beginning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Started with proprietary wireless technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied to Automated Data Collection years before 802.11a/b/g </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>802.11b is still most common in industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small, hand-held wireless computing allow workers to work throughout an entire plant or warehouse, collecting and receiving data real-time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Referred to as Wireless Local Area Networking (WLAN) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wide Area Applications of Wireless Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IP Tunneling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless Hops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless Wide Area Networking (WWAN) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. IP Tunneling: Roaming Across Networks <ul><li>What if users want to work wirelessly across multiple sites? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Could use DHCP and have wireless infrastructure installed at each site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IP Tunneling can provide static IP addressing and session persistence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally uses privately owned networks </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. IP Tunneling: Roaming Across Networks <ul><li>What is IP Tunneling? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IP Tunneling uses encapsulation to carry entire original packets across a router using IP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The outer IP and other header information is then stripped and the original packet is provided on the wired network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile IP is a similar method, defined by TCP/IP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most implementations require a client and/or server to manage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Our solution uses encapsulation and spanning tree to extend the wireless network across routers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows roaming across subnets seamlessly </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. IP Tunneling Example
  24. 24. Wireless Hops: Extending Wired Networks <ul><li>Wireless Hops can connect and extend networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative to wired options for connecting buildings that are 100s of feet or even miles apart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saves trouble and expense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually 802.11b’s range is a few hundred feet, but vendors use high power directional antennas to extend significantly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must have Line of Sight </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Wireless Hops Example
  26. 26. Wireless WANs <ul><li>But…what if users need to work across a much wider geographic area such as a whole city, or even several states??? </li></ul>
  27. 27. Wireless Wide Area Networks: Helping bring your favorite stuff to a store near you! <ul><li>A couple well-known customers… </li></ul>
  28. 28. Wireless WANs <ul><li>Some WWAN Fun Facts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This technology allows route drivers to receive and transmit real-time data wherever they are (Earlier solutions involved batched data, sent by modem) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latest networks are shared use, packets-as-needed rather than circuit-based, making them cheaper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Several providers…must match standard and provider </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must subscribe to provider’s service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some interfaces use SIM cards for activation, just like mobile phones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basically a cellular technology – used for mobile phones as well </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited bandwidths, speed depending on technology and number of channels used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to modem speeds: 14.4 Kbps to 114 Kbps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some newer technologies promising 384 Kbps (EDGE) </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Wireless WANs <ul><li>Some Service Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA) – Uses multiplexing, which allows numerous signals to occupy a single transmission channel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General Packet Radio Services (GPRS) – Packet-based…used to provide data to phone and laptops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global System for Mobile communication (GMS) – Most widely used worldwide and is the de facto standard in Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced Data GSM Environment (EDGE) – Newer faster service available since around 2001 </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Wireless WANs <ul><li>WWAN Enables Mobile Users to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Download the day’s deliveries and orders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enter new orders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Track inventory a store has on hand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capture signatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Print receipts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Run reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Close out day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other Customers Include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UPS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bimbo Bakeries (largest baked goods provider in Mexico) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carlsberg Breweries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Camera based device allowed real estate agents and appraisers to collect property photos </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Local and Wide Area Wireless
  32. 32. WAN Potential
  33. 33. Upgrade Fast WAN, More Storage <ul><li>SEC upgrades infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Increased traffic in imaging and optical character-recognition files </li></ul><ul><li>System will handle 30 to 50 terabytes of data in first year </li></ul><ul><li>2 high-speed 45-Mbps pipes at every office </li></ul>
  34. 34. Cisco, 3Com fire up new WAN routers <ul><li>Cisco faces more competition than ever </li></ul><ul><li>Complete refresh of enterprise WAN access routers for 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Addresses security concerns/ obsolescent technology </li></ul><ul><li>will combine VoIP, VPN, firewall and intrusion-detection system (IDS) support </li></ul>
  35. 35. Start-up crams more data onto WAN <ul><li>Orbit boosts throughput on WAN connections 10 times over TCP </li></ul><ul><li>TCP can lead to throttled-back connections, Orbit uses a feedback mechanism to use full network connection </li></ul><ul><li>Sold in pairs with one at each end of a WAN link </li></ul><ul><li>Pricing ranges from $12,000 for T-I throughput to $50,000 for 200M bit/sec throughput </li></ul>
  36. 36. VoIP for Global Companies <ul><li>Potential saving of 95%, VoIP averages 2 cents per minute </li></ul><ul><li>International long distance rates average 53 cents per minute </li></ul><ul><li>International teleconferencing rates average 20-35 cents per minute </li></ul><ul><li>Three year window of opportunity </li></ul>
  37. 37. How some rural communities are installing high-speed Internet connections <ul><li>Cable franchises are not interested in wiring rural areas for broadband </li></ul><ul><li>70 small communities are bridging the digital divide on their own </li></ul><ul><li>Kutztown PA, spent $5 million to bring residents cable TV, telephone and Internet service </li></ul><ul><li>Fiber-optic lines connect the entire town to the internet; costs is less than half that of private carriers </li></ul>
  38. 38. References <ul><li>Hochmuth, P. (Sep 13, 2004). Cisco, 3Com fire up new WAN routers. Network World, Vol.21, Iss. 37. Retrieved November, 2004, from http://proquest.umi.com </li></ul><ul><li>Denoia, L., Randall, T. (Aug 2, 2004). Making the case for VoIP. Network World, Vol.21, Iss. 31. Retrieved November, 2004, from http://proquest.umi.com </li></ul><ul><li>Greene, T. (Jul 5, 2004). Start-up crams more data onto WAN. Network World, Vol.21, Iss. 27. Retrieved November, 2004, from http://proquest.umi.com </li></ul><ul><li>Upgrade Fast WAN, More Storage. (August 16, 2004). InformationWeek. Retrieved November, 2004, from http://web4.infotrac.galegroup.com </li></ul><ul><li>How some rural communities are installing high-speed Internet connections. (November 29, 2004). NPR Morning Edition 11:00 AM EST NPR. Retrieved November, 2004, from http://web.lexis-nexis.com </li></ul>
  39. 39. Q & A
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