Penetration of Technology Opportunities for Connection
Technology Positioning Person Space (office, briefcase, person) On-campus (Office, School, Airport, Hotel) Off-campus (Open areas) Cellular (Kilometers) 802.11b (10’s-100’s of meters) Bluetooth (meters to 10’s of meters) Geography Nomenclature Wireless Technology PAN LAN WAN
1. Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) 2. WLAN Components 3. IEEE 802.11 ? 4. Mixing Vendor Equipment 5. Wireless and wired LAN interoperability 6. WLAN Range 7. Access Points 8. Roaming 9. Using a WLAN to Interconnect two LANs 10. WLAN Scenarios 11. Security 12. Technology Comparisons WLAN Augment Wired LANs LAN Access Point Peer-to-peer collaboration Infrastructure Ad hoc
Each computer communicates directly with each other to: send files, share printers, work collaboratively
They may not be able to access wired LAN resources, unless one of the computers acts as a bridge to the wired LAN using special software.
2) Infrastructure wireless networks (access points, hardware or software)
Access point acts like a hub, providing connectivity for the wireless computers. It can connect (or "bridge") the wireless LAN to a wired LAN, allowing wireless computer access to LAN resources, such as file servers or the Internet.
Infrastructure Dedicated hardware access points (HAP) Server Wired Network Wireless Network Wireless Clients Access Point Wired Client
Infrastructure Software Access Points which run on a computer equipped with a wireless network interface card as used in an ad-hoc or peer-to-peer wireless network Wireless Client Server Wired Network Wireless Network Wireless Client Software Access Point Wired Client
VPN technology can also be used for secure wireless access ; the "untrusted" network is the wireless network.
The APs are configured for open access with no WEP encryption , but wireless access is isolated from the enterprise network by the VPN server and a VLAN between the APs and the VPN servers.
The APs should still be configured with SSIDs for segmentation.
Authentication and full encryption over the wireless network is provided through the VPN servers that also act as gateways.
Unlike the WEP key and MAC address filtering approaches, the VPN-based solution is scalable to a very large number of users.
Personal Area Networks (PAN) and Bluetooth 1. What is Bluetooth? 2. Characteristics? 3. Usage scenarios: Today/Tomorrow? 4. 802.11 vs. Bluetooth vs. IR 5. Security 6. IBM’s Contribution Cell phone Modem Access Point Peripherals ThinkPad Personal Area “Connectivity” WorkPad
What is Bluetooth.... Defacto standard for wireless Personal Connectivity technology Specification for small -form factor, low -cost, short range radio links between mobile PCs, mobile phones and other portable devices. The Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) is an industry group consisting of leaders in the telecommunications and computing industries that are driving development of the technology and bringing it to market. IBM, Toshiba, Ericsson, Nokia, Intel - Motorola, Microsoft, Lucent and 3Com - plus 2000+ other companies
Bluetooth Market Potential W/W Bluetooth Enabled Equipment Forecast (Units in Millions) Source : Cahners In Stat July 2000
A computer network that spans a relatively large geographical area.
Typically, a WAN consists of two or more local-area networks (LANs).
Computers connected to a WAN are often connected through PSTNs . They can also be connected through leased lines or satellites . The largest WAN in existence is the Internet .
Future Usage Scenarios Personal Area Networking Automotive Wake on Bluetooth Human Interface Devices Audio/Visual Walk-up Printing Hidden Computing Instant Postcard Multi-Piconet Cordless Computer Intercom FAX LAN Access Headset Multi-Point Dial-Up Networking File Transfer Synchronization Point to Point Ease-of-Use Today Tomorrow The Future
Future Usage Scenarios Adds weight and cost Decreases reliability Standard Connectivity
Today: Many Cable Connections
Future Usage Scenarios Adds weight and cost Decreases reliability
Tomorrow: Fewer Cables
Reduces weight and cost Increases reliability Standard Connectivity
Today: Many Cable Connections
Future Usage Scenarios Personal Area Networking
A device does not initiate security procedures before channel establishment at the service level. This mode allows different and flexible access policies for applications, and is used especially for running applications with different security requirements in parallel.
Security mode 3 (link-level enforced security).
A device allows only authenticated connections.
Bluetooth technology has three security attributes
Which Technology is Better? For connecting devices in your What do you want to do? For connecting clients to your ) ) ) Campus wide or someone else’s “ Personal Domain”... Bluetooth is the right choice LAN Infrastructure... ) ) ) Airport/Hotel or a public one 802.11b WLAN is the right choice
Which Technology is Better? For creating an ad hoc Peer-to-Peer Network Either would suffice Bluetooth: One-to-many 802.11b: Many-to-many
Technology install base
Size of the workgroup
Extent of the CSCW effort
(Computer Supported Cooperative Work)
Other Wireless Technologies http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/sj/384/zimmerman.html Infrared Data Association (IrDA) for laptops Directional or high power Simple, inexpensive, no regulations 1 1000 Light Optical infrared (high data rate) Home remote control Directional Simple, very inexpensive, no regulations 10 10 Light Optical infrared (low data rate) Data networking Cost, power International, fast 10-100 1000 2400 RF microwave ISM Access control, telecommand Local regulations Low cost, efficient for distance 30 40 300-500 RF UHF Picocells data messaging Antenna size Signal goes through body, international use 6 250 5 Magnetic field Identification Signal blocked by body, grounded objects Capacitive coupling limits range, data transmitted by touch, international use 2 20 0.1-1 Electric field Application Problems Advantages Range (m) Maximum Bit Rate (Kbps) Carrier Frequency ( MHz )
UWB has lots of promise – low power – data rates high enough But no real interoperability standards between devices Not many off the shelf components – expensive (for now) Hign frequencies mean CMOS fab unlikely Probably needs to support existing standards Most likely Bluetooth But devices may will switch to UWB or similar Definitely needs to support existing standards Maybe via CPU point 802.11b/a too power hungry for WAN wearable use Section End
IBM Wireless Technologies 1) Bluetooth: PC Card and ThinkPad UltraPort 2) 802.11b PC Card, ThinkPad UltraPort and Access Point 3) ThinkPad and WorkPad Proven products 4) Other products “available”
802.11b IBM High Rate Wireless LAN Access Point
£127 list price - 128bit
£105 list price - 64 bit
Plugs into the ThinkPad’s CardBus slot
Provides wireless access to corporate LAN from anywhere within a 45-90m radius
Supports speeds from 2 to 11 Mbps
64 bit encryption (WEP) or 128 bit
IBM High Rate Wireless LAN PC Card
£486 IBM Web price
Bridges to the wired corporate LAN
Allows the user to roam within coverage area
Can support multiple users
Bluetooth Bluetooth PC Card For Legacy Devices 09n9812 Bluetooth UltraPort For Optimal Performance 09n9811
Designed to replace peripheral cables for PDAs, printers, cameras, etc.
Designed for personal space connectivity
Connectivity range of 10 meters
Nominal data rate of 1 Mb/s
Ann: 9/5 GA: October Ann: 1Q 2001 £143 list price £127 list price