Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External ...

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Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External ...

  1. 1. EDUCATION Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage Howard Goldstein Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. Howard.Goldstein@HGAI.Com Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage© Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  2. 2. Storage Networking Concepts EDUCATION • Objectives: – Identify what networking is and how it relates to storage – Examine storage networking technology similarities and differences – Clarify and explain the language of networking: Terminology – Uniquely inform and hopefully entertain Networking Technologies Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 2 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  3. 3. Outline EDUCATION Networking Technologies Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 3 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  4. 4. Outline • Network vs. Storage • Layered Protocols EDUCATION • ANs and ASes • Flow Control • Perspectives • Payload Integrity • Virtual SCSI Cables • Names vs. Addresses • Port vs. PHY • Segmentation, • Switch vs. Router vs. Convergence, Gateway Reassembly & Offload • Circuit Switch vs. Packet • Bit Rate, Bandwidth, Switch Throughput • Connection-Oriented vs. • Semantic Analysm Connectionless • Future & Conclusions Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 4 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  5. 5. Network Vs. Storage EDUCATION Network Considerations Storage Considerations Information movement Information repository Data over Distance Data over Time Configuring and segmenting Formatting and partitioning hard network topologies disks, Creating logical volumes Hubs, Bridges, Switches, Routers, JBOD, RAID, Disk Controllers, Tape Gateways Controllers Client / Server Applications Initiator / Target Functions Email, Web Browsing, File Mgt, Backup, Archive, Mirror, Block Mgt, Network Interface I/O Interfaces Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 5 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  6. 6. Network Vs. Storage EDUCATION Network Considerations Storage Considerations Speed, Solid-State Capacity, Mechanical Movement Media – Copper, Fiber, Wireless Media – Disk, Tape, Paper Bits in Frames, CRC error checks Bytes in Blocks, Parity check every every frame byte Buffers and Link transfer rates – Cache and Disk/Tape I/O interface Kbps, Mbps, Gbps transfer rates - MBps Interconnectivity network and Disk/Tape seek times and latencies device latencies - bottlenecks – ms, us, ns Applications – HTTP, NFS, SMTP Logical Device Protocols – SCSI, Transport Protocols – ESCON, IDE/ATA TCP/IP/Ethernet Physical Protocols – Parallel SCSI, Fibre Channel, iSCSI/TCP/IP/Ethernet Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 6 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  7. 7. Storage Data Units of Measure Really Big Numbers EDUCATION Unit of Abbreviation Approximate Measure Size How long would it Byte Byte 8 bits take someone to Block Blk 512 Bytes download a one- Kilobyte KB 1,024 Bytes yottabyte file using Megabyte MB 1 Million a 56 Kbps modem? Bytes Gigabyte GB 1,000 MB Terabyte TB 1,000 GB Petabyte PB 1,000 TB Exabyte EB 1 Million TB Zetabyte ZB 1,000 EB 5.5 trillion years. Yottabyte YB 1,000 ZB Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 7 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  8. 8. Network Data Units of Measure Really Small Numbers EDUCATION Unit of Power Number Measure of 10 milli -3 One thousandth micro -6 One millionth nano pico -9 - 12 One billionth One trillionth 1 1 femto - 15 One quadrillionth atto - 18 One quintillionth zepto - 21 One sextillionth yocto - 24 One septillionth Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 8 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  9. 9. Basic Storage Network Technology EDUCATION Direct-Attached Storage (DAS) Application File System Storage Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 9 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  10. 10. Basic Storage Network Technology EDUCATION Direct-Attached Direct-Attached Direct-Attached Storage (DAS) Storage (DAS) Storage (DAS) Application Application Application File System File System File System Storage Storage Storage Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 10 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  11. 11. Basic Storage Network Technology EDUCATION Direct-Attached Network-Attached Storage (DAS) Storage (NAS) Application Application Network File System File System Storage Storage Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 11 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  12. 12. Basic Storage Network Technology EDUCATION Network-Attached Storage (NAS) Application Application Application Network File System Storage Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 12 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  13. 13. Basic Storage Network Technology EDUCATION Direct-Attached Network-Attached Storage Area Storage (DAS) Storage (NAS) Network (SAN) Application Application Application Network File System File System Network File System Storage Storage Storage Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 13 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  14. 14. Basic Storage Network Technology EDUCATION Storage Area Network (SAN) Application Application Application File System File System File System Network Storage Storage Storage Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 14 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  15. 15. Basic Storage Network Technology EDUCATION Direct-Attached Network-Attached Storage Area Storage (DAS) Storage (NAS) Network (SAN) Application Application Application Network File System File System File System Network Storage Storage Storage Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 15 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  16. 16. Basic Storage Network Technology EDUCATION Network-Attached Storage Area Storage (NAS) Network (SAN) Application Application Network File System File System Network Storage Storage 16
  17. 17. Basic Storage Network Technology EDUCATION Network-Attached Storage Area Storage (NAS) Network (SAN) Application Application Network File System NAS & SAN Network File System Storage Storage 17
  18. 18. DAS EDUCATION File File Request File Request Application Blocks File System File Block Request Block Request Storage Blocks Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 18 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  19. 19. Network Attached Storage NFS/CIFS Server EDUCATION File •Messages NAS •Files Blocks NFS/CIFS Client LAN NAS File Request Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 19 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  20. 20. Storage Area Network EDUCATION Storage • Commands • Blocks NAS • Control Gateway • Status SAN SERVER Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 20 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  21. 21. Storage Area Network – “External SAN” EDUCATION SCSI Target & LUN Server Status Blocks SAN SCSI Initiator Client Read SERVER File Command Request “External SAN” File Request Application Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 21 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  22. 22. LAN MAN WAN EDUCATION Network Network Network Controller A “SmAN” Controller Network Disk Drives B Redundant Array of Independent Disks Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 22 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  23. 23. LAN/SAN Benefits EDUCATION • Greater Asset Utilization • Expanded connectivity LAN • Port consolidation • Extended distance FC IP • Higher bandwidth • Potential performance improvement SAN Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 23 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  24. 24. LAN & SAN Information Flow Requirements EDUCATION LAN SAN iSCSI, HTTP, SMTP, NFS, FTP, DNS TCP, UDP IP Ethernet Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 24 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  25. 25. “External SAN” I/O Request to Storage Controller EDUCATION Disk Disk Controller SAN Disk Disk Disk Controller Disk Blocks Blocks Status External Read Command Request External SCSI Target & LUN Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 25 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  26. 26. “Internal SAN” I/O Requests in Storage Controller Status Internal SCSI EDUCATION Target & LUN (Disk Disk Drive) Disk Blocks FC Controller 2 SAN Loop Switch Disk Status Blocks Internal SCSI Target & LUN Disk (Disk Drive) Disk Controller 1 Internal Read Controller 1 Disk Command Controller 1 Request Internal SCSI Initiator Client Status Controller 1 “Internal SAN” Blocks Blocks Internal Read Command RAID External Read Request Command External SCSI Request Target & LUN Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 26 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  27. 27. “Internal SAN” I/O Requests in Storage Controller Status Internal SCSI EDUCATION Target & LUN (Disk Disk Drive) Disk Blocks FC Loop Controller 2 Switch Disk Status Blocks Internal SCSI Target & LUN Disk (Disk Drive) Disk Controller 1 Internal Read Controller 1 Disk Command Internal SCSI Request Initiator Client Controller 1 Status Internal Read “Internal SAN” Blocks Blocks Command External Read Request RAID Command External SCSI Request Target & LUN Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 27 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  28. 28. “Internal SAN” I/O Requests in Storage Controller Status Internal SCSI EDUCATION Target & LUN (Disk Disk Drive) Disk Blocks SAS Expander Controller Disk Status Blocks Internal SCSI Target & LUN Disk (Disk Drive) Disk Internal Read Command Controller Disk Request Internal SCSI Initiator Client Internal Read Status Command “Internal SAN” Blocks Blocks Request External Read RAID Command External SCSI Request Target & LUN Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 28 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  29. 29. Virtual SCSI Cables on SCSI Bus EDUCATION Initiator Target Host Computer Host SCSI Bus Peripheral Adapter Adapter Controller P-SCSI Initiator 0 1 2 62 63 Host Target Host Logical Units Computer Adapter Adapter Peripheral Initiator Controller Host Computer Host 0 1 2 62 63 Adapter Logical Units Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 29 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  30. 30. Virtual SCSI Cables on SCSI Bus EDUCATION Initiator Target Host Computer Host SCSI Bus Peripheral Adapter Adapter Controller Initiator 0 1 2 62 63 Host Target Blocks Host Logical Units Computer Adapter Adapter Peripheral Initiator Controller Host Computer Host 0 1 2 62 63 Adapter Logical Units SCSI Bus: Arbitrate ID, Select ID, Identify LUN Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 30 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  31. 31. Virtual SCSI Cables Fibre Channel EDUCATION Initiator Host Target Computer Host Peripheral Adapter Adapter Controller Initiator FC SAN 0 1 2 62 63 Host Target Host Logical Units Computer Adapter Adapter Peripheral Initiator Controller Host Computer Host 0 1 2 62 63 Adapter Logical Units FC: Fabric Login, N_Port Login, FC-4 Login Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 31 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  32. 32. Virtual SCSI Cables Fibre Channel EDUCATION Initiator Host FC Switch Computer Host Target Adapter Peripheral Adapter Controller Initiator Host FC SAN 0 1 2 62 63 Computer Host Adapter Logical Units Target Initiator Adapter Host Peripheral Computer Host Controller Adapter 0 1 2 62 63 Logical Units Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 32 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  33. 33. Virtual SCSI Cables Fibre Channel EDUCATION Initiator Host FC Switch Computer Host Target Adapter Peripheral Adapter Controller Initiator Host 0 1 2 62 63 Computer Host Blocks Adapter Logical Units Target Initiator Adapter Host Peripheral Computer Host Controller Adapter 0 1 2 62 63 Logical Units FC Loop: Arbitrate, FC Fabric: Switch FC Point-to-Point: Open Loop Circuit Routing Direct Routing Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 33 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  34. 34. Virtual SCSI Cables SAS EDUCATION Initiator Host Computer Host Adapter Peripheral Adapter Target Controller Initiator Host SAS 0 1 2 62 63 Computer Host Logical Units Adapter Initiator Adapter Host Peripheral Computer Host Target Controller Adapter 0 1 2 62 63 Logical Units Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 34 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  35. 35. Virtual SCSI Cables SAS EDUCATION Initiator Host SAS Expander Computer Host Adapter Peripheral Adapter Target Controller Initiator Host SAS 0 1 2 62 63 Computer Host Logical Units Blocks Adapter Initiator Adapter Host Peripheral Computer Host Target Controller Adapter 0 1 2 62 63 Logical Units Serial Attached SCSI: Open, Information, Close Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 35 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  36. 36. Virtual SCSI Cables IP Storage (iSCSI) EDUCATION Initiator Host Computer Host Adapter Peripheral Adapter Target Controller Initiator Host IP Storage 0 1 2 62 63 Computer Host Logical Units Adapter Initiator Adapter Host Peripheral Computer Host Target Controller Adapter 0 1 2 62 63 Logical Units Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 36 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  37. 37. Virtual SCSI Cables IP Storage (iSCSI) EDUCATION Initiator Host Ethernet Switch Computer Host Adapter Peripheral Adapter Target Controller Initiator Host 0 1 2 62 63 Computer Host Logical Units Blocks Adapter Initiator Adapter Host Peripheral Computer Host Target Controller Adapter 0 1 2 62 63 Logical Units Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 37 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  38. 38. M C Escher – Ascending & Descending Monks EDUCATION 38
  39. 39. SAS Storage Controller Perspective EDUCATION Host Edge Fanout HBA Expanders Expander Disks Root SAS “Expanse” Service Delivery Subsytem Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 39 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  40. 40. SAS Storage Network Perspective EDUCATION Fanout Edge Expander Expanders HBA Disk Root End Devices Expanders SAS “Expanse” Service Delivery Subsytem Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 40 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  41. 41. SAS Storage Network: Host – Disk Perspective EDUCATION Edge Expanders HBAs Disks Fanout Expander Roots Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 41 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  42. 42. SAS Storage Network: Host – Disk Perspective EDUCATION Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 42 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  43. 43. Parts of a Physical Transport Network? EDUCATION 1. 2. 3. Media or the Ports - 2 or more Protocol “appearance of” media (transceivers) ? Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 43 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  44. 44. Port vs. PHY = Ports vs. Docks EDUCATION Fibre Channel, Ethernet 1 Port – 1 PHY SAS, Infiniband 1 Port – Many PHYs Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 44 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  45. 45. Striping the Transmission Word 1 Link - 4 Phy Lanes EDUCATION 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 PCIe, InfiniBand does Striping (4x, 12x) SAS is not Striping – See connection path Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 45 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  46. 46. Striping the Transmission Word 1 Link - 4 Phy Lanes EDUCATION 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 10 Gbps Fibre Channel, PCIe, InfiniBand does Striping SAS is not Striping – See connection path Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 46 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  47. 47. SAS Expander – Open, Arbitration, Open Accept EDUCATION ID OPEN 02, 03 ID 01 02 OPEN Accept Expander Node Node ARB 02, 03 AIP Done AIP ID ID OPEN 02, 03 03 04 Node Node Frame Primitive Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 47 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  48. 48. SAS Expander – Move EDUCATION ID ID 01 02 Expander Node Node ID ID 03 04 Node Node Frame Primitive Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 48 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  49. 49. SAS Expander – Move EDUCATION ID ID 01 02 Expander Node Node ID ID 03 04 Node Node Frame Primitive Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 49 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  50. 50. What is a Physical Transport Network? • A group of connected systems - at least two! EDUCATION – Host, Node, Computer, Server, Workstation, Printer, Router, Storage Device Network Interface Cards (NICs), Host Bus Adapters (HBAs), Storage Adapters (SAs) • A media or the “appearance of” media – Unshielded Twisted Pair(s) (UTP), Coaxial Cable(s), Multi-Mode Fiber(s), Leased Line(s), RF • A connection protocol or method – Ethernet, Token Ring, PPP, Frame Relay, ATM, Fibre Channel, SONET/SDH, DWDM • Switches create an appearance of media File Server Router Switch Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 50 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  51. 51. Routing in Switches • Routing EDUCATION • Switch frame “steering” over one “appearance of media” Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 51 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  52. 52. Routing in Routers • Routing EDUCATION • Router packet “forwarding” across many “appearances of media” – A Day in the Life at Manhattan starts at home: – Walk to the bus stop – Get on the bus – Take the bus to the dock – Get off the bus and walk on to the Ferry boat – Sail across the river – Get off the boat and hop in a cab. – Drive to the office and get out of the cab. – Run to the elevator and hop in – Jump off the elevator and walk to your desk – How many subnets? 9 Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 52 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  53. 53. An Internetwork: Switch vs. Router • Routers join appearances of media EDUCATION File Server File Server Router Switch Switch File Server File Server Router Switch Switch Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 53 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  54. 54. Router vs. Gateway EDUCATION File Server File Server Router Switch Switch Gateway File Server File Server Router Switch Switch Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 54 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  55. 55. Circuit Switch – Packet Switch EDUCATION • Fixed path whether moving or not versus routing frames or packets on the current best path as they arrive and leave Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 55 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  56. 56. Circuit Switch • Circuit Construction EDUCATION • SAS Expanders Frame • FC Class 1 Frame • POTS (Plain Old Telephone Network) Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 56 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  57. 57. Packet (Frame) Switch • Frame Direction EDUCATION • FC Class 3 Frame (switch) • IP Packet (router) • VOIP Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 57 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  58. 58. Connection-Oriented vs. Connectionless EDUCATION • Not path related! • Connection-oriented requires a state exchange to track communications • Connectionless takes things as they come Telephone Telegraph Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 58 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  59. 59. Connection-Oriented vs. Connectionless EDUCATION TCP IP TCP IP IP IP • Internet Protocol Suite – TCP connections start with negotiation setup between hosts • Similar to telephone connection – Call, Answer, Talk, Hang up • UDP connectionless – IP Connectionless – Handles packets as they come • Fibre Channel Class 2, 3 Switch Routing – Connectionless – Handles frames as they come Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 59 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  60. 60. Connection-Oriented FC Sessions - Login EDUCATION Server Storage Link Link Link Active Active Active Fabric Fabric Fabric Login Login N-Port Login FC-4 Process Login Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 60 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  61. 61. Layered Protocols EDUCATION • Protocol Data Units (PDUs) • They are both cake – Different ways to provide similar function! Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 61 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  62. 62. OSI & IPS (TCP/IP) EDUCATION Open Systems Interconnection Internet Protocol Suite End User Data End User Data Application Application Presentation Services Session Transport Transport Network Internet Data Link Network Interface Physical Sublayer Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 62 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  63. 63. OSI & Fibre Channel Architecture EDUCATION End User Data End User Data Application Channels Networks Presentation IPI, SCSI, 802.2 (LE), HIPPI, SBCCS IP, ATM Session Transport FC4 - Upper Layer Mapping Network FC3 - Common Services Data Link FC2 - Framing/Flow Control FC1 - Encode/Decode Physical FC0 - Physical Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 63 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  64. 64. OSI & Fibre Channel Architecture EDUCATION End User Data End User Data Application Channels Networks Presentation IPI, SCSI, 802.2 (LE), HIPPI, SBCCS IP, ATM Session Transport FC4 - Upper Layer Mapping Network FC3 - Common Services Data Link FC2 - Framing/Flow Control FC1 - Encode/Decode Physical FC0 - Physical Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 64 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  65. 65. Fibre Channel & IPS EDUCATION Fibre Channel Internet Protocol Suite Channels Networks Application IPI, SCSI, 802.2 (LE), HIPPI, SBCCS IP, ATM Services FC4 - Upper Layer Mapping Transport FC3 - Common Services Internet FC2 - - Framing/Flow Control FC2 Framing/Flow Control Network FC1 - Encode/Decode Interface FC0 - Physical Sublayer Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 65 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  66. 66. Flow Control EDUCATION • Fibre Channel – Credit-Based Fibre Channel – Advertise Credit • Internet Protocol Suite – TCP Sliding Window – IP Datagram Drop Congestion Control – Advertise Larger Windows Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 66 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  67. 67. SAS Flow Control- EDUCATION Expanders – Circuit Switches HBA Switch Switch SA Frame = ~1K Max Credit R-RDY = 1 Dword Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 67 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  68. 68. Fibre Channel Buffer-to-Buffer (Class 2, 3) EDUCATION N-Port F-Port E-Port E-Port F-Port N-Port HBA Switch Switch SA B-B B-B B-B Frame = ~2K Max Credit R-RDY = 1 Word Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 68 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  69. 69. Fibre Channel End-to-End (Class 1, 2) EDUCATION E-Ports N-Port F-Port F-Port N-Port Node Node Node Node Fabric Frame E-E ACK Frame Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 69 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  70. 70. Internet - TCP Sliding Windows EDUCATION • Sliding Windows – Reduces overhead and delay of positive acknowledgments – Allows sending of multiple segments before ACK is required • Window Advertisements – Receivers advertise window sizes – Usually MSS multiple – Maximum 65,535 Bytes – Prevent “Silly window” syndrome • Slow Start – Congestion Window – Increments till congestion detected Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 70 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  71. 71. TCP Window Scale Factor EDUCATION • Multiplier for window field • Window field only 16 bits for maximum of 65,535 bytes • Both systems in a connection must agree to use this • Allows a maximum of 16 million bytes Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 71 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  72. 72. TCP Sliding Windows – TCP Segments EDUCATION 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 Send 6 Segments without Acknowledgement 2 Acknowledgements 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 Send 2 More Segments Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 72 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  73. 73. TCP Sliding Windows Increasing EDUCATION 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Decreasing 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 73 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  74. 74. Payload Integrity EDUCATION • Do you always want payload integrity? • Not necessarily with Video and Voice • Performance vs. Quality tradeoffs – A pixel in a online-rented movie frame – A medical imaging application just prior to heart surgery where you want to be sure the speck of grey isn’t line noise! Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 74 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  75. 75. Names & Addresses EDUCATION Name Address Route Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 75 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  76. 76. Name, Address & Route EDUCATION • Addressing and Identification schemes Name • Address is used to locate Address • Names or identifiers uniquely represent something or someone Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 76 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  77. 77. Name, Address & Route • Name is a specific identification EDUCATION – Machine, User, Application - Unique target for data • Internet – Fully Qualified Domain Names WWW.SNIA.ORG – Media Access Control MAC ID – Physical Port Identifier • Storage – World Wide Node Names WWNN (Fibre Channel) – World Wide Port Names WWPN (Fibre Channel) – Enterprise Unique Identifier EUI (iSCSI) – iSCSI Qualified Name IQN (iSCSI) • Address identifies where the target is located – Hardware, Network, Port, Socket – Port ID FCID (Fibre Channel) – IP Address • Route identifies path to get to the destination Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 77 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  78. 78. Transport Addressing Ports EDUCATION • Ports are used to deliver information to relevant application services • Well-known and “Not-so-well-known” Transient Port Name Description 20 FTP-3DATA File Transfer (Data Channel) 21 FTP File Transfer (Control Channel) 22 TELNET Telnet 25 SMTP Simple Mail Transfer 53 DNS DOMAIN Domain Name Services Domain Name Service 3260 ISCSI Internet SCSI • Comparable to Well known FCID Port ID Addresses – FFFFFC Name Server – FFFFFD Fabric Controller – FFFFFE Fabric Port Login Server Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 78 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  79. 79. Comparative Address Ranges • 1 Address = 1 Gram EDUCATION • SATA Point-to-Point – 20 = 1 • SATA II “Port Multiplier” – 24 = 16 • SAS “Expanders” – 214 = 128 x 128 = 16,384 • All Fibre Channel – 224 = 16,777,216 • All IPv4 – 232 = 4,294,967,296 X 56 Billion • All IPv6 – 2128 = 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 79 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  80. 80. Hierarchical, Routable Addressing EDUCATION • IP addresses can be divided into three parts – Network Address (NETID) – Subnetwork Address using (Subnetwork Mask 255.255.255.0) – Host IP Address • Example 172.16.2.6 – Network 172.16.0.0, Subnetwork 172.16.2.0, Host IP Address 172.16.2.6 • FC addresses can be divided into three parts – Domain (Domain ID) – Area (Area ID) – Device (Device ID) • Example 0102EF – Domain 01 (Switch 01), Area 02 (Port 02 on the Switch), Device EF (ALPA of Loop Device) Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 80 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  81. 81. Address Assignment • DHCP Mechanism for allocating and assigning IP EDUCATION addresses to clients – Automatic: Host requesting an address are provided with a permanent IP address – Dynamic: Hosts requesting an address are provided with a temporary address – Manual: Host IP addresses are manually configured and DHCP just delivers these assignments • Fibre Channel – Loop Initialization LISM, LIFA, LIPA, LIHA, LISA, LIRP, LILP, Close • Select Master, Fabric Assigned, Previously Assigned, Hard Assigned, Soft Assigned, Report Position, List Position, Close – Fabric Login Controller – Point-to-Point - Lowest World Wide Port Name (WWPN) Assigns Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 81 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  82. 82. Name Service EDUCATION • Internet – Domain Name Services for IP • Fully Qualified Domain Name FQDN to IP Address • Running on distributed servers • Storage – Name Services for Fibre Channel • WWPN to Fibre Channel Identifier FCID, Fabric service running in the Switch – iSNS Storage Name Service (iSNS) for iSCSI Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 82 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  83. 83. Segmentation & Offload EDUCATION • Segmentation, Convergence and Reassembly • Offload for Performance Acceleration Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 83 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  84. 84. Traditional FC SAN Host NIC EDUCATION Internet Protocol Suite Network Host Interface Host Sublayer Applications Applications Application Ethernet File Manager File Manager Services Device Driver Device Driver Transport HBA SCSI Protocol SCSI Protocol Internet FC4 FC3 Operating System FC2 I/O Interface FC2 FC1 FC0 Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 84 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  85. 85. Read 8K (6 FC frames with 4 - 2K Frames) EDUCATION Host HBA Read Command FC4 Data FC3 Data Data FC2 FC2 Data FC1 FC0 Status Fibre Channel Multi-Frame Sequence Minimizes Server I/O interrupts - 2 Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 85 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  86. 86. Traditional NAS Host NIC EDUCATION Internet Protocol Suite Network Host Interface Host Sublayer Applications Applications NFS/CIFS Application Ethernet File Manager File Manager Services Device Driver Device Driver Transport HBA SCSI Protocol SCSI Protocol Internet FC4 FC3 Operating System FC2 FC2 I/O Interface FC1 FC0 Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 86 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  87. 87. Get 8K (7 Ethernet Frames with 6 - 1.5K Frames) EDUCATION Host NFS / CIFS / iSCSI Application Services NIC Get File Data Transport Network Data Interface Sublayer Data Data Internet Ethernet Data Data Host IP Fragmentation - 6 IP Packet Fragments, 6 – 1500 byte MTU Ethernet Frames, Maximizes Server I/O interrupts - 7 Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 87 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  88. 88. iSCSI Full Offload Host EDUCATION Intelligent Internet NIC/HBA Protocol Suite Host Host iSCSI Applications Applications i S Application TCP File Manager File Manager C Services S IP Device Driver Device Driver I Transport Network SCSI Protocol SCSI Protocol Internet Interface Sublayer Operating System Gigabit I/O Interface Ethernet Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage 88 © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.

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