Network Administration and Support
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Network Administration and Support






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Network Administration and Support Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 12 Network Administration and Support
  • 2. Introduction
    • Topics
      • Network Management Tasks and Activities
      • Managing Access and Accounts
      • Managing Network Performance
      • Managing Network Security
      • Protecting Data and Systems
  • 3. Network Management Tasks and Activities
    • Managing user access to the network is a major challenge of network administration
    • Access to resources and data must be controlled but not overly restricted
    • Assigning users to groups will make the administration of user rights much easier
  • 4. Managing Access and Accounts
    • Setting up user accounts is less complicated than assigning access rights
    • Every OS has procedures and/or an interface for setting up accounts
    • It is better to add privileges than to take them away from users
    • Start with fairly restrictive account policies
  • 5. User Accounts
    • A user account holds information about the specific user
    • It can contain basic information such as name, password, and the level of permission the user in granted
    • It can also contain much more specific information such as the department the user works in, a home phone number, and the days and hours the user is allowed to log on to specific workstations
  • 6. Managing Groups
    • Groups are created to make the sharing of resources more manageable
    • A group contains users that share a common need for access to a particular resource
    • Even though the connotations may differ with each operating system, all of these terms still refer to the access that a user or group account is granted
  • 7. Administrator Account
    • All operating systems have an administrative account
    • The administrative account should be used only for the purpose of administering the server
    • Granting users this type of access is a disaster waiting to happen
    • Most operating systems set up the administrative account during installation
  • 8. Default Accounts
    • Windows has several accounts set up by default
    • No matter which system is used, it is important to know what accounts are installed by default and what access each account has
    • The purpose of the guest account is to allow temporary access for a user that doesn’t have an account set up
  • 9. The Guest Account
    • The guest account has limited access, but many times is disabled to keep intruders from accessing the machine
  • 10. Passwords
    • Allowing users to create simple passwords produces an unsecured environment
    • If the passwords are too difficult to remember, users will probably write them down and may even post them
    • A weak password might be very short or only use alphanumeric characters or contain information easily guessed by someone profiling the user
  • 11. Strong Passwords
    • Strong passwords can be derived from events or things the user knows
    • For example, the phrase "Going to the Bahamas on June 6, 2006 with Jean” can be converted to gtB6606@J
    • This creates a complex password that is easy for the user to remember
  • 12. Password Policies
    • Password policies help protect the network from hackers and define the responsibilities of users who have been given access to company resources
    • All users should read and sign security policies as part of their employment process
    • Many times it is necessary to restrict logon hours for maintenance purposes.
  • 13. Access to Files
    • Auditing is the process of keeping track of who is logging in and accessing what files
    • Network administrators assign user access rights and set permissions
    • Limited group access overrides unlimited access in another group
  • 14. Types of Groups
    • Groups may be nested
    • Active Directory Services provides flexibility by allowing two types of groups:
      • Security groups
      • Distribution groups
    • Both types of groups have what is called a scope
    • Scope determines where the group can be used in the network and who can be a member
  • 15. Group Scope
    • The three group scopes available in a Windows 2000 network are:
      • domain local
      • global
      • universal
    • The acronym GULP will help you remember how groups are placed into other groups.
  • 16. Permission Assignment
    • For a user-based model, permissions are assigned to each user account
    • For group-based access control, permissions are assigned to groups
    • For role-based access control, a role is associated with a job and permissions are assigned to these roles
    • Rule-based access control is based on access control lists (ACLs)
  • 17. Group Policy
    • After you create groups, group policy can be used for ease of administration in managing the environment of users
    • The group policy object (GPO) is used to apply group policy to users and computers
    • A GPO is a virtual storage location for group policy settings, which are stored in the Group Policy container or template
  • 18. Managing Access and Accounts
    • Group policy allows you to set consistent common security standards
    • Group policies are applied in a specific order or hierarchy
    • By default, group policy is inherited and cumulative
    • Use the acronym LSDOU (local, site, domain, organizational unit) to remember the order that a group policy is applied.
  • 19. Managing Network Performance
    • As your network changes, its performance must be monitored and improved
    • A measure of normal activity is known as a baseline
    • Baselines must be updated on a regular basis, when the network has changed, or new technology has been deployed
  • 20. Monitoring Tools
    • After baselines are established, the network needs to be monitored
    • Many tools can be used to monitor the performance on the network:
      • Event Viewer
      • Performance Console
      • Network Monitor
      • Task Manager
  • 21. The Event Viewer
    • Allows auditing certain events
    • The Event Viewer maintains three log files:
      • One for system processes
      • One for security information
      • One for applications
  • 22. The Task Manager
    • Task Manager can be used to end processes or applications that get hung up without having to reboot the machine
    • It also gives you an instant view of CPU and memory usage
    • It should be one of the first places to check when something seems awry
  • 23. The Performance Console
    • Performance console is used for tracking and viewing the utilization of operating system resources
    • The console consists of two snap-ins:
      • the System Monitor
      • the Performance Logs and Alerts
    • This tool is used for properly monitoring the physical disks, memory, and processor
  • 24. The Network Monitor
    • Network Monitor is a protocol analyzer
    • It can be used to capture network traffic and generate statistics for creating reports
    • Network Monitor is not installed by default in Windows 2000
    • It must be added as an optional Windows component
  • 25. Bottlenecks
    • A bottleneck occurs when we try to push too much data into a narrow opening
    • As a result, it jams up and has to wait
    • Internet and network traffic commonly bottleneck due to not having enough bandwidth
  • 26. CPU Utilization
    • When an application or program starts, it will automatically cause the CPU to spike to 100%
    • When you are monitoring the processor, you should see the utilization spike up and down
    • However, if the usage goes to 100% and stays there, then there is an issue
  • 27. Managing Bottlenecks
    • If your system has a processor bottleneck, you can either add more processors or upgrade to faster ones
    • One of the most common bottlenecks that Windows 2000 systems face is caused by limited physical memory
    • Windows servers are designed to page data out of memory into a paging file when not in use or if the memory is needed for other data
    • More memory provides better performance
  • 28. Disk Performance Monitor
    • RAM bottlenecks create excessive disk usage, as the system swaps memory to the disk
    • These bottlenecks can be monitored with the diskperf utility.
    • To use it type diskperf -y at a command prompt and restart the machine
  • 29. Server Testing
    • When a server is set up, you should allow a burn-in period
    • During burn-in, the server is placed under a heavy stress level for long periods of time to see if any part of the system fails
    • Performance can also be improved through application tuning
    • Network segmentation may affect performance
  • 30. Improving Performance
    • Main areas to be addressed
      • network segmentation
      • application tuning
      • server performance
  • 31. Managing Network Security
    • A security policy is a set guideline used to create the company rules for providing a secure working environment
    • Clear and detailed policies supported by the organization's management are the goal of a security policy
    • The most crucial part of security policy is planning and assessment
  • 32. Risk Assessment
    • Begin by examining the network for security risks (risk assessment)
    • Risk is the potential of a threat to exploit a vulnerability found in an asset
    • Risk assessment pertains to how likely it is that certain threats will compromise the network
  • 33. Acceptable Use Policies
    • pertain to what activities users may perform on the network
    • Every organization has the responsibility to conduct its business in a manner that complies with all applicable laws and regulations
    • Failure to ensure compliance can result in legal liabilities
  • 34. Organizational Responsibilities
    • An organization may be negligent if it fails to take the necessary precautions to avoid a security threat
  • 35. Data and Equipment Disposal
    • Proper disposal of data and equipment should be part of the security policy
    • Outdated hardware and discarded paper may often be used by attackers to obtain access to a network
    • Have a policy in place that requires shredding of all documents and security erasure of all types of storage media before they may be discarded.
  • 36. Incident Response Policy
    • What defines a security breach and how to identify when one occurs
    • When dealing with security issues, two basic models are used:
      • Physical Model - addresses the risks associated with hardware and designs
      • Data Model - deals with protocols and software
  • 37. User Responsibilities
    • Train users on:
      • How to properly use the system
      • Why they must follow policy
      • The consequences for not complying with these policies
  • 38. Network Security Components
    • The security components of a network fall into the following three areas:
      • physical
      • data
      • system
  • 39. Physical Security
    • identifies threats to the hardware and buildings that store system data
    • Threats include unauthorized access as well as natural disasters
    • As new physical security systems are deployed users must be trained on how to use them
  • 40. Protecting Data and Systems
    • Backing up data is critical
    • Off-site copies of data allow recovery in case an entire facility is destroyed
    • If backup function is outsourced, be sure the company is reputable and the employees are bonded
  • 41. Backup Strategies
    • Full backup
    • Incremental backup
    • Differential backup
    • Backup tapes should be tested regularly
  • 42. Protecting Data and Systems
    • All network servers should be isolated in a locked location to prevent any kind of unauthorized physical access
    • Use anti-virus and intrusion detection software (IDS) to protect data integrity
    • IDS systems can catch attacks in progress within the network
  • 43. Business Continuity Plan
    • pertains to the measures taken in the case of a complete loss
    • includes a detailed analysis of business practices and support requirements
    • includes cost estimates for network access and automatic failover of critical services to off-site systems
    • Other considerations
      • Facilities
      • Fault tolerance
      • Clustering