Introduction to Cloud
                 Computing

                                Dr. Jun Ni, Ph.D. M.E.
                A...
Outline
Cloud Computing
Plug Computing
Resources
“Cloud Computing” on WikiPedia
  The lecture is extracted from
Definition of Cloud
Internet- ("cloud-") based development and use
of novel computer technology
Inspired by the cloud symb...
Definition of Cloud
Paradigm and vision
  Support dummy end-users who no longer need
  knowledge of, expertise in, or cont...
Could Computing Core
Internet Computing
  New computer network diagrams
  Abstraction of the underlying internet based
  i...
Could Computing Core
Cloud computing core:
  Providers
    deliver common business applications online which are
    acces...
Could Computing Core
These applications are broadly divided into the
following categories:
  Software as a Service (SaaS)
...
Identification and Comparison
Comparisons with other computing infrastructure
All are distributed computing
Grid computing...
Identification and Comparison
Utility computing
  Packaging of computing resources
    A metered service of computing (com...
Identification and Comparison
Autonomic computing
  Computer systems capable of self-management
  No service-oriented
Identification and Comparison
Indeed, many cloud computing deployments
  Depend on technical implementation and protocol
 ...
Identification and Comparison
Some successful cloud architectures have little
or no centralized infrastructure or billing
...
Cloud Characteristics
Do not own the physical infrastructure (virtual)
Avoiding capital expenditure
  by renting usage fro...
Cloud Characteristics
Sharing "perishable and intangible" computing power
among multiple tenants
  Improve utilization rat...
Economics Mode
Cloud computing users can avoid capital
expenditure (CapEx) on hardware, software, and
services when they p...
Economics Mode
Other benefits of this time sharing-style approach
  low barriers to entry
  shared infrastructure and cost...
Infrastructure Challenge
The majority of cloud computing infrastructure
  reliable services delivered through data centers...
Infrastructure Challenge
Commercial offerings are generally expected to
meet quality of service (QoS) requirements of
cust...
History of Cloud Computing
Cloud is a term that borrows from telephony
Up to the 1990s, data circuits (including those
tha...
History of Cloud Computing
Cloud symbol was used to represent the
responsibility of the provider
Cloud computing extends t...
History of Cloud Computing
Underlying concept of cloud computing dates
back to 1960, when John McCarthy opined that
“compu...
History of Cloud Computing
The term cloud had already come into
commercial use in the early 1990s to refer to
large Asynch...
History of Cloud Computing
In 1997, the first academic definition was
provided by Ramnath K. Chellappa who called it
“a co...
History of Cloud Computing
Loudcloud, founded in 1999 by Marc Andreessen, was
one of the first to attempt to commercialize...
Driving Forces of Cloud Computing
 In the early 2000s, Microsoft extended the
 concept of SaaS through the development of
...
Driving Forces of Cloud Computing
 IBM detailed these concepts in 2001 in the Autonomic
 Computing Manifesto
   Described ...
Successful Uses of Cloud Computing
Amazon played a key role in the development of
cloud computing by modernizing their dat...
Successful Uses of Cloud Computing
In 2007, Google, IBM, and a number of
universities embarked on a large scale cloud
comp...
Envisioning of Cloud Computing
“Organizations are switching from company-
owned hardware and software assets to per-use
se...
Technical Key Words
Agility improves with users able to rapidly and
inexpensively re-provision technological
infrastructur...
Technical Key Words
Cost is claimed to be greatly reduced and capital
expenditure is converted to operational
expenditure....
Technical Key Words
Device and location independence enable
users to access systems using a web browser
regardless of thei...
Technical Key Words
Multi-tenancy enables sharing of resources and
costs across a large pool of users thus allowing
for:
 ...
Technical Key Words
Reliability improves through the use of
multiple redundant sites, which makes cloud
computing suitable...
Technical Key Words
Scalability via dynamic ("on-demand")
provisioning of resources on a fine-grained, self-
service basis...
Technical Concerns
Concerns can persist about
  Loss of control over certain sensitive data
  Lack of security for stored ...
Technical Key Words
Sustainability comes about through
  improved resource utilization
  more efficient systems
  carbon n...
Layers of Cloud Computing




        Stack of Could Computing
Cloud Client Layer
A cloud client layer consists of computer hardware
and/or computer software
  relies on cloud computing...
Cloud Client Layer
For example:
  Mobile (Linux based - Palm Pre- WebOS Linux
  Kernel, Android-Linux Kernel, iPhone-Darwi...
Application Layer
A cloud application leverages cloud computing in
software architecture, often eliminating the need
to in...
Application Layer
For example:
  Peer-to-peer / volunteer computing (BOINC, Skype)
  Web applications (Webmail, Facebook, ...
Platform layer
A cloud platform (PaaS) delivers a computing
platform and/or solution stack as a service,
generally consumi...
Platform Layer
For example:
  Services
    Identity (OAuth, OpenID)
    Payments (Amazon Flexible Payments Service, Google...
Platform Layer
For example:
  Solution stacks
    Java (Google App Engine)
    PHP (Rackspace Cloud Sites)
    Python Djan...
Platform Layer
For example:
  Storage [Structured]
    Databases (Amazon SimpleDB, BigTable)
    File storage (Amazon S3, ...
Infrastructure Layer
Cloud infrastructure (IaaS) is the delivery of computer
infrastructure, typically a platform virtuali...
Servers Layer
The servers layer consists of computer hardware
and/or computer software products that are
specifically desi...
Cloud architecture
Cloud architecture the systems architecture of the
software systems involved in the delivery of cloud
c...
Cloud architecture
This closely resembles the Unix philosophy of
having multiple programs each doing one thing
well and wo...
Cloud architecture
Cloud architecture extends to the client, where Web
browsers and/or software applications access cloud
...
Types by Visibility
Public cloud
  Public cloud or external cloud describes cloud
  computing in the traditional mainstrea...
Types by Visibility
Hybrid cloud
  A hybrid cloud environment consisting of multiple
  internal and/or external providers ...
Types by Visibility
Hybrid cloud
  It can also describe configurations combining virtual
  and physical, colocated assets
...
Types by visibility
Private cloud
  Private cloud and internal cloud are neologisms that some
  vendors have recently used...
Types by Visibility
They have been criticized on the basis that users
"still have to buy, build, and manage them"
  as suc...
Types by Visibility
While an Analyst predicted in 2008 that private cloud
networks would be the future of corporate IT
The...
Types by Visibility
The term has also been used in the logical
rather than physical sense
  for example in reference to pl...
Types of services
Services provided by cloud computing can
be split into three major categories:
  Infrastructure-as-a-Ser...
Types of services
Platform-as-a-Service(PaaS)
  is a set of software and development tools hosted on
  the provider's serv...
Types of services
Software-as-a-Service (SaaS)
  is the broadest market. In this case the provider
  allows the customer o...
References Aviable on WikiPedia
"Cloud Computing: Clash of the clouds". The Economist.
2009-10-15.
http://www.economist.co...
References Aviable on WikiPedia
The Internet Cloud
http://searchcloudcomputing.techtarget.com/sDefinition/
0,,sid201_gci12...
References Aviable on WikiPedia

What's In A Name? Utility vs. Cloud vs Grid
I.B.M. to Push ‘Cloud Computing,’ Using Data ...
References Aviable on WikiPedia
Cloud Computing Savings - Real or Imaginary?
Buyya, Rajkumar; Chee Shin Yeo, Srikumar Venu...
References
a b Jeff Bezos' Risky Bet
 Google and I.B.M. Join in ‘Cloud Computing’ Research
 Keep an eye on cloud computing...
References
The new geek chic: Data centers
Cloud Computing: Small Companies Take Flight
Google Apps Admins Jittery About G...
References
Google's Open Source Android OS Will Free the Wireless
Web
In Sync to Pierce the Cloud
 Microsoft demos mobile ...
References
Cloud Maturity Is Accelerating: More Than Just Reaction
To The Hype?
IBM Embraces Juniper For Its Smart 'Hybrid...
References
Microsoft Nixes Private Azure Clouds
Cloud computing services
Cloud Computing Risk Assessment (including
recomm...
References
Luis M. Vaquero et al., A Break in the Clouds: Toward a
Cloud Definition, ACM SIGCOMM Computer
Communication Re...
Enterprise Services
Applications
Google Apps
SalesForce
Microsoft Online
AppliancesTurnKey Linux Virtual Appliance Library...
Enterprise Services
Sun Cloud
3tera
Nimbus
Eucalyptus
PlatformsApp Engine
Azure
Rackspace Cloud
SalesForce
ServicesAlexa
Enterprise Services
FPS
MTurk
SQSStorageS3
SimpleDB
SQL AzureStandardsAjax
Atom
HTML 5
REST
XMPP
BitTorrent
Thanks
Questions?
Multi-core Programming for Medical Imaging
Multi-core Programming for Medical Imaging
Multi-core Programming for Medical Imaging
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Multi-core Programming for Medical Imaging

  1. 1. Introduction to Cloud Computing Dr. Jun Ni, Ph.D. M.E. Associate Professor, Radiology, Biomedical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Computer Science The University of Iowa, Iowa City, USA Dec. 22, 2009 Harbin Engineering University
  2. 2. Outline Cloud Computing Plug Computing
  3. 3. Resources “Cloud Computing” on WikiPedia The lecture is extracted from
  4. 4. Definition of Cloud Internet- ("cloud-") based development and use of novel computer technology Inspired by the cloud symbol used to represent the Internet in flow charts and diagrams
  5. 5. Definition of Cloud Paradigm and vision Support dummy end-users who no longer need knowledge of, expertise in, or control over the IT technology infrastructure Attributes Dynamical scalability Highly-virtual resources Service computing over the Internet
  6. 6. Could Computing Core Internet Computing New computer network diagrams Abstraction of the underlying internet based infrastructure
  7. 7. Could Computing Core Cloud computing core: Providers deliver common business applications online which are accessed from a web browser software and data are stored on the servers Distributed computing Peer-to-peer powered, application-oriented computing
  8. 8. Could Computing Core These applications are broadly divided into the following categories: Software as a Service (SaaS) Utility Computing Web Services Platform as a Service (PaaS) Managed Service Providers (MSP) Service Commerce Internet Integration
  9. 9. Identification and Comparison Comparisons with other computing infrastructure All are distributed computing Grid computing A super and virtual computer is composed of a cluster of networked loosely-coupled computers acting in concert to perform very large tasks Technology-oriented More academic efforts Not necessary heavy server-thin client (depends)
  10. 10. Identification and Comparison Utility computing Packaging of computing resources A metered service of computing (computation and storage) similar to a traditional public utility, such as electricity Focus on business revenue and service charge Technically centralized Heavy server and thin client Low virtual resources and less freedom (heavy centralization)
  11. 11. Identification and Comparison Autonomic computing Computer systems capable of self-management No service-oriented
  12. 12. Identification and Comparison Indeed, many cloud computing deployments Depend on technical implementation and protocol developed in grids Have autonomic characteristics Bill like utilities Cloud computing expand the scope of grids and utilities, either technical or vision
  13. 13. Identification and Comparison Some successful cloud architectures have little or no centralized infrastructure or billing systems whatsoever, including peer-to-peer networks such as BitTorrent and Skype, and volunteer computing
  14. 14. Cloud Characteristics Do not own the physical infrastructure (virtual) Avoiding capital expenditure by renting usage from a third-party provider Consume resources as a service pay only for resources that they use Many cloud-computing offerings employ the utility computing model (such as electricity) are consumed others bill on a subscription basis
  15. 15. Cloud Characteristics Sharing "perishable and intangible" computing power among multiple tenants Improve utilization rates Servers are not unnecessarily left idle (which can reduce costs significantly while increasing the speed of application development) A side-effect Overall computer usage rises dramatically, as customers do not have to engineer for peak load limits increased high-speed bandwidth" makes it possible to receive the same response times from centralized infrastructure at other sites Less realiabity
  16. 16. Economics Mode Cloud computing users can avoid capital expenditure (CapEx) on hardware, software, and services when they pay a provider only for what they use Consumption is usually billed on a utility (resources consumed, like electricity) or subscription (time-sharing-based, like a newspaper) basis with little or no upfront cost
  17. 17. Economics Mode Other benefits of this time sharing-style approach low barriers to entry shared infrastructure and costs low management overhead immediate access to a broad range of applications In general, users can terminate the contract at any time (thereby avoiding return on investment risk and uncertainty) services are often covered by service level agreements (SLAs) with financial penalties
  18. 18. Infrastructure Challenge The majority of cloud computing infrastructure reliable services delivered through data centers and built on servers Clouds often appear as single points of access for all consumers' computing needs
  19. 19. Infrastructure Challenge Commercial offerings are generally expected to meet quality of service (QoS) requirements of customers and typically offer SLAs Open standards are critical to the growth of cloud computing Open source software has provided the foundation for many cloud computing implementations
  20. 20. History of Cloud Computing Cloud is a term that borrows from telephony Up to the 1990s, data circuits (including those that carried Internet traffic) were hard-wired between destinations Virtual Private Network (VPN) service for data communications
  21. 21. History of Cloud Computing Cloud symbol was used to represent the responsibility of the provider Cloud computing extends this to cover servers as well as the network infrastructure
  22. 22. History of Cloud Computing Underlying concept of cloud computing dates back to 1960, when John McCarthy opined that “computation may someday be organized as a public utility”
  23. 23. History of Cloud Computing The term cloud had already come into commercial use in the early 1990s to refer to large Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks.
  24. 24. History of Cloud Computing In 1997, the first academic definition was provided by Ramnath K. Chellappa who called it “a computing paradigm where the boundaries of computing will be determined by economic rationale rather than technical limits” Grid computing is driven by academic or technical paradigm, rather than economic rationale
  25. 25. History of Cloud Computing Loudcloud, founded in 1999 by Marc Andreessen, was one of the first to attempt to commercialize cloud computing with an Infrastructure as a Service model. By the turn of the 21st century, the term "cloud computing" began to appear more widely, although most of the focus at that time was limited to SaaS, called "ASP's" or Application Service Providers, under the terminology of the day
  26. 26. Driving Forces of Cloud Computing In the early 2000s, Microsoft extended the concept of SaaS through the development of Web services
  27. 27. Driving Forces of Cloud Computing IBM detailed these concepts in 2001 in the Autonomic Computing Manifesto Described advanced automation techniques Self-monitoring, self-healing self-configuring self-optimizing in the management of complex IT systems with heterogeneous storage Servers Applications Networks security mechanisms Other system elements that can be virtualized across an enterprise
  28. 28. Successful Uses of Cloud Computing Amazon played a key role in the development of cloud computing by modernizing their data centers after the dot-com bubble using as little as 10% of their capacity at any one time just to leave room for occasional spikes Amazon started providing access to their systems through Amazon Web Services on a utility computing basis in 2005
  29. 29. Successful Uses of Cloud Computing In 2007, Google, IBM, and a number of universities embarked on a large scale cloud computing research project By mid-2008, Gartner with vision of "to shape the relationship among consumers of IT services, and those who sell them
  30. 30. Envisioning of Cloud Computing “Organizations are switching from company- owned hardware and software assets to per-use service-based models"
  31. 31. Technical Key Words Agility improves with users able to rapidly and inexpensively re-provision technological infrastructure resources.
  32. 32. Technical Key Words Cost is claimed to be greatly reduced and capital expenditure is converted to operational expenditure. This ostensibly lowers barriers to entry, as infrastructure is typically provided by a third-party and does not need to be purchased for one-time or infrequent intensive computing tasks. Pricing on a utility computing basis is fine-grained with usage-based options and fewer IT skills are required for implementation (in-house).
  33. 33. Technical Key Words Device and location independence enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using (e.g., PC, mobile). As infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet, users can connect from anywhere.
  34. 34. Technical Key Words Multi-tenancy enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users thus allowing for: Centralization of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate, electricity, etc.) Peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer for highest possible load-levels) Utilization and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 10–20% utilized.
  35. 35. Technical Key Words Reliability improves through the use of multiple redundant sites, which makes cloud computing suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery. Nonetheless, many major cloud computing services have suffered outages IT and business managers can at times do little when they are affected.
  36. 36. Technical Key Words Scalability via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources on a fine-grained, self- service basis near real-time, without users having to engineer for peak loads. Performance is monitored Consistent and loosely-coupled architectures are constructed using Web services as the system interface
  37. 37. Technical Concerns Concerns can persist about Loss of control over certain sensitive data Lack of security for stored kernels Security is often as good as or better than under traditional systems because providers are able to devote resources to solving security issues that many customers cannot afford. Providers typically log accesses, but accessing the audit logs themselves can be difficult or impossible. Furthermore, the complexity of security is greatly increased when data is distributed over a wider area and / or number of devices.
  38. 38. Technical Key Words Sustainability comes about through improved resource utilization more efficient systems carbon neutrality Maintenance cloud computing applications are easier to maintain Since they don't have to be installed on each user's computer. They are easier to support and to improve since the changes reach the clients instantly
  39. 39. Layers of Cloud Computing Stack of Could Computing
  40. 40. Cloud Client Layer A cloud client layer consists of computer hardware and/or computer software relies on cloud computing for application delivery specifically designed for delivery of cloud services and that, in either case, is essentially useless without it
  41. 41. Cloud Client Layer For example: Mobile (Linux based - Palm Pre- WebOS Linux Kernel, Android-Linux Kernel, iPhone-Darwin Linux Kernel, Microsoft based - Windows Mobile) Thin client (CherryPal, Wyse, Zonbu, gOS-based systems) Thick client / Web browser (Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, WebKit)
  42. 42. Application Layer A cloud application leverages cloud computing in software architecture, often eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computer, thus alleviating the burden of software maintenance, ongoing operation, and support.
  43. 43. Application Layer For example: Peer-to-peer / volunteer computing (BOINC, Skype) Web applications (Webmail, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube) Security as a service (MessageLabs, Purewire, ScanSafe, Zscaler) Software as a service (A2Zapps.com, Google Apps, Salesforce, Learn.com, Zoho, BigGyan.com) Software plus services (Microsoft Online Services) Storage [Distributed] Content distribution (BitTorrent, Amazon CloudFront) Synchronisation (Dropbox, Live Mesh, SpiderOak, ZumoDrive)
  44. 44. Platform layer A cloud platform (PaaS) delivers a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service, generally consuming cloud infrastructure and supporting cloud applications. It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers
  45. 45. Platform Layer For example: Services Identity (OAuth, OpenID) Payments (Amazon Flexible Payments Service, Google Checkout, PayPal) Search (Alexa, Google Custom Search, Yahoo! BOSS) Real-world (Amazon Mechanical Turk)
  46. 46. Platform Layer For example: Solution stacks Java (Google App Engine) PHP (Rackspace Cloud Sites) Python Django (Google App Engine) Ruby on Rails (Heroku) .NET (Azure Services Platform, Rackspace Cloud Sites) Proprietary (Force.com, , Wolf Frameworks)
  47. 47. Platform Layer For example: Storage [Structured] Databases (Amazon SimpleDB, BigTable) File storage (Amazon S3, Nirvanix, Rackspace Cloud Files) Queues (Amazon SQS)
  48. 48. Infrastructure Layer Cloud infrastructure (IaaS) is the delivery of computer infrastructure, typically a platform virtualization environment, as a service. For example: Compute (Amazon CloudWatch, RightScale) Physical machines) Virtual machines (Amazon EC2, GoGrid, iland, Rackspace Cloud Servers) OS-level virtualisation Network (Amazon VPC) Storage [Raw] (Amazon EBS)
  49. 49. Servers Layer The servers layer consists of computer hardware and/or computer software products that are specifically designed for the delivery of cloud services. For example: Fabric computing (Cisco UCS)
  50. 50. Cloud architecture Cloud architecture the systems architecture of the software systems involved in the delivery of cloud computing, comprises hardware and software designed by a cloud architect who typically works for a cloud integrator. It typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over application programming interfaces, usually Web services.
  51. 51. Cloud architecture This closely resembles the Unix philosophy of having multiple programs each doing one thing well and working together over universal interfaces. Complexity is controlled and the resulting systems are more manageable than their monolithic counterparts.
  52. 52. Cloud architecture Cloud architecture extends to the client, where Web browsers and/or software applications access cloud applications. Cloud storage architecture is loosely coupled, often assiduously avoiding the use of centralized metadata servers can become bottlenecks. This enables the data nodes to scale into the hundreds, each independently delivering data to applications or users.
  53. 53. Types by Visibility Public cloud Public cloud or external cloud describes cloud computing in the traditional mainstream sense resources are dynamically provisioned on a fine-grained, self-service basis over the Internet, via web applications/web services, from an off-site third-party provider who shares resources and bills on a fine-grained utility computing basis.
  54. 54. Types by Visibility Hybrid cloud A hybrid cloud environment consisting of multiple internal and/or external providers "will be typical for most enterprises". A hybrid cloud can describe configuration combining a local device Plug computer with cloud services.
  55. 55. Types by Visibility Hybrid cloud It can also describe configurations combining virtual and physical, colocated assets for example, a mostly virtualized environment that requires physical servers, routers, or other hardware such as a network appliance acting as a firewall or spam filter
  56. 56. Types by visibility Private cloud Private cloud and internal cloud are neologisms that some vendors have recently used to describe offerings that emulate cloud computing on private networks. These (typically virtualization automation) products claim to "deliver some benefits of cloud computing without the pitfalls", capitalising on data security corporate governance reliability concerns
  57. 57. Types by Visibility They have been criticized on the basis that users "still have to buy, build, and manage them" as such do not benefit from lower up-front capital costs and less hands-on management, essentially” Economic model that makes cloud computing such an intriguing concept"
  58. 58. Types by Visibility While an Analyst predicted in 2008 that private cloud networks would be the future of corporate IT There is some uncertainty whether they are a reality even within the same firm. Analysts also claim that within five years a "huge percentage" of small and medium enterprises will get most of their computing resources from external cloud computing providers as they "will not have economies of scale to make it worth staying in the IT business" or be able to afford private clouds. Analysts have reported on Platform's view that private clouds are a stepping stone to external clouds, particularly for the financial services, and that future datacenters will look like internal clouds.
  59. 59. Types by Visibility The term has also been used in the logical rather than physical sense for example in reference to platform as a service offerings, though such offerings including Microsoft's Azure Services Platform are not available for on-premises deployment.
  60. 60. Types of services Services provided by cloud computing can be split into three major categories: Infrastructure-as-a-Service(IaaS) like Amazon Web Services provides virtual servers with unique IP addresses and blocks of storage on demand. Customers benefit from an API from which they can control their servers. Because customers can pay for exactly the amount of service they use, like for electricity or water, this service is also called utility computing.
  61. 61. Types of services Platform-as-a-Service(PaaS) is a set of software and development tools hosted on the provider's servers. Developers can create applications using the provider's APIs. Google Apps is one of the most famous Platform-as- a-Service providers. Developers should take notice that there aren't any interoperability standards (yet), so some providers may not allow you to take your application and put it on another platform.
  62. 62. Types of services Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) is the broadest market. In this case the provider allows the customer only to use its applications. The software interacts with the user through a user interface. These applications can be anything from web based email, to applications like Twitter or Last FM.
  63. 63. References Aviable on WikiPedia "Cloud Computing: Clash of the clouds". The Economist. 2009-10-15. http://www.economist.com/displaystory.cfm?story_id=146 37206. Retrieved 2009-11-03. Distinguishing Cloud Computing from Utility Computing Gartner Says Cloud Computing Will Be As Influential As E- business Gruman, Galen (2008-04-07). "What cloud computing really means". InfoWorld. http://www.infoworld.com/article/08/04/07/15FE-cloud- computing-reality_1.html. Retrieved 2009-06-02.
  64. 64. References Aviable on WikiPedia The Internet Cloud http://searchcloudcomputing.techtarget.com/sDefinition/ 0,,sid201_gci1287881,00.html "It's probable that you’ve misunderstood 'Cloud Computing' until now". TechPluto. http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1496091.1496100&co ll=&dl=ACM&CFID=21518680&CFTOKEN=18800807.
  65. 65. References Aviable on WikiPedia What's In A Name? Utility vs. Cloud vs Grid I.B.M. to Push ‘Cloud Computing,’ Using Data From Afar Overheard: What the heck is computing in a cloud? ACM Ubiquity: Emergence of The Academic Computing Cloud Cloud Computing: The Evolution of Software-as-a-Service Forrester's Advice to CFOs: Embrace Cloud Computing to Cut Costs Five cloud computing questions Nicholas Carr on 'The Big Switch' to cloud computing Midsize Organization Busts 5 Cloud Computing Myths
  66. 66. References Aviable on WikiPedia Cloud Computing Savings - Real or Imaginary? Buyya, Rajkumar; Chee Shin Yeo, Srikumar Venugopal (PDF). Market- Oriented Cloud Computing: Vision, Hype, and Reality for Delivering IT Services as Computing Utilities. Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Australia. pp. 9. http://www.gridbus.org/~raj/papers/hpcc2008_keynote_cloudcompu ting.pdf. Retrieved 2008-07-31. Open source fuels growth of cloud computing, software-as-a-service "Cloud computing---emerging paradigm for computing". http://meetings.informs.org/Dallas97/TALKS/C20.html. July, 1993 meeting report from the IP over ATM working group of the IETF Internet Critic Takes on Microsoft
  67. 67. References a b Jeff Bezos' Risky Bet Google and I.B.M. Join in ‘Cloud Computing’ Research Keep an eye on cloud computing, Amy Schurr, Network World, 2008- 07-08, citing the Gartner report, “Cloud Computing Confusion Leads to Opportunity”. Retrieved 2009-09-11. Gartner Says Worldwide IT Spending On Pace to Surpass $3.4 Trillion in 2008, Gartner, 2008-08-18. Retrieved 2009-09-11. a b Computers without borders Feature Guide: Amazon EC2 Availability Zones http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2008/sep/29/cloud.computin g.richard.stallman Infrastructure Agility: Cloud Computing as a Best Practice Recession Is Good For Cloud Computing – Microsoft Agrees a b c d Defining “Cloud Services” and “Cloud Computing”
  68. 68. References The new geek chic: Data centers Cloud Computing: Small Companies Take Flight Google Apps Admins Jittery About Gmail, Hopeful About Future New Resource, Born of a Cloud Feud Exari: Death By Laptop Encrypted Storage and Key Management for the cloud Cloud computing security forecast: Clear skies Google to go carbon neutral by 2008 What is Cloud Computing? Shut off your computer a b Nimbus Cloud Guide
  69. 69. References Google's Open Source Android OS Will Free the Wireless Web In Sync to Pierce the Cloud Microsoft demos mobile cloud sync client CherryPal brings cloud computing to the masses Zonbu has alluring features, price GOS cloud computing Google angles for business users with 'platform as a service' The Emerging Cloud Service Architecture EMC buys Pi and forms a cloud computing group Building GrepTheWeb in the Cloud, Part 1: Cloud Architectures
  70. 70. References Cloud Maturity Is Accelerating: More Than Just Reaction To The Hype? IBM Embraces Juniper For Its Smart 'Hybrid Cloud', Disses Cisco (IBM) a b Private Clouds Take Shape Blend the strengths of virtual and physical Just don't call them private clouds There's No Such Thing As A Private Cloud Private cloud networks are the future of corporate IT Private Cloud Computing: The Only Thing Real so Far is the Desire Million-Dollar Private Clouds From Grid to Cloud (IT-Tude.com) Google opens private cloud to coders
  71. 71. References Microsoft Nixes Private Azure Clouds Cloud computing services Cloud Computing Risk Assessment (including recommendations) - November 2009, ENISA (with PDF file; 2 MB) M. D. Dikaiakos, D. Katsaros, G. Pallis, A. Vakali, P. Mehra: Guest Editors Introduction: "Cloud Computing, IEEE Internet Computing", 12(5), Sep. 2009. San Murugesan (Editor), "Cloud Computing: IT's Day in the Sun?", Cutter Consortium, 2009.
  72. 72. References Luis M. Vaquero et al., A Break in the Clouds: Toward a Cloud Definition, ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, Volume 39, Issue 1 (January 2009), Pages 50–55, ISSN:0146-4833 What is Cloud Computing ? - Web 2.0 expo - A video where Tim O’Reilly, Dan Farber, Matt Mullenweg and others answer this question. National Institute of Standards and Technology (USA) definition of cloud computing. The Cloud Tutorial.
  73. 73. Enterprise Services Applications Google Apps SalesForce Microsoft Online AppliancesTurnKey Linux Virtual Appliance Library · rPath BitnamiClientsBrowser Mobile Netbook NettopInfrastructureEC2 GoGrid
  74. 74. Enterprise Services Sun Cloud 3tera Nimbus Eucalyptus PlatformsApp Engine Azure Rackspace Cloud SalesForce ServicesAlexa
  75. 75. Enterprise Services FPS MTurk SQSStorageS3 SimpleDB SQL AzureStandardsAjax Atom HTML 5 REST XMPP BitTorrent
  76. 76. Thanks Questions?
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