Local Area Networks: The Basics
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  • But the real reason we should lift a pint to Datapoint was the introduction, in 1977, of the Attached Resource Computer, or ARC. The sales pitch was powerful. Up to then, in most organizations, companies would buy the biggest computer they could afford, and then fill it up with programs. When they outgrew it, they would scrap it and buy another big machine, again with lots of excess capacity, which they would gradually fill, and the cycle kept going. Why not, instead, just add as much computing power as you needed to what you already had? There were three architectural components to the ARC: file processors, application processors, and hubs, all connected with coax cable. Sound familiar? Yes, in 1977, Datapoint was selling and installing the first commercially available local area network. Promoted and used by Dec, IBM and Xerox in 1980s (sometimes known as DIX Ethernet) In 1983 IEEE 802.3 10Base5 was approved, in 1986 10Base2 , in 1991 10BaseT , in 1994-1995 10BaseF . In 1995 100 Mbps Ethernet was released, and in 1998-1999 Gigabit Ethernet .

Local Area Networks: The Basics Local Area Networks: The Basics Presentation Transcript

  • Local Area Networks: The Basics CST 246 Roosevelt University Dr. Roger G. Clery Lesson 7 LANs
  • Objectives
    • State the definition of a local area network
    • List the primary function, activities, and application areas of a local area network
    • Cite the advantages and disadvantages of local area networks
    • Identify the physical and logical topologies of local area networks
  • Objectives (continued)
    • Cite the characteristics of wireless local area networks and their medium access control protocols
    • Specify the different medium access control techniques
    • Recognize the different IEEE 802 frame formats
    • Describe the common local area network systems
  • Introduction to LANs
    • Local area network - communication network
      • Interconnects a variety of data communicating devices within a small geographic area
      • Broadcasts data at high data transfer rates with very low error rates
    • Since the local area network first appeared in the 1970s, its use has become widespread in commercial and academic environments
  • You need a NIC
  • You need Cable
  • You need HUB or a cross-over cable
  • You need Software
  • History of LAN
    • ARC Attached Resources Computing - Data Point 1977, three architectural components to the ARC: file processors, application processors, and hubs, all connected with coax cable
    • Ethernet - Xerox, Intel, DEC -Bob Metcalf
      • Slow
      • Unreliable
      • Difficult to install
      • In 1983 IEEE 802.3 10Base5 was approved, in 1986 10Base2 , in 1991 10BaseT , in 1994-1995 10BaseF . In 1995 100 Mbps Ethernet was released, and in 1998-1999 Gigabit Ethernet .
  • Primary Function of a LAN
    • To provide access to hardware and software resources that will allow users to perform one or more of the following activities:
      • File serving - large storage disk drive acts as a central storage repository
      • Print serving - Providing authorization to access a particular printer, accept and queue print jobs, and user access to print queue to perform administrative duties
  • Primary Function of a LAN (continued)
    • Video transfers - High speed LANs are capable of supporting video image and live video transfers
    • Manufacturing support - LANs can support manufacturing and industrial environments
    • Academic support – In classrooms, labs, and wireless
    • E-mail support
    • Interconnection between multiple systems
  • Advantages of Local Area Networks
    • Ability to share hardware and software resources
    • Individual workstation might survive network failure
    • Component and system evolution are possible
    • Support for heterogeneous forms of hardware and software
    • Access to other LANs and WANs (Figure 7-1)
    • Private ownership
    • Secure transfers at high speeds with low error rates
  • Advantages of Local Area Networks (continued)
  • Disadvantages of Local Area Networks
    • Equipment and support can be costly
      • Equipment No, Support YES 10X to 15X the cost of equipment Roger
    • Level of maintenance continues to grow
    • Private ownership?
    • Some types of hardware may not interoperate
    • Just because a LAN can support two different kinds of packages does not mean their data can interchange easily
    • A LAN is only as strong as it weakest link, and there are many links
  • Topology
    • The shape of a Local Area Network (LAN) or other communications system. Topologies are either physical or logical .
  • Topology
    • Logical - the way it works
    • Physical - the way it looks
  • There are four principal topologies used in LANs.
    • bus topology: All devices are connected to a central cable, called the bus or backbone . Bus networks are relatively inexpensive and easy to install for small networks. Ethernet systems use a bus topology.
    • ring topology : All devices are connected to one another in the shape of a closed loop, so that each device is connected directly to two other devices, one on either side of it. Ring topologies are relatively expensive and difficult to install, but they offer high bandwidth and can span large distances.
    • star topology : All devices are connected to a central hub. Star networks are relatively easy to install and manage, but bottlenecks can occur because all data must pass through the hub.
    • tree topology: A tree topology combines characteristics of linear bus and star topologies. It consists of groups of star-configured workstations connected to a linear bus backbone cable.
    Four principal topologies used in LANs continued
  • Basic Local Area Network Topologies Local area networks are interconnected using one of four basic configurations: 1. Bus/tree 2. Star-wired bus 3. Star-wired ring 4. Wireless
  • Bus/Tree Topology
    • The original topology
    • Workstation has a network interface card (NIC) that attaches to the bus (a coaxial cable) via a tap
    • Data can be transferred using either
      • Baseband digital signals
      • Broadband analog signals
  • Bus/Tree Topology (continued)
  • Bus/Tree Topology (continued)
  • Bus/Tree Topology (continued)
    • Baseband signals
      • Bidirectional
      • More outward transmitting from the workstation in both directions
    • Broadband signals
      • Usually uni-directional
      • Transmit in only one direction  special wiring considerations are necessary
    • Buses can be split and joined, creating trees
  • Bus/Tree Topology (continued)
  • Bus/Tree Topology (continued)
  • Star-Wired Bus Topology
    • Logically operates as a bus - physically looks like a star
      • Star design based on hub
      • All workstations attach to hub
    • Unshielded twisted pair usually used to connect workstation to hub
    • Hub takes incoming signal and immediately broadcasts it out all connected links
    • Hubs can be interconnected to extend network size
  • Star-Wired Bus Topology (continued)
  • Star-Wired Bus Topology (continued)
  • Star-Wired Bus Topology (continued)
    • Modular connectors and twisted pair make installation and maintenance of star-wired bus better than standard bus
    • Hubs can be interconnected with twisted pair, coaxial cable, or fiber optic cable
    • Biggest disadvantage: when one station talks, everyone hears it  called a shared network
      • All devices are sharing the network medium
  • Star-Wired Ring Topology
    • Logically operates as a ring but physically appears as a star
    • Based on MAU (multi-station access unit) which functions similarly to a hub
    • Where a hub immediately broadcasts all incoming signals onto all connected links, the MAU passes the signal around in a ring fashion
    • Like hubs, MAUs can be interconnected to increase network size
  • Star-Wired Ring Topology (continued)
  • Star-Wired Ring Topology (continued)
  • Wi-Fi 802.11
  • Wireless LANs
    • Not really a specific topology
    • Workstation in wireless LAN can be anywhere as long as within transmitting distance to access point
    • Several versions of IEEE 802.11 standard defines various forms of wireless LAN connections
    • Workstations reside within a basic service set
      • Multiple basic service sets create an extended service set
  • Wireless LANs (continued)
    • Two basic components necessary:
      • Client Radio - usually PC card with integrated antenna installed in a laptop or workstation
      • Access Point (AP) - Ethernet port plus transceiver
    • AP acts as bridge between wired and wireless networks
      • Can perform basic routing functions
    • Workstations with client radio cards reside within a basic service set
    • Multiple basic service sets create extended service set
  • Wireless LANs (continued)
  • Wireless LANs (continued)
  • Wireless LANs (continued)
    • IEEE 802.11 – The original wireless standard, capable of transmitting data at 2 Mbps
    • IEEE 802.11b – The second wireless standard, capable of transmitting data at 11 Mbps
    • In actual tests, 11 Mbps 802.11b devices managed 5.5 Mbps (from July 2000 test by Network Computing )
  • Wireless LANs (continued)
    • With directional antennae designed for point-to-point transmission (rare), 802.11b can transmit for more than 10 miles
    • With an omni-directional antenna on a typical AP, range may drop to as little as 100 feet
  • Wireless LANs (continued)
    • IEEE 802.11a – One of the more recent standards, capable of transmitting data at 54 Mbps using 5 GHz frequency range
    • IEEE 802.11g – The other recent standard, also capable of transmitting data at 54 Mbps but using the same frequencies as 802.11b (2.4 GHz)
      • Backwards compatible with 802.11b
  • Wireless LANs (continued)
    • HiperLAN/2 (European standard, 54 Mbps in 5 GHz band)
    • To provide security, most systems use either Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP)
      • Provides either 40- or 128-bit key protection
    • Or a more advanced standard such as WPA (more on security in Chapter Thirteen)
    • Wireless LANs may also be configured without access point
      • These configurations are called “ad-hoc”
  • Wireless LANs (continued)
  • Comparison of Bus, Star-Wired Bus, Star-Wired Ring, and Wireless Topologies
  • Medium Access Control Protocols
    • How does a workstation get its data onto the LAN medium?
    • Medium access control protocol - software that allows workstations to “take turns” at transmitting data
    • Two basic categories:
      • Contention-based protocols
      • Round robin protocols
  • Contention-Based Protocols
    • Essentially first come first served
    • Most common example:
      • Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD)
    • If no one is transmitting, a workstation can transmit
    • If someone else is transmitting, workstation “backs off” and waits
  • Contention-Based Protocols (continued)
    • If two workstations transmit at the same time
      • Collision occurs
    • When the two workstations hear the collision
      • Stop transmitting immediately
    • Each workstation backs off a random amount of time and tries again
    • Hopefully, both workstations do not try again at the exact same time
    • CSMA/CD: example of non-deterministic protocol
  • Contention-Based Protocols (continued)
  • Round Robin Protocols
    • Each workstation takes turn transmitting  turn is passed around the network from workstation to workstation
    • Most common example is token ring LAN:
      • Software token is passed from workstation to workstation
    • Token ring: example of deterministic protocol
    • Token ring more complex than CSMA/CD. What happens if token is lost? Duplicated? Hogged?
    • Token ring LANs are losing the battle with CSMA/CD LANs
  • Token Ring
  • IEEE 802
    • To better support local area networks, data link layer of the OSI model was broken into two sublayers:
      • Logical link control sublayer
      • Medium access control sublayer
    • Medium access control sublayer defines the frame layout
      • More closely tied to specific medium at physical layer
    • Thus, when people refer to LANs they often refer to its MAC sublayer name, such as 10BaseT
  • IEEE 802
  • IEEE 802.3 and 802.5 Frame Formats
    • IEEE 802 suite of protocols defines frame formats for CSMA/CD (IEEE 802.3) and token ring (IEEE 802.5)
    • Each frame format describes how data package is formed
    • Note how the two frames are different
      • If a CSMA/CD network connects to a token ring network, frames have to be converted from one to another
  • IEEE 802.3 and 802.5 Frame Formats
  • IEEE 802.3 and 802.5 Frame Formats
  • Local Area Network Systems
    • Ethernet or CSMA/CD
      • Most common form of LAN today
      • Star-wired bus is most common topology but bus topology also available
    • Ethernet comes in many forms depending on:
      • Medium used
      • Transmission speed
      • Technology
  • Ethernet
    • Originally, CSMA/CD was 10 Mbps
    • Then 100 Mbps was introduced
    • Most NICs sold today are 10/100 Mbps
    • Then 1000 Mbps (1 Gbps) was introduced
    • 10 Gbps is now beginning to appear
  • Ethernet (continued)
    • 1000 Mbps introduces a few interesting wrinkles:
      • Transmission is full duplex (separate transmit and receive)  no collisions
      • Prioritization is possible using 802.1p protocol
      • Topology can be star or mesh (for trunks)
  • Ethernet (continued)
    • Cabling can be either UTP or optical
      • 10 Gbps Ethernet may not work over UTP due to radio frequency interference
    • Where 10 Mbps Ethernet has less than 30% utilization due to collisions
      • 1000 Mbps is limited only by traffic queueing
    • Distance with 10 Mbps is limited by CSMA/CD propagation time
      • 1000 Mbps limited only by media
  • Ethernet (continued)
  • IBM Token Ring
    • Deterministic LAN offered at speeds of 4, 16 and 100 Mbps
    • Very good throughput under heavy loads
    • More expensive components than CSMA/CD
    • Losing ground quickly to CSMA/CD
      • May be extinct soon
  • MAU
  • Logical Ring Physical Star MAU
  • Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)
    • Based on token ring design using 100 Mbps fiber connections
    • Allows for two concentric rings
      • Inner ring can support data travel in opposite direction or work as backup
    • Token is attached to outgoing packet, rather than waiting for outgoing packet to circle entire ring
  • FDDI
  • Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)
  • LANs In Action: A Small Office Solution
    • What type of system will interconnect twenty workstations in one room and fifteen workstations in another room to a central server, offering:
      • Internal e-mail
      • A database that contains all customer information
      • High quality printer access
  • LANs in Action: A Small Office Solution (continued)
  • LANs in Action: A Small Office Solution (continued)
  • LANs in Action: A Home Office Solution
    • What if you have two computers at home and want both to share a printer and connection to the Internet?
    • Some type of Small Office/Home Office (SOHO) solution might solve this problem
      • LAN with 2- or 3-port hub, connecting cables, and software
    • In some models, hub also acts as a router to the Internet
  • LANs in Action: A Home Office Solution (continued)
    • Local area networks
    • Medium access control techniques
    • IEEE 802 frame formats
  • Protocol Comparison
  • END 7
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