creating DNS entries in local DNS server (primary DNS server ccnuccs: 18.104.22.168; secondary DNS server 22.214.171.124; 126.96.36.199 as 3 rd choice)
Find out the IP address and net mask of the gateway of the LAN segment which connects the Linux PC. (188.8.131.52, 255.255.248.0)
The IP address and the net mask 255.255.248.0 define the subnet address.
Find out the IP address(es) of the DNS name server(s)
Step 3: Disk Partitions
Partition disk you could dual boot with WinNT/2000/Win98/OS2
Create different partitions
swap partition: virtual memory swapping (size of mem, 64MB)
root partition: to be mounted as / (root directory) 50-100M This needs to be in the one of first two drives & under cylinder 1024
/usr partition: 200-500MB depends on packages
/home partition: user home directory
/tmp partition: for temporary files (server use a lot)
/var partition: system logs
/usr/src : for source code (linux, utilities)
/usr/local : for software not available in distribution (those strings with yellow marks are mounting pt.)
It is much easier and flexible by just creating swap partition and the root partition /. All system/user data share the same root partition.
Step3a: Disk Partition
IDE drives, by convention, are given /dev/hd[L] as device names. L is the letter assigned to disks in the system, starting with a.
For SCSI drive, related dev names are /dev/sd[L]
For management purpose, a hard drive is divided into disk partitions. There are two types of disk partitions in a PC hard drive: primary and extended. Within an extended partitions you can have more logical partitions.
Partitions are identified by /dev/hda[n] or /dev/sda[n] where n is the partition ID.
Most disks allow 3 primary partitions and one extended partition.
Leave primary partition (/dev/hda1) for Win32, create an extended partition (/dev/hda2) for Linux. Note that root partition need to be under cylinder1024
From the extended partition, create logic partitions for each of the linux partitions (/dev/hda5-9)
Step 3b: Relocate/Adjust Partitions
To keep the content of the original window partition and create space for the new partition for Linux.
Use partition magic ™ to relocate/adjust disk partitions.
Use freeware fips program, available in CD’s dosutils directory for relocate disk partition. Read documents in fipsdoc subdir.
There is a DOS fdisk utility can be used to partition the disk.
Step 4: Make boot and supplemental floppies
need a formated 1.44MB 3.5” diskette (If you have PC Card interface, you need additional diskette.)
On PC running window system, change to the cd-rom drive under MS-DOS prompt.
Enter ..imagesoot.img and a: for creating boot floppy.
If you use PC Card, you need a supplemental floppy. Put the second diskette and Enter supp.img and a: for creating supplemental diskette, containing PC Card driver.
You can also use autoboot.exe in dosutil directory to install without boot floppy, or setup machine to boot Linux from CD-ROM.
Step 5: Starting installation
Insert boot floppy, reboot machine or setup bios to boot from CD-ROM . (our PC is setup to boot from CD-ROM.)
When boot: prompt appear, press enter for GUI mode installation, or type text to start the text mode installation. GUI mode installation may not work on some hardware.
Watch Linux kernel detects hardware devices
If cdrom is not detected, you may type
boot: linux hdc=cdrom (enter)
There will several dialog boxes to ask for info.
Use tab to switch among choices
Use arrow keys to select options within a choice.
Use enter key to confirm the choice.
Select Installation Method, Language, Keyboard/Mouse Configuration, installation type option
If you use boot floppy, Select installation method: from CD-ROM , NFS, FTP, or SMB shared volume image from Win32 system.
Select the default English as language selection,
Select the default choices as keyboard selection,
In text mode, you select “install customer system” by pressing down arrow key three times and hit tab for OK button, then hit enter to confirm.
Step 6: Linux Disk Partition
You will then be asked to use druid or fdisk.
Select druid and presented with a list of the disk/partitions in /dev/hda[n] or /dev/sda[n].
Click delete to delete the existing partitions.
After delete exiting partitions, Use druid to create linux swap and root partitions and set their file system type.
Create swap partition by
skip the mount point; enter 128 (MB) for size; select the linux swap file type; confirm the creation.
create the root partition
Enter / as mount point; enter 2800 for size; check the “grow to fill” option; confirm the creation of root partition. The root partition size will adjust to ~2951 MB.
By default Linux create Linux native type (ext2 file system).
Step6a: Suggested Disk Partitions
We have a 3079MB Drive in each of two PCs.
First create the linux swap partition. No mount point string is given.
Then create a linux native partition, give 2800 as size and check the option to “Grow to fill disk”. Enter / as mount point.
Here are suggested Disk Partitions for our exercise
Linux native 2951 hda2 / Linux swap 128 hda1 File Type Size MB Partition Mount Point
Step 7: File System Configuration
Choose the root partition /dev/hda1 for formatting.
If you would like to keep the data of older partitions such those for win32, you should not choose to format them.
If you know the disk is ok and you do not have check the “Check for bad blocks while formatting” option. It will speed up the formatting.
Configure Loader/ Network options
Install LILO (the LInux LOader). Select the first option: on the Master Boot Record (MBR).
For dual boot you may want choose to install LILO on the first sector of the root partition and avoid compete with the Window NT loader on MBR. (See slide 21)
Network Configuration: unchecked DHCP . We would like to give web server static/permanent IP address.
Enter the IP address 184.108.40.206 for bilbo, 183 for frodo
Enter the netmask 255.255.248.0
The network address/broadcast address will be generated.
Enter bilbo or frodo as host name
Enter 220.127.116.11 as gateways.
Enter DNS info we collect at Step 2.
Set Time Zone and Accounts
Select “Mountain Time Zone”
Check the “Use Daylight Saving time” and “System Clock use UTC”.
Set a root password, cs401linux, and create a user account with your login name.
For dual boot using NT loader, you may want choose to install LILO on the first sector of the root partition. This avoids competing with the Window NT loader on MBR. Once MBR is overwritten by LILO. Window systems do not know where to load kernel. It is bad for future upgrade.
Make sure you create a boot floppy, since during the first reboot, NT loader does not have any info on how to load Linux Kernel.
Reboot with the boot floppy.
Use dd command to copy the 512B bootsect information as a file, bootsect.lin and save it in a floppy disk. dd if=/dev/hda3 bs=512 count-=1 of=/dosc/bootsect.lin
Reboot without boot floppy into the window system, copy bootsect.lin file from the floppy to the window boot partition such as C:
Edit the C:oot.ini and add c:ootsect.lin=“Redhat Linux 6.2” in the OS section.
For every new Linux installation, you need do this again.
Step 8: Select Packages
Select packages (by pressing space bar)
Click on the list of packages you need: NFS, SMB, ftp, web, DNS, SQL, network management workstation, Development, Kernel Development, Clustering, and Utilities.
Some packages such as the Emacs, X development, X multimedia support, require a lot of storages
X Windows/Monitor Setup
Then you will be presented with a long list of the monitors. Choose HP and HP D2807A Ultra VGA 1280 17-in.
The system will detect S3 Trio64 driver.
Select “Test this configuration”.
The screen will then flash a few times when prompt window asks for “can you see the screen” select yes.
If you did not find it, choose Custom to specify the horizontal and veritical sync range. Choose lowest frequencies that work. Too high a range value could damage monitor.
For notebook pc, you may choose the LCD choices such as
Non-interlaced SVGA [email_address] or XGA.
The screen will then flash a few time while the configuration program probe you video card and suggest color depth and resolution. Choose the “use default setting”.
Step 9: Create file system on partitions and install packages
It will go through each partition and create ext2 file systems. (may take about 4 min.)
Then software modules of selected packages will be shown being installed with the total #, completed #, and remaining # of software packages and their estimated times.
There will be about 426 packages and 601MB.
It should take about 15 min to install all these packages.
You will then be asked to create boot disk. If you use NT loader for dual boot, make sure you create one.
Make sure you remove the CD and boot disk.
Login as root, type printtool in a terminal window.
Hit “add” button. Choose Remote Unix (lpd) Queue.
In Edit Remove Uix Queue Entry form, choose default queue name (lp), and default spool directory
Enter harpo as remote hostname, and hplj1 as remote queue.
Hit input Fileter select button, select postscript printer. Choose default 300x300 resolution and letter option.
Use Test | Print postscript test page to print test page
Use lpr to print document on the laser printer in ENS149
At boot: prompt, press enter (or type tab to show a list of OS’s, type the name of OS you want to run.)
You will see the kernel got uncompressed and loaded
Detect hard drives and set up file systems.
The attached hardware will be detected/initialized.
List of network services will be started.
Login as root, enter password
Use “ shutdown -h now ” Don’t turn off the power until linux indicates “system halt”. Use -r for reboot.
Enter “startx” to start X windows system
Use alt-escape for emergency exit from X windows, e.g. got stuck.
Important reference: (redhat user guide and,
“ Running Linux” by Matt Welsh and Lar Kauffman, O’reilly
“ Linux Network Administrator’s Guide” by Olaf Kirch, O’reilly
Set UP and Use Linuxconf
As root user, type “Linuxconf” to configure network interface.
Select the basic host info and adaptor 1.
Enter bilbo.uccs.edu in Primary name+domain
Select adaptor 2, enter viva.uccs.edu with IP address 18.104.22.168 or vinci with 22.214.171.124.
Select DNS entry on the left pane.
Enter uccs.edu as default domain and search domain 1 (opt).
Select MISC-Linuxconf network access
Check enable network access and log access.
Enter 126.96.36.199 as network or host. This restricts net access.
Choose to accept and act/changes; Exit linxuconf
Test the network connection by typing “ping 188.8.131.52”.
Note that when network access is turned on. Linuxconf can be accessed as http://bilbo.uccs.edu:98/ This allows remote system management.
Security and Upgrade Patches
Security advisaries (patches) and upgrade packages are available at http://www.redhat.com/support/errata/rh62-errata-security.html .
Download those RPM packages from redhat or other mirror sites http://www.redhat.com/mirrors.html such as ftp://ftp.eecs.umich.edu/pub/linux/redhat/redhat/updates/6.2/i386/
Save them in usr/src/redhat/RPMS
Execute rpm –Uvh *.rpm for upgrading the packages.
Apache Web Server
The Apache web server should be up and running!
Go to other machine with a browser and try http://bilbo/ or use the local Netscape browser with http://localhost.
Default home page is in /home/httpd/html/index.html
All CGI programs, icons, html pages are stored in default directory /home/httpd.
The configuration files are in /etc/httpd/conf
Log files in /var/log/httpd
You are now ready to practice the exercises in “Apache: the definitive guide.”
HW#2: Linux/Apache Installation
Install Rehat Linux 6.2 on Bilbo or Frodo.
Make brief note on the steps and interactions during the installation.
Choose “customize” installation instead of default server or workstation installation.
Create swap and root partitions as suggested in the handout.
In step 8, check the specific packages: web, ftp, sql, nfs.
Edit /home/httpd/conf/httpd.conf with ServerName bilbo<frodo> and start web server with “/usr/sbin/httpd”
Ftp your personal web page and images files to the machine.
Make a cgi-bin directory in /home/httpd/cgi-bin/<yourlogin>.
Make sure all paths are readable or executable.
From the browser on other machines in the lab, make hard copies of the default web page, your personal web page, and the result of the sessionvar.pl. Submit your brief installation note with those hard copies as your hw2.