Lecture1-Introductio..
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Like this? Share it with your network

Share
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
449
On Slideshare
449
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
28
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Introduction to Data Networking
  • 2. Introduction to this class
    • Me: Stephan Bohacek
    • bohacek@udel.edu, 302-831-4274
    • http://www.eecis.udel.edu/~bohacek
    • WebCT – https://mycourses.udel.edu (don’t forget the s in https)
    • I’m still learning WebCT, but ideally everything will be there.
    • Syllabus
  • 3. Today – networking basics
    • Movie on the history of the Internet
    • Core components of the Internet – the protocol stack
    • Multiplexing, circuit switching, and packet switching
    • Loss and delays
    • The structure of the Internet
    • This lecture covers much of chapter 1 in the textbook.
  • 4. Today – networking basics
    • Movie on the history of the Internet
    • Core components of the Internet – the protocol stack
    • Multiplexing, circuit switching, and packet switching
    • Loss and delays
    • The structure of the Internet
    • This lecture covers much of chapter 1 in the textbook.
  • 5. Today – networking basics
    • Movie on the history of the Internet
    • Core components of the Internet – the protocol stack
    • Multiplexing, circuit switching, and packet switching
    • Loss and delays
    • The structure of the Internet
    • This lecture covers much of chapter 1 in the textbook.
  • 6. Core components
    • End-hosts
    • Applications
      • ?
    • Packets
      • TCP
      • UDP
    • Routers and gateways and groups of routers (ISPs)
    • Links
      • ?
    • Protocols
  • 7. Core components
    • End-hosts
    • Applications
      • Web
      • Email
      • File transfer
      • File sharing
    • Packets
      • TCP
      • UDP
    • Routers and gateways and groups of routers (ISPs)
    • Links
      • Fiber
      • Coaxial
      • Twisted pair
      • Wireless
    • Protocols
  • 8. Application Layer – where the applications live
    • End-hosts
    • Applications
      • Web
      • Email
      • File transfer
      • File sharing
    • Packets
      • TCP
      • UDP
    • Routers and gateways and groups of routers (ISPs)
    • Links
      • Fiber
      • Coaxial
      • Twisted pair
      • Wireless
    • Protocols
  • 9. Layers 1-4
    • End-hosts
    • Applications
      • Web
      • Email
      • File transfer
      • File sharing
    • Packets
      • TCP
      • UDP
    • Routers and gateways and groups of routers (ISPs)
    • Links
      • Fiber
      • Coaxial
      • Twisted pair
      • Wireless
    • Protocols
    client server Which are the end-host? Routers
  • 10. Layers 1-4
    • End-hosts
    • Applications
      • Web
      • Email
      • File transfer
      • File sharing
    • Packets
      • TCP
      • UDP
    • Routers and gateways and groups of routers (ISPs)
    • Links
      • Fiber
      • Coaxial
      • Twisted pair
      • Wireless
    • Protocols
    client server
  • 11. Layers 1-4
    • End-hosts
    • Applications
      • Web
      • Email
      • File transfer
      • File sharing
    • Packets
      • TCP
      • UDP
    • Routers and gateways and groups of routers (ISPs)
    • Links
      • Fiber
      • Coaxial
      • Twisted pair
      • Wireless
    • Protocols
    client server
  • 12. Layers 1-4
    • End-hosts
    • Applications
      • Web
      • Email
      • File transfer
      • File sharing
    • Packets
      • TCP
      • UDP
    • Routers and gateways and groups of routers (ISPs)
    • Links
      • Fiber
      • Coaxial
      • Twisted pair
      • Wireless
    • Protocols
  • 13. Layers 1-4
    • End-hosts
    • Applications
      • Web
      • Email
      • File transfer
      • File sharing
    • Packets
      • TCP
      • UDP
    • Routers and gateways and groups of routers (ISPs)
    • Links
      • Fiber
      • Coaxial
      • Twisted pair
      • Wireless
    • Protocols
    • Top down approach of breaking problems into small pieces
    • Transport layer
      • Reliability: The server must make sure that the client gets the data
      • Congestion control (or lack there of)
      • Congestion Control: The server should send data as fast as possible, but not too fast
      • TCP provides these features (services), while UDP does not
    • Network layer (could be called the routing layer, but it isn’t)
      • The packets must find their way through the network.
      • Each packet has the IP address of the destination
      • By examining the IP address, routers decide where to send the packet next
    • Link Layer or MAC layer
      • Links connect the routers/gateways and end-hosts
      • This layer provides logical and control for communicating across links.
      • Services that this layer might provide include
        • congestion control, media access, error detection/correction
    • Physical layer
      • Logical bits are encoded as physical quantities, e.g., as voltage levels, as shifts in phase, …
      • This course does not cover the physical layer
    client server
  • 14. Protocols
    • End-hosts
    • Applications
      • Web
      • Email
      • File transfer
      • File sharing
    • Packets
      • TCP
      • UDP
    • Routers and gateways and groups of routers (ISPs)
    • Links
      • Fiber
      • Coaxial
      • Twisted pair
      • Wireless
    • Protocols
    protocols define format, order of msgs sent and received among network entities, and actions taken on msg transmission, receipt Hi Hi Got the time? 2:00 TCP connection request TCP connection response Get http://www.awl.com/kurose-ross <file> time
  • 15. Internet protocol stack
    • application: supporting network applications
      • FTP, SMTP, HTTP
    • transport: process-process data transfer
      • TCP, UDP
    • network: routing of datagrams from source to destination
      • IP, routing protocols
    • link: data transfer between neighboring network elements
      • PPP, Ethernet
    • physical: bits “on the wire”
    application transport network link physical
  • 16. ISO/OSI reference model
    • presentation: allow applications to interpret meaning of data, e.g., encryption, compression, machine-specific conventions
    • session: synchronization, checkpointing, recovery of data exchange
    • Internet stack “missing” these layers!
      • these services, if needed, must be implemented in application
      • needed?
    application presentation session transport network link physical
  • 17. Today – networking basics
    • Movie on the history of the Internet
    • Core components of the Internet – the protocol stack
    • Multiplexing, circuit switching, and packet switching
    • Loss and delays
    • The structure of the Internet
    • This lecture covers much of chapter 1 in the textbook.
  • 18. Circuit switching versus Packet switching
    • Packet switching brought the networking revolution
    • Circuit switching
    • Virtual circuit networking
      • A half-way point between packet switched and circuit switched networking
  • 19. Circuit switching
    • Circuit switching
      • Old style phone system
  • 20. Frequency division multiplexing toll office End office phone On each hop, the connection gets its own bandwidth TV is frequency division multiplexing phone End office 300 3400 100300 103400 200300 203400 300 3400
  • 21. Time division multiplexing 64kbits Multiplex 28 DS1 = 28*24*64kbps + overhead = 44.736Mbps DS-3 Multiplexing 810 channels + overhead = 51.84 = STS-1/OC-1 STS is electrical and oc is optical OC3 = 155.52Mbps (150.336 payload) OC12 = 633.08 Mbps (601.344 payload) OC48 = 2.488Gbps (2.405Gbps) OC192 = 9.953Gbps (9.6Gbps payload) There are standard bit-rates that support multiplexing different numbers of calls
  • 22. Packet switching - Statistical multiplexing client Server: address = 1 1 data
  • 23. Packet switching - Statistical multiplexing
    • Major benefit:
    • Major drawback:
  • 24. Packet vs. Circuit Switching
    • If usage is random (e.g., web surfing) statistical multiplexing is better.
    • Suppose that
    • A 5Mbps link
    • Each user needs 50kbps
    • And each user is active 20% of the time. (note that this condition does not matter for circuit switching. Why?)
    Circuit switching case How many users can be accommodated under packet switching and how many can be accommodated under packet switching?
  • 25. Packet Switching Case
    • Now if there are 200 users, what is the probability that there are 150 or more active users?
    • In this case, there would be a problem, since the network cannot support more than 100 active users.
  • 26. Packet Switching Case
    • What is the probability of more than 100 users being active?
  • 27. Packet Switching vs. Circuit Switching
    • A couple of things:
    What does this probability really mean?
  • 28. Packet Switching vs. Circuit Switching
    • If loss and delay are permissible and usage is random, then packet switching is better than circuit switching.
    • If usage is very regular (e.g. TV!), circuit switching is best.
    • If losses and delay are not permissible, then circuit switching is best (e.g., remote controlled surgery).
    • With packet switching, congestion control is required. Also, there is more overhead for each packet.
    • For circuit switching, once the circuit is setup, it can be very efficient. But circuits must be set-up.
    • So, for short file transfer, packet switching is good but for long file transfers, circuit switching might be better.
    There is a subtle difference between packet switching and statistical multiplexing. Statistical multiplexing means to use the resource as needed. This leads to the performance improvements mentioned but also the complications (delay and loss). The phone network uses circuit switching, but the circuits are statistically multiplexed between users. In packet switching, links are statistically multiplexed.
  • 29. Packet Switching: Statistical Multiplexing
    • Sequence of A & B packets does not have fixed pattern, bandwidth shared on demand  statistical multiplexing .
    • TDM: each host gets same slot in revolving TDM frame.
    A B C 100 Mb/s Ethernet 1.5 Mb/s statistical multiplexing queue of packets waiting for output link D E
  • 30. Packet-switching: store-and-forward
    • takes L/R seconds to transmit (push out) packet of L bits on to link at R bps
    • store and forward: entire packet must arrive at router before it can be transmitted on next link
    • delay = 3L/R (assuming zero propagation delay)
    • Example:
    • L = 7.5 Mbits
    • R = 1.5 Mbps
    • transmission delay = 15 sec
    R R R L more on delay shortly …
  • 31. Today – networking basics
    • Movie on the history of the Internet
    • Core components of the Internet – the protocol stack
    • Multiplexing, circuit switching, and packet switching
    • Loss and delays
    • The structure of the Internet
    • This lecture covers much of chapter 1 in the textbook.
  • 32. Losses and delay in packet switched networks
    • Losses
      • Transmission losses
      • Congestion losses.
    • Delay
      • Queuing delay
      • Transmission delay
      • Propagation delay
      • Processing delay
    A B packet being transmitted (delay) packets queueing (delay) free (available) buffers: arriving packets dropped ( loss ) if no free buffers
  • 33. Queuing delay
    • Queuing delay occurs for the same reason as congestion losses.
    • The more the network is utilized, the high the queueing delay (and losses)
    • Utilization = 
    • Suppose that
    • the link bit-rate is Z,
    • there are X users
    • Each users uses data rate Y, with probability P, and use no bandwidth with probability 1-p.
    A B packet being transmitted (delay) packets queueing (delay) free (available) buffers: arriving packets dropped ( loss ) if no free buffers
  • 34. Queuing delay
    • Is it possible to have a network run at full utilization?
  • 35. Delay in packet switched networks
    • Delay
      • Queuing delay
      • Transmission delay
      • Propagation delay
      • Processing delay
    How long does it take to transmit a packet? How long does it take to get all the bits from node on to the wire/air/fiber?
  • 36. Delay in packet switched networks
    • Delay
      • Queuing delay
      • Transmission delay
      • Propagation delay
      • Processing delay
    How long does it take for a bit to travel along a wire/fiber/through the air?
  • 37. Fun with Propagation Delay How long is a bit? Suppose that a links transmits at 10mbps. How long is a bit? How long does it take to a bit? How far does the electric signal go in 10^7 sec? How long many bits fit in a fiber at 10Mbps from NY to Jakarta? How long many bits fit in a fiber at 10 Gbps from NY to Jakarta?
  • 38. Delay in packet switched networks
    • Routers take a bit of time to process packets.
    • moving packets inside the router
    • Finding which is the next hop
    • Applying security or QoS
    • Delay
      • Queuing delay
      • Transmission delay
      • Propagation delay
      • Processing delay
  • 39. How to measure delay?
    • Ping: > ping 216.109.124.73
    • Ping gives help
    • (linux) Ping –I 10 216.109.124.73 > file.txt
    • Then read it in excel and plot delay
    • Traceroute (linux), tracert (windows)
    • Traceroute 216.109.124.73 gives the routers and an estimate of the delay to each router.
  • 40. Today – networking basics
    • Movie on the history of the Internet
    • Core components of the Internet – the protocol stack
    • Multiplexing, circuit switching, and packet switching
    • Loss and delays
    • The structure of the Internet
    • This lecture covers much of chapter 1 in the textbook.
  • 41. Internet structure: network of networks
    • roughly hierarchical
    • at center: “tier-1” ISPs (e.g., Verizon, Sprint, AT&T, Cable and Wireless), national/international coverage
      • treat each other as equals
    Tier 1 ISP Tier 1 ISP Tier 1 ISP Tier-1 providers interconnect (peer) privately
  • 42. Tier-1 ISP: e.g., Sprint … to/from customers peering to/from backbone …. … … … POP: point-of-presence
  • 43. Internet structure: network of networks
    • “ Tier-2” ISPs: smaller (often regional) ISPs
      • Connect to one or more tier-1 ISPs, possibly other tier-2 ISPs
    Tier 1 ISP Tier 1 ISP Tier 1 ISP Tier-2 ISP Tier-2 ISP Tier-2 ISP Tier-2 ISP Tier-2 ISP
    • Tier-2 ISP pays tier-1 ISP for connectivity to rest of Internet
    • tier-2 ISP is c ustomer of
    • tier-1 provider
    Tier-2 ISPs also peer privately with each other.
  • 44. Internet structure: network of networks
    • “ Tier-3” ISPs and local ISPs
      • last hop (“access”) network (closest to end systems)
    Tier 1 ISP Tier 1 ISP Tier 1 ISP Tier-2 ISP Tier-2 ISP Tier-2 ISP Tier-2 ISP Tier-2 ISP local ISP local ISP local ISP local ISP local ISP Tier 3 ISP local ISP local ISP local ISP Local and tier- 3 ISPs are customers of higher tier ISPs connecting them to rest of Internet
  • 45. Internet structure: network of networks
    • a packet passes through many networks!
    Tier 1 ISP Tier 1 ISP Tier 1 ISP Tier-2 ISP Tier-2 ISP Tier-2 ISP Tier-2 ISP Tier-2 ISP local ISP local ISP local ISP local ISP local ISP Tier 3 ISP local ISP local ISP local ISP
  • 46. ISPs and the structure of the Internet
    • Video of a Network Access Point (NAP) in Los Angeles
  • 47. Said to be the most interconnected space in the world and the most expensive real estate in North America, the “Meet Me Room” (a telco industry term) is the heart of One Wilshire. Here the primary fiber optic cables are routed, split, and shared. Because of the presence of so many telcos in this room and the ability to freely interconnect between them, rackspace here becomes extremely valuable. For comparison, the average price for office space in downtown Los Angeles is $1.75 per square foot per month. At the Meet Me Room, $250 per square foot would be a bargain. MEET ME ROOM
  • 48. Some 1,800 known conduits contain the fiber optic cables that flow through the building’s stairwells and vertical utility corridors, called “risers.” Cable connects the commercial telco tenants on floors 5 through 29 to the 4th floor Meet Me Room, and to a new, “wireless” Meet Me Room constructed on the 30th floor. CABLE RISERS
  • 49. Whenever a permit is pulled by a city contractor for any underground repairs outside One Wilshire, the various telco companies with cable in the area come out and paint the cable routes on the asphalt, creating a visible graphic of the complexity of what lies just under the surface. SURFACE CABLE MAP
  • 50. Computers generate a lot of heat, and maintaining a stable, cool temperature and a low humidity is essential in telco hotels, so tenants sometimes demand to install their own cooling systems to safeguard their equipment. At One Wilshire, these units are installed primarily on the third floor roof. A new closed loop cooling system has been installed on the 30th floor roof. HVAC
  • 51. As tenants’ needs change, cables can go unused. Cable mining is performed to thin out the obsolete cables and future congestion is alleviated through the installation of dedicated new ducts. CABLE MINING
  • 52. Power is supplied by DWP, but in the event of a blackout, the building’s five generators will kick in. It takes the generators three seconds to start up and stabilize. During this brief period, the entire building runs on batteries. There are 11,000 gallons of diesel stored on site, enough to run the generators for 24 hours before being refueled. ELECTRICITY ELECTRICITY ELECTRICITY ELECTRICITY ELECTRICITY
  • 53. On the roof, microwave antennas link up One Wilshire to transmission towers located around the city. Though fiber’s higher capacity has given it dominance over microwave at One Wilshire, microwave’s relatively low cost over long distances continues to make it economical for some applications. The roof’s clear line of sight to the south, west, and to other high-rises, along with the ability to interface with the fiber inside, continues to make One Wilshire an attractive location for microwave-based transmission. MICROWAVE
  • 54. Much can be learned about a building’s function by examining its roof. The existence of telco hotels in the region around One Wilshire is indicated by the presence of new and extensive cooling units on the roofs of adjacent buildings, many of which were nearly vacant until the telco companies moved in. READING A ROOF
  • 55. The main fiber optic cables connecting One Wilshire to the world enter the building from under the street through closets in the walls of the building’s parking garage. Given the importance of the building to the global communications network, access to the parking garage is controlled, and the building is said to be monitored continuously by federal security officials. POINT OF ENTRY
  • 56. Said to be the most interconnected space in the world and the most expensive real estate in North America, the “Meet Me Room” (a telco industry term) is the heart of One Wilshire. Here the primary fiber optic cables are routed, split, and shared. Because of the presence of so many telcos in this room and the ability to freely interconnect between them, rackspace here becomes extremely valuable. For comparison, the average price for office space in downtown Los Angeles is $1.75 per square foot per month. At the Meet Me Room, $250 per square foot would be a bargain. MEET ME ROOM
  • 57. Some 1,800 known conduits contain the fiber optic cables that flow through the building’s stairwells and vertical utility corridors, called “risers.” Cable connects the commercial telco tenants on floors 5 through 29 to the 4th floor Meet Me Room, and to a new, “wireless” Meet Me Room constructed on the 30th floor. CABLE RISERS
  • 58. Whenever a permit is pulled by a city contractor for any underground repairs outside One Wilshire, the various telco companies with cable in the area come out and paint the cable routes on the asphalt, creating a visible graphic of the complexity of what lies just under the surface. SURFACE CABLE MAP
  • 59. Computers generate a lot of heat, and maintaining a stable, cool temperature and a low humidity is essential in telco hotels, so tenants sometimes demand to install their own cooling systems to safeguard their equipment. At One Wilshire, these units are installed primarily on the third floor roof. A new closed loop cooling system has been installed on the 30th floor roof. HVAC
  • 60. As tenants’ needs change, cables can go unused. Cable mining is performed to thin out the obsolete cables and future congestion is alleviated through the installation of dedicated new ducts. CABLE MINING
  • 61. Power is supplied by DWP, but in the event of a blackout, the building’s five generators will kick in. It takes the generators three seconds to start up and stabilize. During this brief period, the entire building runs on batteries. There are 11,000 gallons of diesel stored on site, enough to run the generators for 24 hours before being refueled. ELECTRICITY ELECTRICITY ELECTRICITY ELECTRICITY ELECTRICITY
  • 62. On the roof, microwave antennas link up One Wilshire to transmission towers located around the city. Though fiber’s higher capacity has given it dominance over microwave at One Wilshire, microwave’s relatively low cost over long distances continues to make it economical for some applications. The roof’s clear line of sight to the south, west, and to other high-rises, along with the ability to interface with the fiber inside, continues to make One Wilshire an attractive location for microwave-based transmission. MICROWAVE
  • 63. Much can be learned about a building’s function by examining its roof. The existence of telco hotels in the region around One Wilshire is indicated by the presence of new and extensive cooling units on the roofs of adjacent buildings, many of which were nearly vacant until the telco companies moved in. READING A ROOF
  • 64. The main fiber optic cables connecting One Wilshire to the world enter the building from under the street through closets in the walls of the building’s parking garage. Given the importance of the building to the global communications network, access to the parking garage is controlled, and the building is said to be monitored continuously by federal security officials. POINT OF ENTRY
  • 65. Homework
    • Page 61. Questions (3, 7), 8, (9), (10), 11, 13, 14, 19, (20), 21, (22), (23)
    • Page 63. Problems 2, (3), 6, 7, 8, (10), (11), (12)
    • Use trace route to determine the average number of hops between 10 destinations of your choice.
    • Use ping to determine the propagation delay. Specifically, send very small packets (these will be 24 bytes).Then send ICMP packets with larger payload. Compare the difference in the RTT and determine the transmission time.
    • Do links have time-varying delay? To answer this questions run trace route at different times of the day (e.g., the middle of the night, morning, afternoon, etc) and compare the delay times.