LAN/WAN Networking: An Overview

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LAN/WAN Networking: An Overview

  1. 1. LAN/WAN Networking: An Overview Chapter 1
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Define and identify the different types of networks </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the history of LANs and WANs </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss LAN and WAN integration, including the basic functions of bridges, routers, gateways, and switches </li></ul><ul><li>Describe network protocol integration methods </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the preparatory steps of network design </li></ul>
  3. 3. Computer Network <ul><li>System of computers, print devices, and computer software linked by communications cabling or radio waves </li></ul><ul><li>Typically classified according to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reach and complexity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protocols and topologies </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Network Communication
  5. 5. Network Types Defined <ul><li>Local area networks </li></ul><ul><li>Metropolitan area networks </li></ul><ul><li>Wide area networks </li></ul>
  6. 6. Local Area Network (LAN) <ul><li>Series of interconnected computers, printing devices, and other computer equipment that share hardware and software resources </li></ul><ul><li>Service area usually limited to a given office area, floor, or building </li></ul>
  7. 7. Example of a LAN
  8. 8. Metropolitan Area Network <ul><li>Links multiple LANs in a large city or metropolitan region </li></ul><ul><li>Typically uses fiber-optic connections </li></ul>
  9. 9. Example of a MAN
  10. 10. Wide Area Network (WAN) <ul><li>Far-reaching system of networks that usually extends over 30 miles and often reaches across states and continents </li></ul>
  11. 11. Network Classification <ul><li>Enterprise network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combination of LANs, MANs, or WANs that provides users with an array of computer and network resources to complete different tasks </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Enterprise Network
  13. 13. Identifying a Network Type <ul><li>Communications medium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wire cable, fiber-optic cable, radio waves, microwaves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protocol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How networked data is formatted into discrete units </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How each unit is transmitted and interpreted </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Topology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical layout of cable and logical path </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Network type </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Private versus public </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Events that Led up to LANs and WANs <ul><li>1800s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oersted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Undersea cable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pony Express </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bell </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1900s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transcontinental and transatlantic calls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice digitization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic digital computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transistors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sputnik </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communications satellites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ASCII </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass-produced minicomputers </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. LAN/WAN History: 1960s <ul><li>First WAN </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertext </li></ul><ul><li>Use of fiber optics for phone signals </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning of ARPANET </li></ul><ul><li>Packets and packet switching </li></ul><ul><li>UNIX </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommunications equipment </li></ul><ul><li>First IMP prototype </li></ul>
  16. 16. LAN/WAN History: 1970s <ul><li>Ethernet </li></ul><ul><li>ARPANET - 15 sites </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail </li></ul><ul><li>Terminal emulation </li></ul><ul><li>International connections to ARPANET </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommunications conversion from analog to digital </li></ul><ul><li>X.25 </li></ul><ul><li>First wireless gateway </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>LSI and VLSI chips </li></ul><ul><li>ICCB </li></ul>
  17. 17. LAN/WAN History: 1980s <ul><li>BITNET </li></ul><ul><li>IBM’s PC </li></ul><ul><li>Dial-up modem technology </li></ul><ul><li>TCP and IP adopted as protocol suite for ARPANET </li></ul><ul><li>First PC LAN </li></ul><ul><li>Arrival of Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Internetwork hosts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5,000 in 1986 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100,000 in 1989 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Cyberspace” </li></ul><ul><li>T-carrier services </li></ul><ul><li>NFSNET </li></ul><ul><li>Desktop authoring and multimedia </li></ul><ul><li>SNMP </li></ul>
  18. 18. LAN/WAN History: 1990s <ul><li>ARPANET retired </li></ul><ul><li>SS7 technology </li></ul><ul><li>NSFNET opened to commercial use </li></ul><ul><li>First cyberbank </li></ul><ul><li>Internet service providers </li></ul><ul><li>Over 16 million Internet hosts </li></ul>
  19. 19. LAN/WAN History: 2000s <ul><li>IPv6 used for Internet2 backbone communications </li></ul><ul><li>Video and radio capability </li></ul><ul><li>Prices of 1-Gbps devices fall as competition increases </li></ul>
  20. 20. LAN/WAN Integration <ul><li>1960s-1980s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct connection to host mainframe using Systems Network Architecture (SNA) communications protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow connections to many devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enable distributed client/server computing </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Using SNA to Directly Connect without a Network
  22. 22. LAN/WAN Integration <ul><li>Becoming more advanced through networking devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bridges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Routers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gateways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Switches </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Bridges <ul><li>Connect different LANs or LAN segments using the same access method </li></ul>
  24. 24. Routers <ul><li>Connect networks having the same or different access methods and media </li></ul><ul><li>Forward packets and frames to networks by using a decision-making process based on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Routing table data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovery of most efficient routes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preprogrammed information from network administrator </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Routers
  26. 26. Gateways <ul><li>Enable communications between two different types of networked systems </li></ul>
  27. 27. Gateways
  28. 28. Switches <ul><li>Link network segments </li></ul><ul><li>Forward and filter frames between segments </li></ul>
  29. 29. Integrating Data Between LANs and WANs <ul><li>Translation </li></ul><ul><li>Encapsulation </li></ul><ul><li>LAN emulation (LANE) </li></ul>
  30. 30. Network Design Introduction <ul><li>How networks work in terms of protocols, access methods, and topologies </li></ul><ul><li>Physical equipment used in LANs and WANs </li></ul><ul><li>Basic network design principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using structured wiring and structured networking techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designing for multimedia and client/server applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking advantage of LAN and WAN device characteristics </li></ul></ul>continued…
  31. 31. Network Design Introduction <ul><li>Assess characteristics of the organization that affect network design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Types and locations of computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software applications and resources required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High and low network use periods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designing to facilitate troubleshooting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of security required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anticipated growth </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Basic networking terms and concepts </li></ul><ul><li>History and evolution of local and wide area networking technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Different methods of integrating short and long distance information networks </li></ul><ul><li>How to prepare for designing networks </li></ul>

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