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LAN: Software
LAN: Software
LAN: Software
LAN: Software
LAN: Software
LAN: Software
LAN: Software
LAN: Software
LAN: Software
LAN: Software
LAN: Software
LAN: Software
LAN: Software
LAN: Software
LAN: Software
LAN: Software
LAN: Software
LAN: Software
LAN: Software
LAN: Software
LAN: Software
LAN: Software
LAN: Software
LAN: Software
LAN: Software
LAN: Software
LAN: Software
LAN: Software
LAN: Software
LAN: Software
LAN: Software
LAN: Software
LAN: Software
LAN: Software
LAN: Software
LAN: Software
LAN: Software
LAN: Software
LAN: Software
LAN: Software
LAN: Software
LAN: Software
LAN: Software
LAN: Software
LAN: Software
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LAN: Software


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  • 1. Chapter 9: Local Area Networks: Software and Support Systems
  • 2. Objectives
    • Identify the main functions of operating systems and network operating systems, and distinguish between the two
    • Identify the basic features of Novell NetWare, Windows NT/2000/2003, Unix, and Linux network operating systems
    • Compare and contrast the Novell NetWare, Windows NT/2000/2003, Unix, and Linux network operating systems
  • 3. Objectives (continued)
    • Recognize the importance of the network server and the different types of network servers available
    • Identify common examples of network utility software and Internet software
    • Enumerate the various components of software licenses
    • Identify the different types of support devices commonly found on local area networks
  • 4. Introduction
    • Proper support of a local area network requires hardware, software, and miscellaneous support devices
      • Most important software component: Network operating system
    • Numerous network support programs are also required to support users on a LAN
    • Support devices such as hubs, switches, routers, servers, modems, power supplies, and more are also necessary
  • 5. Network Operating Systems
    • Operating system manages all applications and resources in computer
    • Multitasking OS supports execution of multiple processes at one time
    • Network OS is a large, complex program that manages resources common on most local area networks
      • Besides performing standard operating system functions, also called upon for additional functions (refer to next slide)
  • 6. Network Operating Systems (continued)
  • 7. Current Network Operating Systems
    • Several popular network operating systems currently exist:
      • Novell NetWare versions 3, 4, 5 and 6
      • Windows NT, 2000, and 2003
      • Unix
      • Linux
  • 8. Novell NetWare
    • Version 3 :
      • Popular but older version
      • No longer supported by Novell (end of 2000)
      • User logs onto a particular server
      • Bindery maintains directory system
  • 9. Novell NetWare (continued)
    • Version 4 :
      • Unlike version 3, allows single network login
      • Bindery replaced by powerful NDS database
      • No longer supported by Novell (beginning of 2004)
    • Version 5 :
      • Administrator uses IP protocol instead of Novell’s proprietary IPX/SPX protocols
  • 10. NetWare Version 6
    • A client anywhere on the Internet can print and use storage services from a NetWare 6 server without loading a single byte of Novell’s Client32 software
    • Powerful Internet printing services (iPrint) make printing nearly idiot-proof
      • User clicks on graphical image of floor plan showing printers
      • If user does not have printer driver, it is loaded automatically in background
  • 11. NetWare Version 6 (continued)
    • iFolder :
      • Very effective background application powered by Apache Web Server to “equalize” the documents in each system’s My Documents folder with an identical set on the server
      • Volumes can hold 8 terabytes of data in up to 8 trillion files and can keep 1 million files open concurrently
  • 12. Novell NDS (NetWare Directory Services)
    • Novell NDS : Database that maintains information on, and access to, every resource on the network, including users, groups of users, printers, data sets and servers
    • Network administrator creates a hierarchical tree structure that represents the layout of the organization
    • Tree structure is composed of:
      • Organizational units  composed of further objects
      • Leaf objects  not composed of further objects
  • 13. Novell NDS (continued)
  • 14. Windows NT Version 4
    • User interface based on popular Windows operating system, but is NOT the same as Windows 98 or Windows Me
    • Full service multi-tasking operating system capable of supporting multiple servers
    • NT systems work very well with other Microsoft products
    • Questionable if NT can support large systems
    • Blue screen of death (BSOD) plagues NT systems
  • 15. Windows NT Version 4 (continued)
    • Domain
      • Group of users, servers, and other resources that share account and security information
      • May have from 1 to several hundred domains depending on size of system
    • Every domain has one and only one primary domain controller (PDC) (a server)
      • Centrally manages account information and security
    • Each domain should have at least one backup domain controller (BDC) (a server)
  • 16. Windows NT Version 4 (continued)
    • Single domain model
      • Simplest Windows NT domain model
      • One domain that services every user and resource
  • 17. Windows NT Version 4 (continued)
  • 18. Windows NT Version 4 (continued)
    • Master domain model
      • Uses single domain to exert control over user account information
      • Separate resource domains manage resources such as networked printers
  • 19. Windows NT Version 4 (continued)
  • 20. Windows NT Version 4 (continued)
    • Multiple master domain model
      • Uses two or more master domains that are joined in two-way trusts to manage many resource domains
  • 21. Windows 2000
    • Updated version of Windows NT network operating system
    • Specific versions of 2000 designed to support wide variety of system types:
      • Windows 2000 Professional - replaces NT Workstation
      • Windows 2000 Server - replaces Windows NT Server
      • Windows 2000 Advanced Server – supports up to 8 procs / 8GB
      • Windows 2000 Datacenter Server - supports up to 32 processors and 64GB RAM
  • 22. Windows 2000 (continued)
    • Biggest change from NT: Active Directory
    • AD is central repository for all objects that make up the enterprise:
      • Domains, organizational units, users, groups, computers, printers, etc.
    • Roughly based on X.500 spec, creates a hierarchical tree
  • 23. Windows 2000 (continued)
    • At top of hierarchical model  single forest of one or more trees
    • Must contain:
      • At least one (root) domain, which must contain at least one organizational unit (OU)
      • Several other containers (see next slide)
    • Recommended size limitation of 1 million objects per domain
      • However, lab tests have hit 10 million objects without failure
  • 24. Windows 2000 (continued)
  • 25. Windows 2000 (continued)
    • The domain has basically remained the same, but now you can have parent and child domains
    • Parent and all child domains are defined as single domain tree, with multiple trees in the same AD and forest
    • Domains are named in accordance with the Internet’s DNS standard RFCs 1034 and 1035
  • 26. Windows 2000 (continued)
    • Example, the root domain in a tree could be called
      • The marketing child domain could be , and the production child domain could be
      • As in NT, you can create Trusts between parent and child domains
        • Only with 2000 the trust can be transitive
  • 27. Windows 2000 (continued)
    • Many still agree that Windows 2000 has a way to go to catch up to NetWare with regards to simplicity of administration
    • Nonetheless, NetWare has dropped below 20% of the market while Windows continues to climb (>50%)
  • 28. Windows 2003
    • The newest version of Windows network operating systems
    • Improvements to Active Directory, including new management tools
    • Capability to interconnect up to 8 Windows servers
    • New and improved file and print support services
    • Support for IPv6
    • Security improvements
  • 29. Unix
    • Older but very popular multitasking operating system capable of supporting network operations
    • First operating system written in the language C
    • Very stable system capable of supporting very large operations
    • Numerous versions available from different vendors
  • 30. Linux
    • Operating system based on the principles of Unix
    • Many versions available for free or very small price
    • Very stable multitasking operating system
    • When incorporated with other free software products, such as the Apache Web Server and Atipa’s BlueBird network management software, this system becomes extremely cost effective and powerful
  • 31. Summary of Network Operating Systems
  • 32. Network Servers
    • In order to support a network operating system, you need one or more network servers
    • Network servers are high-power workstations often with multiple processors, RAID, SCSI, and lots of memory and disk space
    • New forms of servers include server appliances, and server blades
  • 33. Client/Server Networks vs. Peer-to-Peer Networks
    • A clear majority of local area networks are client/server networks:
      • Client/server network has one or more network servers supporting the operations of one or more clients, or user workstations
    • Peer-to-peer networks also exist:
      • May have servers, but the network relies less on servers and more on communications between workstations
  • 34. Utilities
    • Eight of the more common groups of network utility software include:
    • Antivirus software Antispam software
    • Backup software Network-monitoring software
    • Crash protection software Security assessment software
    • Remote access software Uninstall software
  • 35. Internet Software
    • Software necessary to support the server side of Internet connections
    • Retrieves web pages and other documents when asked to by a client workstation
    • Can interface with a database program allowing users to store and retrieve data via the Internet
    • Necessary with commercial Internet applications
  • 36. Software Licensing Agreements
    • Virtually every commercial software program comes with a specific license agreement
    • Most licensing agreements specify the following conditions:
      • Software installation and use
      • Network installation
      • Back-up copies
      • Decompilation
  • 37. Software Licensing Agreements (continued)
    • Most licensing agreements also specify the following conditions:
      • Rental statement
      • Upgrade availabilities
      • Copyright restrictions
      • Maintenance agreements
  • 38. Software Licensing Agreements (continued)
    • Most licensing agreements come in one of the following forms:
      • Single user single station license
      • Single user multiple station license
      • Interactive user license
      • Network server license
      • Site license
      • Corporate license
  • 39. LAN Support Devices
    • Other devices necessary for the proper support of a LAN:
      • Uninterruptable power supplies (UPS)
      • Tape drives
      • Printers
      • Media converters
      • Workstations (including thin client workstations)
  • 40. LAN Software In Action: A Small Company Makes a Choice
    • Hannah asks the following questions:
    • What are the primary uses (applications) of the current system?
      • Some applications work better (or only) with a specific NOS
    • How would the choice of a particular NOS affect maintenance and support?
      • Windows is easier to install but harder to maintain NetWare is harder to install but easier to maintain
      • Linux is challenging to install
  • 41. LAN Software in Action: A Small Company Makes a Choice (continued)
    • Are finances an issue in the selection of a NOS?
      • Linux offers an extremely attractive cost
    • Does the existing system have any unusual hardware or software that might influence the NOS choice?
    • Will the network be located in a single location or in multiple locations?
      • NetWare is easier to maintain from remote locations
    • Are there any political pressures to select a particular NOS?
  • 42. Wireless Networking In Action: Creating a Wireless LAN for Home
    • Many decisions to make when installing a wireless LAN
    • Which IEEE 802.11 format?
      • 802.11b? Older, well-tested, but slower (11 Mbps)
      • 802.11a? Newer, faster (54 Mbps), uses higher frequencies
      • 802.11g? Newer, faster (54 Mbps), compatible with 802.11b
  • 43. Wireless Networking in Action: Creating a Wireless LAN for Home (continued)
    • What type of wireless access point do you need?
      • If you already have a wired network (with router and modem), all you need is a basic wireless access point
      • If you don’t have a home network but have a high-speed Internet connection, you will need a wireless router
      • If you don’t even have a high-speed Internet connection yet, you might want to consider a wireless gateway
  • 44. Wireless Networking in Action: Creating a Wireless LAN for Home (continued)
    • What type of network operating system do you need?
      • Do you need something as powerful as Windows 2000/2003 or NetWare?
      • No, you only need a client operating system such as Windows XP, Apple Mac OS, or Linux
  • 45. Summary
    • Operating systems and network operating systems
    • Novell NetWare, Windows NT/2000/2003, Unix, and Linux network operating systems
    • Network servers
    • Network utility software and Internet software
    • Software licenses
    • Support devices on local area networks