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LAN and WAN Design: Putting it All Together

LAN and WAN Design: Putting it All Together






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    LAN and WAN Design: Putting it All Together LAN and WAN Design: Putting it All Together Presentation Transcript

    • LAN and WAN Design: Putting It All Together Chapter 11
    • Learning Objectives
      • Discuss general LAN and WAN design issues that include using structured wiring and structured networking
      • Describe and implement LAN design principles
      • Explain and implement WAN design principles
    • General LAN and WAN Design Issues
      • Factors that affect design
      • Analyzing existing topology and resources
      • Network management
      • Cable installation and replacement
      • Structured wiring
      • Vertical wiring and structured networking
      • Full-duplex communications
      • Bridge, router, and hub design issues
    • Factors That Affect a LAN or WAN Design
      • Anticipated network traffic
      • Redundancy requirements
      • User movement
      • Accommodating for future growth
      • Security considerations
      • WAN connectivity
      • LAN and WAN costs
    • Designing for Redundancy
    • Analyzing Existing Topology and Resources
      • Inspect cable plant
      • Compile bandwidth utilization baseline data
      • Audit resources
      • Review traffic
      • Perform network capacity management
    • Network Management
      • Directly related to network design and topology; some topologies are easier to manage than others
    • Cable Installation and Replacement
    • Limitations of Thinnet/Thicknet Cable Plants
      • Cannot meet high bandwidth requirements
      • Expensive to maintain and troubleshoot
      • Difficult to expand
    • Cable Replacement Factors
      • Replacement of legacy cable
      • Cable and connector costs
      • Installation costs
      • Environmental requirements
      • Extra cable requirements
      • Creation or redesign of wiring closet locations
    • Guidelines for Installing Cable
      • Use structured wiring and structured networking principles
      • Meet or exceed maximum bandwidth required
      • Install Category 5 or better UTP cable horizontally to desktop
      • Install multimode fiber-optic riser cable between floors
      • Follow IEEE specs for cable run distances
        • Single-mode fiber-optic cable for long runs
    • Guidelines for Installing Cable
      • Install 802.11 wireless options where appropriate
      • Install star-based cable plants
      • Install only high-quality cable
      • Follow all building codes
      • Do not exceed 25 pounds of force when pulling twisted-pair cable
      • Follow rules for cable bend radius
    • Guidelines for Installing Cable
      • Leave extra cable at endpoints
      • Use a qualified contractor, if desired
      • Adhere to IEEE specs for cable and installation
      • Label cable following EIA/TIA-606 standard
      • Ground cable plants
    • Structured Wiring
      • Cable fans out in horizontal star fashion from centralized chassis switch(es) or hub(s) located in telecommunications rooms or wiring closets
    • Structured Wiring Requirements
      • Flexible cabling, eg, twisted-pair
      • Wiring nodes into physical star
      • Adherence to EIA/TIA-568-A / EIA/TIA-568-B standards for horizontal wiring
      • Centralized cable plant in chassis hubs or switches
      • Built-in intelligence for chassis hubs or switches
    • Structured Wiring Requirements
      • Ability to isolate hosts/servers on own cable segment
      • Ability to provide high-speed links to network devices
    • Vertical Wiring
      • Cabling and network equipment used between floors
      • Physically links telecommunications room(s) on one floor to adjoining floors
      • Ties horizontal cable on each floor into logical backbone
    • Principles of Vertical Wiring
      • Deploy extended star topology between devices
      • Use high-speed cable to reduce congestion and because it is not susceptible to EMI and RFI
      • Follow EIA/TIA-568-A / EIA/TIA-568-B standards for vertical or backbone cabling
      • Use riser rated cable for cable runs through cable ports or vertical shafts
      • Install fire-stop material
    • Structured Networking
      • Use of solid horizontal and vertical wiring design that enables centralizing a network at strategic points
    • Administrative Capabilities of Structured Networks
      • Centralize or distribute network management
      • Incorporate vertical and horizontal network design using high-speed communications on the backbone (fat pipes)
      • Reconfigure network physically and logically
    • Administrative Capabilities of Structured Networks
      • Segment network according to workgroup patterns, using VLANs
      • Add redundancy
      • Quickly expand network and introduce new high-speed network options
      • Proactively monitor and diagnose problems for quick resolution
    • Using Full-Duplex Communications
      • Ability to send and receive simultaneously
      • Use in areas of network with high-speed links
      • Eliminates collisions
      • Increases network throughput and reduces number of lost frames
      • Most switches employ one of two types of flow control
        • Jamming
        • Buffering
    • Bridge, Router, and Hub Design Issues
      • Bridges and routers
        • Design flexibility
        • High-speed networking options
        • Redundancy
      • Hubs
        • Centralize network management and troubleshooting
        • Reproduce network traffic on all segments
    • Advantages of RFIs and RFPs
      • Help organizations clearly define needs
      • Provide vendors with understanding of the organization
      • Enable vendors to show how they would address those needs
      • Provide basis for contract negotiation
      • Supply guidelines for installation process
    • LAN Design Principles
      • Replace legacy hubs with switches
      • Replace older switches that do not offer SNMP compatibility with newer ones that have it
      • Connect high-speed workstations to switches
      • Connect servers to high-speed switched ports
      • Connect integrated or workgroup area switches to high-speed switches
      • Connect major department segments or high-speed switches to routers
    • Walking Through a Design
    • Locating Hosts and Servers
      • In centralized host or server farms
        • Saves money
        • High traffic
      • In different locations throughout the network
        • Reduces network traffic
        • Provides security
          • Flexibility if disaster destroys one location
          • Can have redundant hosts at different locations
    • Connecting Hosts and Servers
    • Building in Redundancy
    • Interspersed Hosts and Servers
    • Designing for Multimedia Applications
      • Often include increased bandwidth
      • Often include implementation of Internet Group Management Protocol
    • Wireless LAN Network Designs
      • Peer-to-peer
      • Multiple-cell
    • Peer-to-Peer Design
    • Maintenance and Support Issues
      • Constant process
      • To reduce maintenance, develop schemes to replace aging devices before they become a maintenance problem
    • WAN Design Principles
      • Devices required at local site to accomplish WAN connectivity
        • Routers
        • Access servers
        • Modems
        • Specialized adapters
        • Multiplexers
        • Wireless, microwave, and satellite devices
        • ATM WAN access switches
    • Configuring LAN Topology for WAN Connectivity
    • WAN Connectivity Using a Router
    • Wireless MANs and WANs
      • Wireless MAN options
        • Wireless bridge
        • Proprietary infrared design
        • Proprietary radio wave options
        • Terrestrial microwave
      • Wireless WAN options
        • Geosynchronous satellites
        • LEO satellites
    • WAN Provider Topologies
      • Established by WAN service provider
      • Selection depends on:
        • Bandwidth required
        • Budget
        • Speed and type of interfaces on the LAN
    • Price Structure
      • Ranges from unlimited usage to limited usage billed per minute
      • Cost-related elements
        • Monthly service charges
        • LAN connectivity equipment
        • User training and support
        • Network staff training
        • Network support and troubleshooting
        • Lost work time when a connection is down
        • Periodic equipment upgrade costs
    • Bandwidth Considerations
      • Choice of service provider depends on:
        • Amount of bandwidth needed
        • Service level agreement (SLA) offered by provider
    • Vendor and Customer Equipment
      • Equipment varies according to size of vendor
      • Equipment should be at more than one location
    • Chapter Summary
      • General LAN design principles
        • Accommodating for growth and security
        • Implementing the cable plant
        • Using structured wiring and structured networking techniques
        • Using full-duplex communications
        • Designing around switches and routers
        • Creating requests for information and requests for proposals
    • Chapter Summary
      • Specific LAN design principles
        • Where to locate hosts and servers
        • How to design for multimedia applications
      • Wireless LAN designs and maintenance and support issues
    • Chapter Summary
      • WAN design principles
        • Wireless MAN and WAN designs
        • WAN provider topologies
        • Price structure
        • Bandwidth
        • Equipment issues