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Internet Research Powerpoint

  1. 1. Networking Presented By: Ken Gutierrez Fred Hadley
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>What Is Networking? </li></ul><ul><li>How It Works </li></ul><ul><li>Ways To Connect </li></ul><ul><li>Types Of Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Network Topologies </li></ul><ul><li>Networking Software </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Networking? <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two or more computers connected in order to share data and resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Files </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peripherals (External) Devices </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Why A Network? <ul><li>Simultaneous Access </li></ul><ul><li>Share Peripheral Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Easier Backup </li></ul><ul><li>Share Internet Connection </li></ul>
  5. 5. Simultaneous Access <ul><li>In organizations, many people may need to use the same data or programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Shared data and programs can be stored on a central network server. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Server that stores data files is a file server. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Managers may assign access rights to users. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Read data only. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make changes to existing files. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Play Multi-Computer Games </li></ul>
  6. 6. Share Peripheral Devices <ul><li>Peripheral (external) devices are expensive. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost-effective to share </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Printers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scanners </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Connection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Spooling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Send Multiple Documents (Print Jobs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporarily Stored On Server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Printed In Turn </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Send Output Of A Device To Other Computers </li></ul>
  7. 7. Personal Communication <ul><li>Email </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange Over LAN or Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Other Popular Network-Based Communications Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teleconferencing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Videoconferencing </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Easier Backup <ul><li>Enables managers to back up important data. </li></ul><ul><li>Administrators commonly back up shared data files stored on the server, but may also use the network to back up files on users’ PCs. </li></ul>
  9. 9. How It Works
  10. 10. Ways To Connect <ul><li>Ethernet </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless </li></ul><ul><li>Power Lines </li></ul><ul><li>Phone Lines </li></ul><ul><li>Walking Diskettes Back & Forth </li></ul>
  11. 11. Ethernet Network Hardware <ul><li>2 Or More Network Interface Cards (NIC) </li></ul><ul><li>Cables </li></ul><ul><li>Routers </li></ul><ul><li>Bridges </li></ul><ul><li>Hubs </li></ul>
  12. 12. Ethernet Hardware Pictures
  13. 13. How Ethernet Networking Works
  14. 14. Ethernet Pros & Cons <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Fastest Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Inexpensive If PCs Are Close To One Another </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely Reliable </li></ul><ul><li>Easy To Maintain After Setup </li></ul><ul><li>Virtually Unlimited Number Of Devices Can Be Connected </li></ul><ul><li>Great Deal Of Tech Support & Information Available </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Additional Equipment Needed If More Than 2 PCs </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive If Wiring & Jacks Need To Be Installed </li></ul><ul><li>Setup & Configuration Can Be Difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Technical Jargon & Number Of Options Can Be Confusing </li></ul>
  15. 15. Power Line Network Hardware <ul><li>Electrical Outlet </li></ul><ul><li>Power Line Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PowerPacket </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelogis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Passport </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wall Outlet </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Power Line Hardware Pictures
  17. 17. How Power Line Networking Works <ul><li>Intellon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Available Frequencies Split Into 84 Carriers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Send Packets Simultaneously </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Noise Or Power Surge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Intelogis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency Shift Keying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses 2 Frequencies: One For 1s & One For 0s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anything Infringes Frequency Disrupts Data Flow </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Power Line Pros & Cons <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>No New Wires </li></ul><ul><li>Inexpensive </li></ul><ul><li>Several Outlets In Every Room </li></ul><ul><li>Easy Installation </li></ul><ul><li>Printer Can Be Physically Elsewhere </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t Require A Card To Be Installed In PC </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Slower Connection </li></ul><ul><li>Home Power Usage Affects Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Limits Features Of Printer </li></ul><ul><li>Only Windows-Based PC </li></ul><ul><li>Uses Large Wall Devices To Access Outlets </li></ul><ul><li>Only Uses 110V Lines </li></ul><ul><li>Data Must Be Encrypted For A Secure Network </li></ul><ul><li>Older Wiring Can Affect Performance </li></ul>
  19. 19. Phone Line Network Hardware <ul><li>Phone Jacks </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone Cords </li></ul><ul><li>HomePNA Hardware </li></ul>
  20. 20. Phone Line Hardware Pictures
  21. 21. How Phone Line Networking Works <ul><li>HomePNA Uses Frequency Division Multiplexing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PC Data Divided On Separate Frequencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FDM Separates Extra Signal Space On Phone Line Into Distinct Channels By Splitting It Into Uniform Chunks Of Bandwidth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Like Radio Stations </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Phone Line Pros & Cons <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Easy Installation </li></ul><ul><li>Inexpensive </li></ul><ul><li>Standardized </li></ul><ul><li>Reliable </li></ul><ul><li>Operates At Constant 10 Mbps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Even With Phone Use) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No Additional Network Equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Supports Up To 25 Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Fast For Bandwidth-Intensive Apps </li></ul><ul><li>Compatible With Other Networking Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Works On MACs & Older Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Phone Jacks Close To PC </li></ul><ul><li>May Have To Run Phone Extension Cords </li></ul><ul><li>May Have To Install New Wiring </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Limit Of 1000 Feet Of Wiring Between Devices </li></ul>
  23. 23. Wireless Network Hardware <ul><li>Wireless Card </li></ul><ul><li>Router </li></ul><ul><li>Access Point </li></ul>
  24. 24. Wireless Hardware Pictures
  25. 25. How Wireless Networking Works <ul><li>IEEE 802.11 </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DSSS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FHSS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HomeRF </li></ul><ul><li>Shared Wireless Protocol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SWAP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WECA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wireless Fidelity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wi-Fi </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Wireless Pros & Cons (SWAP) <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Inexpensive </li></ul><ul><li>Easy Installation </li></ul><ul><li>No Additional Wires </li></ul><ul><li>No Access Point </li></ul><ul><li>Allows Up To 127 Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Allows Multiple Networks In Same Location </li></ul><ul><li>Can Use Data Encryption To Increase Security </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Not Very Fast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 Mbps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limited Range </li></ul><ul><ul><li>75 to 125 Feet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not Compatible With FHSS Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult To Integrate Into Existing Wired Networks </li></ul>
  27. 27. Wireless Pros & Cons (WIFI) <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Fast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>11 Mbps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reliable </li></ul><ul><li>Long Range </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1000 Feet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Easily Integrated Into Existing Wired-Ethernet Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Compatible With Original 802.11 DSSS Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Can Be Difficult To Setup </li></ul><ul><li>Speed Can Fluctuate Significantly </li></ul>
  28. 28. Types Of Networks <ul><li>Local Area Network (LAN) </li></ul><ul><li>Wide Area Network (WAN) </li></ul><ul><li>Peer To Peer </li></ul><ul><li>Client/Server </li></ul>
  29. 29. Network Topologies <ul><li>Bus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All devices are connected to a central cable, called the bus or backbone. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Star </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All devices are connected to a central hub. Nodes communicate across the network by passing data through the hub. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All devices are connected directly to two other devices, one on either side of the other, in the shape of a closed loop, or ring. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mesh </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Devices are interconnected to every other node in the network. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tree </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A hybrid topology. Groups of star-configured networks are connected to a linear bus backbone. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Bus Topology
  31. 31. Star Topology
  32. 32. Ring Topology
  33. 33. Mesh Topology
  34. 34. Tree Topology
  35. 35. Networking Software <ul><li>Microsoft </li></ul><ul><li>Solaris </li></ul><ul><li>Novell </li></ul>
  36. 36. Summary <ul><li>What Is Networking? </li></ul><ul><li>How It Works </li></ul><ul><li>Ways To Connect </li></ul><ul><li>Types Of Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Network Topologies </li></ul><ul><li>Networking Software </li></ul>
  37. 37. Sources <ul><li>How Stuff Works </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Questions