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Home Network
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Home Network

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  • 1. How to Set Up a Home Network 1
  • 2. - - Table of Contents - - How to use this guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Learn how to use this PDF to its fullest potential, taking advantage of the linked table of contents. Also contains a description of features and a general order of topics. Quick Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 If you already have an established network, this section provides a quick shortcut to common network tasks throughout the guide. It allows you to skip directly to what you want to know. Home Networking Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Detailed descriptions and photos of everything you’ll find on a home network, including routers and cabling. Home Network Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 From simple two-computer networks to more complex wired/wireless networks and everything in between, these diagrams allow you to see the “big picture”. Each diagram also has a “Configure” section that lets you skip to specific tasks you can accomplish with that network. 2
  • 3. TCP/IP Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 If you find yourself in a foreign country, you’ll do much better if you know how to speak the language. TCP/IP is the language of home networks, and you’ll get the essentials here. Learn how to find out your IP address and much more. Share your Internet connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 With or without a router, learn how to share the Internet among all of your computers. Broadband or dialup, you’ll get up and running quickly with the step by step screenshots in this section. Wireless networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Covering the basics all the way to actually configuring wireless routers, access points, and computers, this section explains wireless in a straightforward manner. Don’t have a wireless router? Ad-Hoc “peer to peer” networks are covered too, as well as how to secure your wireless network. File and Printer Sharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Step by step procedures of first sharing out files or printers, then accessing them from another PC, are described visually with screenshots. Print servers are also covered, and you’re shown 3 ways of accessing shared items on your network. 3
  • 4. Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 Don’t we all? Here you’ll find the wisdom of years of experience with actual home networks. Quick tips abound to get at the root of the problem quickly, while examples of real error messages (and how to solve them) punctuate this section. If you need help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 Have any questions about your home network, or what the guide covers? Email me (Ed McAuliffe) at info@pcguidebook.com or emcauliffe@kelsoconsultinggroup.com 4
  • 5. Disclaimer / Terms / Legal This guide is copyright 2007 Kelso Consulting Group, LLC. All screenshots are copyrights of their respective owners. Kelso Consulting Group, LLC is not responsible for any loss or corruption of data that may arise from the use of this guide. Kelso Consulting Group, LLC is not responsible for lost time, lost revenue or any distress that may occur as the result of using the techniques suggested in the guide. No company mentioned herein has endorsed this guide, nor does Kelso Consulting Group, LLC claim endorsement by any company. User agrees to not distribute or re-sell this document in any way. A CD copy for personal use is acceptable. Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation Microsoft screenshots reprinted with permission from Microsoft Corporation 5
  • 6. How to Use This Guide In addition to the traditional table of contents occupying the first few pages, you can also make use of the linked “Bookmarks” section in the upper left. Click the Bookmarks tab on the left-hand side of the PDF, shown below. It will expand into a linked, clickable table of contents. Simply click on the link and you’ll skip directly to that section. Chapters with + signs are further divided, so just click on the + sign to view the subheadings under that chapter. Linked Table of Contents: A light bulb denotes a tip or fact that will save you lots of frustration! A caution sign means that you’re in danger of really messing things up. I only use it once, and it deals with bringing home a work computer. 6
  • 7. You can use this guide at all stages of home networking, from the first hardware setup all the way to troubleshooting an existing home network. The guide follows a logical progression, more or less, of the entire process of setting up a home network: Physical connections Basically, get things plugged in and turned on, and wired/wireless connections established. Establish the Internet at all computers Get all computers to be able to surf the web at the same time. This means to get your router talking to your broadband modem, or sharing out the web with ICS. File and printer sharing Once the Internet in established on each PC, it’s time to move on to file/printer sharing. Don’t forget about your firewalls! Troubleshooting Troubleshoot based on the symptoms you’re seeing. The TCP/IP and firewall information in this guide will be of vital importance in this arena. Feel free to skip over any chapter that does not apply to your networking situation. However, I suggest that you read the TCP/IP basics chapter on page 23. It will make the difference between an average home networker, and a… Home Networking Genius! 7
  • 8. Quick Start Depending on where you are in your home network, you can skip directly to a section that applies to what you want to do. If you… Want to establish a wireless network, go to page 86. Want to share a dialup connection or a broadband connection without a router, go to page 61. Want to share a broadband connection with a router, go to page 81. Have web access on all computers and want to start sharing files and printers, go to page 134. Want to hook up a wireless PC to an existing wired network, go to page 100. Want to troubleshoot and existing network, read TCP/IP on 23 and the firewall section on page 134. You’ll also want to take a look at Troubleshooting on page 279. 8
  • 9. Components of a Home Network Modem Whether you have cable or DSL broadband, satellite or dialup, a modem is your path to the Internet. Most of the time, some kind of program on your PC allows you to surf the web through the modem. With most home networks (except for dialup), this program will be eliminated in favor of your router’s connection with the modem. In other words, your router handles the logical connection to your modem. Network adapters These days, most home computers come with a network card. However, you may need to install one or want to convert an existing PC to wireless. You don’t always have to open the case – there are USB network cards that plug into a USB port. These remain outside the PC. You can tell if you have a network card by looking at the back of your PC. If you have what looks like a phone jack, only bigger, then you have a network card. Note the center graphic with the zoomed view of the network port. This is called an RJ-45 port. 9
  • 10. Router This small device will distribute the Internet connection provided by your modem, and allow all of your computers to surf the web. They usually have browser-based setup pages to manage your Internet connection and other settings. In addition, it also provides a single connection point for your computers, allowing them to be on the same network and share files and printers. Routers are most commonly used for cable and DSL broadband, but they can be found for satellite and dialup as well. In any home network, you can opt to go without a router. In such cases, one of your computers will function as a router by enabling ICS (Internet Connection Sharing). A combination wired/wireless router is an ideal central point from which to create a wireless home network. Ethernet cable would plug into network (RJ-45) ports on the back of a modem or router, shown here at right. Note that there’s a port on the router that’s set aside from the others. This is the “WAN” or “Internet” port where you would plug in your broadband modem. Hub If you’ve run out of ports, a hub is your answer. Hubs are simple devices that merely provide more connections. They lack the logic of a router, and have no setup or configuration – you simply plug them in. You’ll need to be aware of a special “uplink” port on the hub, which is used to connect to a router or modem. Since most routers have 4 ports, you’ll only need a hub for 5 or more computers, or you can just get an 8 port router. You can eliminate the need for a hub if some of your computers are wireless, which won’t take up ports in the router. 10
  • 11. A hub is also used in the case of routerless home networks, when you want to connect 3 or more computers. If you connect a hub to your broadband modem, your computers may be able to surf the web but they will not be able to share files. This is because a hub does not have the capability of separating the Internet from a home network – that’s what a router does. Switch While a hub simply forwards information to all computers connected to it, a switch will send information to a specific PC, and not broadcast to the other computers. This extra intelligence will cut down traffic on congested networks, and is more or less required in a large office or business setting. Note that the performance difference between a hub and a switch will be unnoticeable on a home network. Most routers will advertise that they have a “built in 4 port switch”. Bridge A bridge looks much the same as a router, switch or hub. Its job is to segment 2 networks, and keep the traffic between them separate, while still allowing common access outside the bridge. This type of device does not belong on a home network for two reasons: 1. A home network does not need to be bridged - it’s a single network. 2. Bridges are less common today because routers take over the bridging function. Cabling The type of cabling you’ll encounter on a home network is CAT5 Ethernet cable. It’s also referred to as Ethernet cable, or simply “patch” cable. This cable will run between your computers and router and from your router to your modem. Even on wireless networks, CAT5 plays a role. You’ll use it to connect a wireless router to your broadband modem, or to connect a wireless access point to a PC, hub or router. 11
  • 12. CAT5e and CAT6 are basically the same as CAT5, but offer enhancements in terms of speed and interference protection. CAT5e is the most common sold in stores. All three will suffice on a home network. Ethernet cable can be as long as 300 feet (100 meters). The clips at the ends of a CAT5 cable are known as RJ-45. Much like a phone clip (which is RJ-11), a small plastic tab needs to be pressed in order to release the cable. A positive “click” sound is heard as you plug CAT5 into a network port on a PC or router. There are two types of Ethernet cable. One is called “straight-through” or “patch cable”. The other is a “crossover”. It is vital that you know the difference. Crossover cables are only (and must be) used to directly connect one PC to another PC. Patch (straight-through) cables are used to connect routers to computers, routers to modems, or a computer to a modem. If you use a crossover to connect a PC to a router, it will be as if the cable did not exist – there will be no connection. Likewise, if you use a patch cable to directly connect two computers, there will be no connection. How can you tell the difference? Crossover cables are much more expensive, and sometimes brightly colored, such as orange. The way to tell the difference is to look very closely at both ends of the cable. If the order of colored wires is the same, you have a patch or straight-through cable. If it’s different, you have a crossover cable. Let’s take a look at some typical uses of Ethernet cable. Straight-through or “patch” cable: Take a look at the diagram at right. It represents a typical wired/wireless broadband home network, with a cable or DSL modem. The three blue lines represent “straight-through” Ethernet patch cables. Note that the computers are not directly connected. 12
  • 13. Crossover cable: To directly connect two computers, a crossover cable is used. This is most commonly seen in dialup situations, where one computer shares out the Internet to the other with ICS (Internet Connection Sharing). Again, a crossover cable is only used to connect two computers directly. Home Network Diagrams How do I set up my network? What do I need to buy? Perhaps the best way to explain how a home network can be configured is to show you some diagrams. We’ll start with very simple, two-computer networks without Internet, and work all the way up to wireless routers and print servers. After each diagram description, there’s a “Things you can do with this network” section denoted by a wrench graphic. It describes specific network tasks for that network topology. It’s assumed that for any type of home network, you’ve already gone through the Components section on page 9 and the TCP/IP Basics section on page 23. It will also benefit you greatly to understand how firewalls block file sharing by default, and need to be configured to allow file and printer sharing on your home network. Firewalls are covered in detail on page 134. Simply connecting 2 computers - wired Here’s a home network at its most basic. Two computers are directly connected with a crossover cable, with a network card in each PC. Sharing the Internet is not represented on this simple network, but both computers are perfectly capable of sharing files and printers. It’s a good idea to assign an IP address to each PC for this setup, covered on page 44. Assign an IP and Subnet Mask to each PC on page 44 Share files on page 232 Share a Printer on page 157 13
  • 14. Simply connecting 2 computers - wireless If both computers are wireless, you can set up what’s known as an “ad hoc” wireless network. Ad-hoc means that there is no central point, such as a router. It’s simply a “peer to peer” wireless network. Of course, each PC would need a wireless network adapter. As with the simple wired network above, assigning static IP’s to each PC would work well. Establish an Ad-hoc wireless network on page 125 Assign an IP and Subnet Mask to each PC on page 44 Share files on page 232 Share a printer on page 157 Simply connecting 3 or more computers - wired A hub is used to join 3 or more computers. Since there are no computers directly connected to each other, crossover cables are not used. Standard, “straight through” CAT5/5e/6 Ethernet cables make the connections to the hub. Assigning IP’s is a good idea here, covered on page 44. You may be wondering, “If I put multiple network cards in my computers, I won’t need a hub”. That may be true, but you’ll spend a lot more money and way more time configuring the network that way. Assign an IP and Subnet Mask to each PC on page 44 Share files on page 232 Share a printer on page 157 14
  • 15. Simply connecting 3 or more computers - wireless You can also set up an “ad hoc” wireless network between 3 or more computers. Establish an Ad-hoc wireless network on page 125 Assign an IP and Subnet Mask to each PC on page 44 Share files on page 232 Share a printer on page 157 At this point, you’re ready to take a look at how to share the web among your computers. We’ll start with using ICS, commonly seen in dialup situations, but it can also be used for broadband as well. Don’t worry – we’ll get to routers and printers soon enough. Sharing the Internet with 2 computers using ICS - wired Let’s add the Internet to a simple 2-computer network. By enabling ICS (page 61) on the PC with web access, the second computer will be able to surf the web. You can use ICS with broadband or dialup, and it’s a built-in feature of Windows. ICS uses its own IP scheme, so you won’t be manually assigning IP addresses here. 15
  • 16. Enable ICS on one computer on page 61 Share files on page 232 Share a printer on page 157 Sharing the Internet with 2 computers using ICS - wireless You can also use ICS wirelessly. Enabling ICS is the same whether wired or wireless, and is covered on page 61. Establish an Ad-hoc wireless network on page 125 Enable ICS on one computer page 61 Share files on page 232 Share a printer on page 157 Sharing the Internet with 3 or more computers (using ICS) With a wired network, a PC running ICS can service 2 or more other computers via a hub. Keep in mind that sharing dialup between just 2 computers is slow enough. 3 or more computers trying to share a dialup connection will be brutal. This network configuration works better with broadband. 16
  • 17. Enable ICS on one computer on page 61 Share files on page 232 Share a printer on page 157 Likewise, an ad hoc wireless network can also share the web via ICS. Establish an Ad-hoc wireless network on page 125 Enable ICS on one computer on page 61 Share files on page 232 Share a printer on page 157 Using a router to share the web - wired If you have cable or DSL (and increasingly satellite) broadband, you’ll find that a router has distinct advantages over ICS. Each PC can access the web independently, and expansion to allow more computers is easy – just plug the new PC into the router. A router can serve from 1 to 4 (and even 8) wired computers. You can add a hub for even more computers, but a significant boost in flexibility is to be had when the router is wireless, described next. 17
  • 18. Configure your router for web access on page 81 Share files on page 232 Share a printer on page 157 What about satellite or “direct wireless”? Depending on your provider, your modem may or may not be compatible with most broadband routers, which are geared towards the cable/DSL crowd. If it is compatible, then your routered network would look exactly like a cable or DSL environment. However, your modem may have a built-in router, which would allow you to use a hub to distribute the web. Otherwise, you can modify a satellite home network by following the same rules as cable/DSL. Note: Having two routers on the same network is a bad idea, since they will be in competition with each other. At times, people have used a wireless router to expand an already routered network, by disabling the routing function on one of the routers. In this way, there is only one functioning router on the network. Configure your router for web access on page 81 Share files on page 232 Share a printer on page 157 18
  • 19. Using a router to share the web - wireless Most wireless routers have room for 4 wired computers as well, which make for a very flexible network. Adding wireless or wired computers is not a problem here. This is a very common home network setup. Configure your router for web access on page 81 Configure the wireless features of your router on page 89 Configure your wireless computers on page 90 Share files on page 232 Share a printer on page 157 Adding wireless to an existing wired network or expanding wireless range (using a wireless access point) A wireless access point provides a “bridge” between your wired and wireless network. Note that it needs to be physically plugged in to a router or hub. You could also run the access point from a wireless router, to provide wireless coverage on another floor of your house, or where there is poor signal. 19
  • 20. Configure your wireless access point on page 100 Configure your wireless computers on page 90 Configure your router for web access on page 81 Share files on page 232 Share a printer on page 157 Sharing a printer directly from a PC There are two ways to share printers. The simplest is to share a printer that’s physically attached to a PC, shown here in various sample home networks. As long as the PC that owns the printer is turned on, all of your other computers will be able to print to it. Here, a wireless PC is sharing its printer. A wired PC in an ICS-based network shares out its printer. Share a printer directly from a PC on page 157 20
  • 21. Sharing a printer using a print server Here, a wired print server connects a printer to the router, accessible by all computers. Increasingly, printers are equipped with network ports, allowing them to be “on the network” directly, and not tethered to any single PC. As long as the printer is on, all computers will be able to print to it. This is just about that same as using a print server, which is used to convert a standard USB or Parallel printer to a network printer. Likewise, a wireless print server can be used to attach a printer to a wireless network. Configure a print server on page 193 Examples of how not to set up a home network So far, you’ve seen diagrams of home networks that are connected properly. By showing you what’s wrong with the following networks and why, you’ll be better able to deal with configuration issues. 21
  • 22. Here’s a broadband network shared out through a hub. If you’ve paid for multiple IP addresses, you can share the Internet, but don’t expect to share files or printers on this network. Hubs lack the intelligence to separate your internal network from the external network of the Internet. A router in place of the hub would make things work here. When directly connecting two computers, a crossover Ethernet cable must be used. Using a patch cable here would be like there was no cable at all; you simply will not have a connection. Using a crossover cable here will solve the issue. Where do I begin here? A single PC is connected both to the modem and the router. If you have a router, no PC directly connects to the modem. All computers connect to the router only. Modems that have USB-only connections (and thus can not connect to a router, only to a PC) are pretty much useless on a home network. You’re stuck with running ICS on the PC that has the modem. It’s probably worth trashing the USB-only modem in favor of one that has a network port. 22
  • 23. TCP/IP Basics TCP/IP is the language of networks. The Internet, corporate networks, and even your home network run TCP/IP. It stands for Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol. This may seem like a tedious, complicated subject -- indeed it is – but a bit of targeted, basic knowledge will leave you worlds ahead in your understanding of your home network. Your IP address Each computer and device on a network has a unique IP address. 4 numbers separated by three dots represent an IP address. Here are some example IP addresses: 212.34.65.7 45.132.89.5 192.168.1.4 10.0.0.4 121.4.67.5 Quick note: the numbers between the periods are called “octets”, so an IP address is made up of four octets. If two computers on the same network have the same IP address, an IP conflict will occur and one or both of them will not be able to communicate. There are mathematical reasons why each octet cannot exceed 254. Therefore, an IP of 192.345.43.54 is invalid. How your Internet access works All Internet access, regardless of type, works when your ISP supplies you with an IP address that’s compatible with “the rest of the world”. You take your place among millions of other computers that are “on the web”. Those with a single PC that dials up to the web, or with a broadband modem directly connected to your PC, will find that your PC is directly on the web. When a router (or a PC that functions as a router) comes into the picture, things get a bit different. Those computers connected to the router will have a completely separate set of IP addresses from the outside world. Your router acts as a bridge between your local network and the web. Take a look at the two diagrams below. One is a home network with a router, and the other shares out the web via ICS. Even though a PC runs ICS, it functions as a router. 23
  • 24. The red line denotes the dividing line between the world of the web, and your home network. “Inside” versus “outside” IP addresses This is a huge concept. Your home network will have a different “class” of IP addresses from the Internet. A router (or a PC acting as a router by running ICS) acts as the dividing line between the outside world, and the inside world of your home network. From the diagram, it looks like the router is in both worlds at the same time – indeed it is. It will have two separate IP addresses, one for the web, and one for your home network. Here are some examples of “outside” IP addresses, typical of what you would see at your broadband or dialup modem, as well as the “WAN” interface of your router or PC running ICS: 212.34.76.34 9.123.5.67 100.94.56.3 167.85.44.6 Notice how the above IP addresses are all over the map. They have to be – the Internet is a very big place. When it comes to your local network, there are certain ranges of IP addresses that are “reserved” for your personal, local use. Here are the most common: 192.168.x.x 10.0.0.x 172.16.x.x Note “X” can be any number from 1 to 254 (the last octet will not be zero – more on that later). Here are some devices with typical IP values: 24
  • 25. Typical IP addresses on the “LAN” (Local Area Network) side of a router: 192.168.1.1 192.168.0.1 (This is also the IP of a PC running ICS) 192.168.2.1 10.0.0.1 Why do router IP addresses typically end in 1? Routers are thought of as the “beginning” of the network, and that could be one explanation. There’s nothing preventing a router IP from ending in something other than 1, but why mess with what’s already working? Typical IP addresses of computers connected to a router: 192.168.1.100 192.168.1.101 192.168.0.100 192.168.0.101 192.168.2.100 192.168.2.101 10.0.0.2 10.0.0.3 172.16.x.x, although a valid internal network scheme, is quite rare. How IP addresses are obtained – Dynamic versus Static Dynamic IP’s Most likely, your ISP dynamically assigns you an IP address for your modem from an available pool of free IP’s. Internal home network IP’s are usually dynamically assigned from your router (or your PC functioning as a router via ICS), from an available pool of IP’s. For a PC to be able to receive an IP from a router, the PC needs to be set to “Obtain an IP automatically”. This is the default setting on network cards. As the PC boots up, it broadcasts a request for an IP address. The router answers, and dynamically assigns an IP via DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol). The router is acting as a DHCP server, “serving up” an IP address when requested. It’s likely that when you reboot your computer, or turn it on the next morning, it will obtain a different IP address. What happens when a computer requests an IP address, but can’t get one due to connectivity or configuration issues? It’s simple – the PC self-assigns a “bogus” 169.254.x.x IP address. If you find your computer has an IP beginning with 169.254, it’s configured to obtain an IP automatically, and has attempted to do so, but failed. You won’t be getting anywhere with this IP. 25
  • 26. Check your connections – is the PC connected to something that’s capable of supplying IP addresses, such as a router? If so, is that device configured to act as a DHCP server to give out IP addresses? Try rebooting your PC. More in the Troubleshooting section on page 279. Static IP’s When it comes to your Internet connection, “static” or permanent IP addresses are expensive, and are primarily used if you host a web site on your computer. You can also choose to manually configure and permanently assign an IP address to your computers. A manual assignment may also be needed for certain Internet connections, check with your ISP. A static IP comes in handy in the following situations: a. You’re just connecting two computers together without web access and you want to transfer files. b. You’re having trouble “browsing” the network for computer names and find that directly accessing your other computers via their IP address is better. For this to work conveniently, you want to be sure that the computer you want access to has the same IP day after day. c. The DHCP functionality of your router doesn’t seem to like your PC, and refuses to give you an IP. There is no harm in setting one or all computers to a static IP, even when there’s a router set to give out IP addresses, as long as you’re not conflicting with other devices. When assigning static IP’s, you’ll need to be acutely aware of the two other major components of IP addressing: subnet masks and default gateways. Subnet Masks and Subnets: Simply put, this is probably the subnet mask on all of your computers: 255.255.255.0 Each IP has a subnet mask. The subnet mask, when applied to the IP address, determines the “subnet” your computer is on. Here’s an easy way to think of this: Note there are three “255’s”. Watch what happens when we “mask” the three 255’s over our IP address: In the diagram at right, I have a typical subnet mask matched up with a typical home network IP address. Note the thin box around the first three blocks (“octets”) of numbers. The three 255’s “mask over” the first three octets in the IP address. This means that if an IP of 192.168.1.100 has a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0, the IP is on the “192.168.1” network. 26
  • 27. This means that an IP of 192.168.1.100 with a mask of 255.255.255.0 is on the 192.168.1.0 subnet. To be perfectly clear, 192.168.1.0 is not an IP address, because it ends in 0. 192.168.1.0 is a subnet and can be translated as “all computers that range from 192.168.1.1 to 192.168.1.254”. Any IP’s that are not on the same subnet will not be able to directly communicate. Long story short, your subnet mask on all computers will probably be 255.255.255.0, and the first three octets of all of your IP addresses on all of your network devices (computers, routers, etc) must be the same. Don’t confuse the term “subnet mask” with “subnet”. A subnet is a grouping of IP addresses that are on the same network. For instance, the following IP’s would be on the 192.168.1.0 subnet: 192.168.1.100 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.45 Knowing your subnet, and the ability to define it with an expression such as 192.168.1.0, is helpful in configuring firewalls to allow your network access to itself in order to share files and printers. Ready for some IP fun? I thought so! Try to pick out the one IP address that will not be able to communicate on the sample network below. The first three octets have been highlighted to make it easier for you: Router: 192.168.1.1 PC 1: 192.168.1.100 PC 2: 192.168.1.101 PC 3: 192.168.1.101 Wireless access point: 192.168.0.250 PC 4: 192.168.1.105 Indeed, that wireless access point you’ve just bought isn’t the same brand as your router, and it uses a different IP scheme. Although they may look quite similar, IP’s beginning with 192.168.1 and 192.168.0 are not on the same network, and will not be able to communicate. 27
  • 28. If you find yourself in the above situation, you’ll need to reconfigure the IP on the access point to agree with your 192.168.1 network. Of course, you’ll have to access it first, most likely via a browser-based setup page. To do that, you’ll need to communicate with the access point, but how? Your computers aren’t on the same subnet as the access point and will not be able to communicate with it. No problem – just assign an IP to one of your computers, such as 192.168.0.10, and a mask of 255.255.255.0. That PC will be able to communicate with the access point, enough so that you can change it’s IP to one that fits on your network, such as 192.168.1.250. An excellent tutorial of how to get a new network device to conform to your current network is found in the print server section on page 193. Did you notice something else? PC 2 and PC 3 have the same IP address – conflict here! Reboot one of them to see if it takes a different IP. Default Gateway Default Gateway = the IP I look to for web access This is the IP of the device the computer looks to for web access. In other words, this will be the IP of your router, or the IP of a computer that functions as a router, as with ICS. Typical default gateway (or just “gateway”) values are: 192.168.1.1 192.168.0.1 192.168.2.1 10.0.0.1 Note that router IP addresses tend to end in 1. This is because a router is traditionally at the “beginning” of a network, although this is not mandatory. Let’s look at the whole picture, looking at typical values: Example A: Typical network with router Computer 1: IP: 192.168.0.100 Subnet mask: 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway: 192.168.0.1 28
  • 29. Computer 2: IP: 192.168.0.101 Subnet mask: 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway: 192.168.0.1 Router: IP: 192.168.0.1 Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0 This network is on the 192.168.0.0 subnet. Example B: Typical network with router Computer 1: IP: 192.168.1.100 Subnet mask: 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway: 192.168.1.1 Computer 2: IP: 192.168.1.101 Subnet mask: 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway: 192.168.1.1 Router: IP: 192.168.1.1 Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0 This network is on the 192.168.1.0 subnet. Example C: Typical network with router Computer 1: IP: 10.0.0.2 Subnet mask: 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway: 10.0.0.1 29
  • 30. Computer 2: IP: 10.0.0.3 Subnet mask: 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway: 10.0.0.1 Router: IP: 10.0.0.1 Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0 This network is on the 10.0.0.0 subnet. Example D: 2 Computers without web access directly connected These values are assigned manually Computer 1: IP: 192.168.1.100 Subnet mask: 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway: <leave blank> Computer 2: IP: 192.168.1.101 Subnet mask: 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway: <leave blank> MAC Addresses No, I’m not talking about Apple’s Mac line of computers. MAC stands for Media Access Control. Each network card on your PC (wired or wireless) will have a unique MAC address assigned to it. It’s a hex value that looks like this: 00-0D-56-12-4B-AA. It’s a hard-assigned value that is built in to the network card. The first 6 characters represent the manufacturer. The last 6 represent the individual network card from that manufacturer. Therefore, no two MAC addresses are alike, and a MAC address singly identifies a particular network card, regardless of its IP address. 30
  • 31. You can find out your computer’s MAC address by getting expanded IP information, covered on page 32. Routers will have two MAC addresses, one associated with the LAN (internal) side, and one associated with the WAN (Internet) side. You can find out both by exploring the setup pages of the router. You can use MAC addresses to lock down your network, by only allowing your MAC addresses web access. An overview of this is on page 111, where I only allow my specific wireless cards (as identified by their MAC address) wireless access. DNS Servers DNS stands for Domain Name System. Without this, you would not be able to type in a web address, such as www.google.com, and get to a web site. DNS translates IP addresses into ‘domain names’ such as www.pcguidebook.com. Without DNS, you would be typing in the following to get to Google: http://216.239.37.99 As far as TCP/IP settings go, there is a place to specify your DNS server IP address, where your PC would look to in order to surf the web using names rather than IP addresses. This information is usually obtained automatically, but you’ll need to be aware of your DNS server IP addresses (there are usually 2) if you choose to go with manual IP assignment. A quick look at your router’s setup pages, or an expanded IP command on your web surfing PC will reveal your DNS servers, covered on page 32. What’s my IP address? I love this question – the answer can tell you a world of information, such as: - Will that new wireless access point I bought fit into my existing network? - Do I have at least basic connectivity to my router? - Does the router have a connection to my Internet service? - Are all my computers on the same network? In addition, knowing the IP addresses of your computers can help out tremendously in all aspects of home network troubleshooting. Take IP addresses very seriously. They are at the very core of your home network. 31
  • 32. In fact, when you contact me for help – most of the time the first thing I’ll ask you is “What are your IP addresses?” When finding out your IP address, there are two levels of information. The basic level includes: IP address Subnet Mask Default Gateway This basic information is usually enough for most troubleshooting. However, there is also a way to get the following additional information: DNS servers MAC Address DHCP status (enabled or not?) For each operating system, I’ll show you how to get both basic and expanded IP information. Find out your IP: Windows Vista Click the Windows icon in the lower left, then type cmd in the search box and press enter. 32
  • 33. In the resulting black command window, type ipconfig and press enter, shown below. Lots of stuff here – but the important information is right up top. It’s the “IPv4” address, and in the above example it’s 192.168.2.103. IPv4 is the worldwide standard for TCP/IP. Windows Vista also has IPv6 enabled by default, and this is why you’re also going to see lots of “Tunnel” adapters, and long hex addresses. IPv6, and the values it spits out at you, can be safely ignored. It’s IPv4 you want. 33
  • 34. For expanded IP information, you can also run ipconfig /all in the command window to get your DNS server values and MAC address, shown here. The MAC address is labeled as a “physical address”. Find out your IP: Windows XP Home/Pro Go to Start > Run: In the Run dialog box, type cmd and click OK: 34
  • 35. In the resulting black DOS window, type ipconfig at the prompt and hit enter. Your IP, subnet mask, and default gateway are reported. Expanded IP information with XP Home/Pro: Sometimes you need a bit more information, such as the MAC address of your network card, or the DNS server addresses. Type ipconfig /all in the command window, and you’ll get lots of additional information about your network connection and settings. Your MAC address is reported as the Physical Address, which is partially blurred here. 35
  • 36. If I ask you for your ipconfig /all output, there’s an easy way to send it to me. To send the output to a text file that you can email to me, just run ipconfig /all > pc1.txt Nothing will appear to happen, but a text file named “pc1.txt” will be in the directory you were in when you ran the command. In this case, we’ll find pc1.txt in My Computer, C:Documents and SettingsEd. With multiple PC’s, name the files “pc1.txt”, “pc2.txt”, etc. At right is the text file ready to be attached to an email. Find out your IP: Windows 2000 Go to Start > RUN. Type cmd and click OK. 36
  • 37. Type ipconfig in the resulting black window. Your IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway are reported. Expanded IP information: Windows 2000 If you need to know a little bit more about your network, run ipconfig /all instead of just ipconfig. In addition to standard information, your MAC address (Physical address) is reported along with DNS and DHCP information. 37
  • 38. Find out your IP: Windows 98 Go to Start > RUN. In the RUN box, type winipcfg and click OK. Select your network card from the dropdown. I have a Netgear card in this case. PPP and AOL adapters are not network cards. Once you select your network card, your MAC address, (called Adapter Address), IP, subnet mask, and default gateway are reported. 38
  • 39. Expanded IP information: Windows 98 Click on the More Info button to access your DNS and other expanded information. Find out your IP: Windows Millennium You’ll find that Windows ME is quite similar to 98. Go to Start > Run: 39
  • 40. In the Run dialog box, type winipcfg and click OK: From the dropdown, select your network card. I happen to have an “Intel 8255”. Note: PPP and AOL adapters are NOT network cards. In addition to your IP, subnet mask, and default gateway, your MAC address is also reported. Windows ME refers to the MAC address as the “Adapter Address”. 40
  • 41. Expanded IP information: Windows Millennium You can click the “More Info” button on the IP Configuration dialog box to get additional information such as your MAC address. Windows ME refers to the MAC address as your “Adapter Address”. Ping – A basic test of connectivity No matter which version of Windows you have, you can run a utility called “ping” to determine if you have basic connectivity to another device on your network. You can choose to ping your router, a network printer, or another PC on your network. Although you can ping a computer name, it’s best to try to ping the IP address. Here are the general steps: 41
  • 42. 1. Find out the IP address of the PC or router you want to ping 2. Open a command window on one of your computers 3. Ping the IP address of the target device Interpreting the results of ping Success: If you can successfully ping the target device, it means you have at least basic network connectivity. TCP/IP is configured properly at both your PC and the target. The network connection is sound. File sharing or web access is not guaranteed, but a successful ping certainly means that the foundation is there. It’s possible a firewall could still be in the way. Failure: There is no connectivity – you’ll get absolutely nowhere trying further communications until you fix the underlying issue. Check for bad cables (remember the proper usage of a crossover cable, page 12). A firewall could be blocking everything – page 134. Be sure that the IP information is correct at each device. For example: Be sure that the two devices are on the same subnet Be sure that they have the same subnet mask If applicable, be sure they have the same default gateway Now that you have some background on ping, let’s try it out. You’ll see what success and failure look like. The key is to get to a command prompt, then do the ping. With Vista, go to the Windows logo in the lower left, type cmd in the search area, then press enter. 42
  • 43. For all other Windows versions, Go to Start > RUN. You’ll type in a command here. XP/2000: cmd 98/ME: command Click OK. A successful ping... In the resulting command window, type ping 192.168.1.100 and then hit enter. Of course, change the sample IP address to reflect your target PC or device. “Reply from” means that you have successfully pinged the device. 43
  • 44. A ping failure… “Request timed out” means that the ping has failed. Accessing TCP/IP Settings Essentially, most of you with or without routers, or whether you’re on broadband or dialup, won’t need to touch your TCP/IP settings. This is because most home networks are geared to give the computers the network information they need automatically. This works well, because by default, all network cards (wired or wireless) are set to “obtain an IP automatically”. Along with the IP, other information such as the Default Gateway and DNS servers are also given to the PC automatically. That being said, there are a few reasons why one may want to access their TCP/IP settings: - Temporarily change the IP on one PC in order to communicate with a certain device, like a newly bought print server that is not on the same IP scheme (subnet) as your other computers. Once you can access the new device, you can change its IP to be “in line” with your existing network, then set your PC back to its previous IP settings. - Confirm your settings for troubleshooting purposes - Permanently assign specific IP addresses to your computers. Usually, you are not guaranteed the same IP address each time you boot your PC. Assigning an IP overrides this so you’ll know, for instance, that the PC upstairs will always be 192.168.1.102. This is useful if you want to map network drives via IP address, which is much more likely than a network browse to be successful when sharing folders. - Simply assign an IP address to two computers (not on the web) to get them to share files. 44
  • 45. Remember that if you manually assign your IP and subnet mask – don’t forget about your Default Gateway and DNS settings if you are surfing the web via a router or ICS! Two computers connected via a crossover cable without web access do not need a Default Gateway – just leave it blank. They still need an IP and subnet mask. You never need to change TCP/IP settings on a dialup adapter. Ready? Let’s take a look at how to access TCP/IP settings. TCP/IP Settings: Windows Vista Right-click on the network icon in the lower right, near the clock, and select Network and Sharing Center. Click on “Manage network connections” on the left. 45
  • 46. If you haven’t noticed by now, Vista loves to pop up a “Windows needs your permission to continue” message - get used to it! Here, you’ll see all of your network adapters – wired, wireless, dialup, and any directly-connected broadband modems. Usually, TCP only need to be looked at on the Local Area Connection (your wired adapter) or Wireless Network Connection. Right-click on the connection you want to take a look at, and select Properties. Lots of stuff. For TCP/IP settings – you’re only after one thing: IPv4. Highlight it and click Properties, shown here. Note that IPv6 is here - ignore it. See the two “Link-Layer Topology” items at the bottom? Those are installed by default on the adapter, and they are responsible for allowing Vista to “see” other Vista machines on your network, via the Network Map. More on that when we get to file/printer sharing. 46
  • 47. In most cases, the defaults here of “obtain automatically” will work. If, and only if, you need to assign settings, here are some typical values that would work on a network that has a router IP of 192.168.2.1. No need to click Advanced. Note my alternate DNS server is an “outside” address, and I got this from my broadband modem settings. 47
  • 48. TCP/IP Settings: Windows XP Home/Pro Go to Start > Control Panel In Control Panel, I’ve selected the Classic View. I can toggle back to Category View on the left if I want to. Double-click on Network Connections. 48
  • 49. You’ll see your wired network card, dialup connection, and wireless connection if you have them installed. Note there’s a “1394 Connection”. This is present on most newer PC’s, and simply means you have a FireWire port. Why Microsoft decided to put it here is beyond me. My Local Area Connection, which is my wired network card, is the one I want to access. Right-click and select Properties on Local Area Connection. If you had a wireless connection instead, you would right- click on it rather than Local Area Connection. Double-click on Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) in the list. Alternatively, you can highlight Internet Protocol and click Properties. A quick note here – the Advanced tab will let you configure the Windows firewall (more on that later). 49
  • 50. Here’s what you’ll see on most home networks – everything is “obtained automatically”. However, if for some reason you want to manually assign IP information, read on. Only if you want to manually assign settings, click the “Use the following IP address” radio button. You’ll notice that the bottom section for DNS servers also becomes editable. I’ve inserted typical values that would be on a home network. Note my Default Gateway and one of my DNS addresses is 192.168.1.1 – the router, since I look to the router for both values anyway. The Alternate DNS server is optional. I’ve found that sometimes it’s not enough to put the IP of the router (or the PC functioning as a router, in the case of ICS), and you need a “real” DNS server address to get things going. I got the value from my router setup pages. Again, static values like this are kind of a pain unless you have a special reason for doing so. 50
  • 51. TCP/IP Settings: Windows 2000 Right-click on My Network Places and select Properties. Right-click on your network connection and Select Properties. Local Area Connection refers to a wired network adapter. If we had a wireless card, it would be here and we would be right-clicking on that instead. 51
  • 52. Double click on Internet Protocol, or highlight it and click Properties. Here are the default settings for most home networks – everything is obtained automatically. These settings are perfect for most all home networks. 52
  • 53. If you need to manually assign an IP for troubleshooting or other reasons, click the “Use the following IP address” radio button and fill in your values. Don’t forget that you may need DNS server addresses if this is a shared Internet connection behind a router or attached to another PC. TCP/IP Settings: Windows 98 On your desktop, right-click on the Network Neighborhood icon and select Properties. 53
  • 54. In the list, double-click on “TCP/IP -> Your Network Card”. You can also highlight the entry then click the Properties button. Here, it’s TCP/IP on the Netgear FA310TX. Note there is another entry for the Netgear, represented by a green circuit board. You don’t want that – you need “TCP/IP > (your network card)". Again, dialup adapters need not be messed with. Quick note – The File and Print Sharing button here will become important once we want to share files from 98. Obtain an IP automatically is what one normally sees on a home network. If you need to manually assign an IP for a special reason, read on. 54
  • 55. Click the “Specify an IP address” radio button, and fill out the IP and subnet mask. Don’t forget that we need to also tell the PC what its Gateway is, as well as DNS. Click the Gateway tab. Shown is the typical setting on a home network – the setting is blank, and will be assigned automatically by a router or ICS. If you are manually assigning, type your gateway in the space provided and click Add. It will appear below in the Installed gateway section. I’ve never really heard of multiple gateways, but it appears there’s room for lots of them here. Just one will do. 55
  • 56. Click the DNS configuration tab. Supply your DNS server information provided by your ISP, or you can find out via the setup pages on your router. TCP/IP Settings: Windows ME Go to Start > Settings > Control Panel. 56
  • 57. Be sure to click on the text link “view all Control Panel options” if you don’t see a Network icon. Double-click on the Network icon. 57
  • 58. Double-click on “TCP/IP - > Network adapter”. In this case, we have an Intel 8255. As with any home network, automatic settings are usually best, shown here. Should you need to manually assign an IP, click on the ”Specify an IP address” radio button. 58
  • 59. Here, I’ve typed in a typical IP and subnet mask usually found with home networks. If you have web access through a router or other PC, be sure to add your gateway IP address on the Gateway tab. Once I click on Add, the gateway IP will appear in the “Installed gateways” section. 59
  • 60. Don’t forget your DNS values. Remember, you can either put the IP of your router, or the “real” DNS IP’s found on your router’s setup pages. Here, I’ve added both the router and a “real” DNS server IP. You’ll need a host name as well, be sure to enter the same name as your computer name. You can leave the domain blank. Sharing the Internet One a home network, there are two ways to share your Internet connection. Essentially, one method entails using a router, the other does not. Without a router – Internet Connection Sharing Internet Connection Sharing, or ICS, is a built-in feature of Windows since Windows 98. Mostly seen with dialup connections, it enables you to share out the web from one PC to your other computers. It can also be used with broadband connections such as DSL, cable or satellite. In addition to your physical Internet connection on the PC, you’ll need an available network connection, wired or wireless, to be able to “transmit” the web to your other computer. Since your other computer(s) will be surfing the web “through” your web-connected PC, it will have to remain turned on in order for the other computer to surf the web. Your PC is functioning as a router when ICS is enabled. 60
  • 61. The ICS version on 98 is known to be buggy, so it’s best to run ICS on a newer PC running Vista or XP. When ICS is enabled, it assigns an IP of 192.168.0.1 to the network card. That card then becomes capable of automatically assigning an IP (like a DHCP server) to another computer that’s connected to it. The ‘connected’ computer should be set to “obtain an IP automatically” and come up with an IP beginning with 192.168.0.x. With a router For most broadband connections, a router is the best option. It connects to your modem and manages your Internet connection through browser-based setup pages. Wireless routers also provide your wireless computers with web access. Each PC, wired or wireless, can access the web independently. The router always stays on and maintains the connection with your modem. Very few routers are compatible with dialup, since it doesn’t make much sense to share a dialup connection among 3 or more computers. Basic router setup to connect to your broadband modem and share the web begins on page 81. Enabling ICS Enabling ICS on Windows Vista Right-click on the network icon in the lower right, near the clock, and select Network and Sharing Center. 61
  • 62. Click on Manage network connections on the left. Right-click on the connection you want to share out, then click Properties. In this example, I’m right-clicking on one of my ‘standard’ network interfaces, since I don’t have a direct web connection on this Vista machine. You would actually be right-clicking on the connection named “dialup” or “charter broadband”, etc. 62
  • 63. On the Sharing tab, check off “Allow other network users to connect..”. If you have more than one available network interface (wired or wireless), you’ll get a choice as to which one you want ICS to be offered through. I only have one other adapter, so I don’t get a choice. Once I click OK, I’ll check my other adapter to see if ICS has applied the proper IP. Indeed, ICS has properly assigned an IP, and any computers connected to this interface should be able to surf the web. 63
  • 64. Enabling ICS on Windows XP Home / Pro To avoid a warning message later, it’s a good idea to enable your dialup properties to be for “all users”. Go to Start > Control Panel, Network Connections. Right-click on your dialup connection (or high-speed connection), and select Connect. Under “Save this username and password”, check the “Anyone who uses this computer” radio button. This will ensure a minimum of fuss when trying to surf the web through this PC, no matter who’s logged on. Now for the actual enabling of ICS. 64
  • 65. Go to Start > Control Panel. This is the “classic” Control Panel view. You can toggle between Classic and Category views by the text link on the left. Double click on Network Connections. 65
  • 66. Right-click on the connection you want to share, and select Properties. We’re sharing a dialup connection here, but if you have a “high speed” connection, you’ll be right- clicking on that instead. You’ll notice a wireless and a Local Area Connection here, but these are not Internet connections, they are simply network cards. One of them will be used to “deliver” the shared Internet connection to another PC. Again, the 1394 connection is simply FireWire and has nothing to do with networking. On the Advanced tab of your chosen Internet connection (most likely dialup), check off “Allow other network users to connect through this computer’s Internet connection” under Internet Connection Sharing. The other checkboxes below it will be checked by default, so you can keep them checked if desired. We happen to have more than one network interface on this PC, a wired and wireless one, so we need to select which one we want to use to “broadcast” ICS. Note the “Select a private network connection” drop- down box. 66
  • 67. Here’s a zoom of the drop-down, where I need to select a network interface through which ICS will work. I’ll choose Local Area Connection, which is my wired network card. Click OK to enable ICS. If your Internet connection isn’t set up for “all users”, described previously, you’ll get a rather nasty message: This doesn’t mean much, but you may have to manually connect to the web in order for the second PC to surf the web. No big deal, since you do it every day anyway. How do I know ICS is running? No matter what your previous TCP/IP settings were on the network card, ICS should have changed it to 192.168.0.1 with a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0, and a blank default gateway. A quick look confirms this: Note that simply assigning these values manually does not enable ICS – you need to actually enable ICS. 67
  • 68. Enabling ICS on Windows 2000 Go to Start > Settings > Network and Dial-up Connections. Right-click on the connection you want to share out and select Properties. In this case, it’s our dialup connection. 68
  • 69. On the Sharing tab, check off “Enable Internet Connection Sharing”. By default, on-demand dialing will be enabled, which is fine. Click OK. Windows 2000 is nice enough to let you know that the IP will be changed to 192.168.0.1, shown below. Click Yes to enable ICS. 69
  • 70. Enabling ICS on Windows 98 Go to Start > Settings > Control Panel. Double click on Add/Remove Programs. 70
  • 71. On the Windows Setup tab, scroll down and check off Internet Tools, then click Details. Check off Internet Connection Sharing, and then click OK to get back to the previous dialog box. Click OK again. 71
  • 72. Uh oh. It looks like we need the 98 CD. It’s actually looking for the 98 “.cab” files, which may be in c:windowsoptionscabs if you’re lucky. We happen to have the CD, so there’s no problem here. If you’re unable to point Windows to where the 98 cab files are, you won’t be able to use ICS. While it was copying files from the CD, it asked about which file version we wanted to keep. Always keep the existing file, so we’ll say Yes every time this message appears. The wizard will launch. Click Next. 72
  • 73. Select the type of web access you’ll be sharing. A floppy? You’ve got to be kidding me. We’ll go through the motions, click Next. 73
  • 74. I’ll click Cancel to skip the floppy creation. There’s absolutely no need for it. Click Finish. Once you reboot, ICS should be enabled. 74
  • 75. Enabling ICS on Windows ME Go to Start > Settings > Control Panel. In Control Panel, click “view all Control Panel options” on the left if you haven’t already done so in the past. This allows you to see all the control panel items at once without having to guess which category they may fit in. 75
  • 76. Double click Add/Remove Programs. On the Windows Setup tab, select Communications, and then click Details. 76
  • 77. Check off Internet Connection Sharing in the list, and then click OK. You’ll be back to the Add/Remove Programs Properties box above. Click OK out of there as well. The Wizard starts. Click Next. 77
  • 78. Here, I select a direct connection to the web using my dialup account. Click Next. Be sure to specify which network interface the web will be shared out from. Here, it’s my wired network card. Click Next 78
  • 79. If desired, enable “on demand” dialing by providing your account username and password. Click Next. You really don’t want to create a floppy here. Don’t worry – everything works without it. Click Next. 79
  • 80. Click Finish. Click Yes to restart your PC. Once rebooted, you get a congratulatory message. Click OK and check to see if your network card is now set to 192.168.0.1. 80
  • 81. Router Settings All routers, wired or wireless, will have the same basic scheme for getting connected, and be able to perform the following: 1. Accessing its setup pages via your browser 2. Telling the router how to connect to your broadband modem 3. Confirming that the router is connected to the modem 4. Change passwords, enable security, and other advanced features such as port forwarding In addition to all of the above, wireless routers will have the additional responsibility of managing wireless connectivity, discussed on page 89. Connect the router’s WAN or Internet port to your broadband modem, and connect at least one PC to the router’s remaining ports. Now that you’ve connected the router to at least one PC and the modem, it’s time to access its setup pages by typing in the IP address of the router in your browser. Keep in mind that almost all routers give out IP addresses to computers automatically, so you’ll be in good shape if your PC is set to “obtain an IP automatically” (page 44). Here, I’ve typed in the IP address of the router in my browser, which I found out by reading the router’s instructions. Other common IP addresses would be 192.168.0.1, 192.168.2.1 and 10.0.0.1. 81
  • 82. You’ll most likely be confronted with a logon prompt. Consult your router’s documentation for default username and password values. You’ll probably want to change the default password later on, to protect against unauthorized access to your router. Click OK. First step: Connect the router to broadband By default, the first page you’ll see, Internet Setup, will probably have “Obtain an IP automatically” as its Internet connection type. This actually works quite well for cable modems, and you may find you’ll be able to surf the web without any settings changes at the router. 82
  • 83. If you don’t have a cable modem, and have DSL, you’ll probably need to select another Internet Connection Type. By far, the most common alternative to the default of “obtain automatically” is PPPoE (PPPoA in Europe and elsewhere). It’s used for most DSL modems. A typical router configuration for a DSL modem In this example, we’re using PPPoE as our connection type, which is common with DSL. Note for DSL users: Most, but not all DSL uses PPPoE. It could be that your DSL uses the same connection scheme as cable broadband. The only way to be sure is to contact your DSL provider. We also need a user name and password, which were provided by the DSL company. This is not the information we log into the router setup pages with – this is the information our DSL company needs so we can surf the web. Whenever you change settings, be sure to click “Save settings” (or similar) at the bottom. 83
  • 84. Every router will have some type of Status page, where you can determine whether the router is connected to your modem. On the Status > Local Network page, there’s a DHCP client table button, where you can see who’s attached to the router. I have two computers, one wired, and one wireless, that are currently turned on, so I expect to see two computers here. I recognize their computer names. If I see another wireless PC here, that can only mean one thing – my neighbor is connected to my networ 84
  • 85. Changing your router access password With any router, wired or wireless, you’ll want to change the password as soon as possible. This is the password you use to initially access the router’s setup pages through your browser – this password has nothing to do with your Internet provider. This Linksys has an “Administration” setup tab where I can change the password. The username is always blank for this particular router, but feel free to change that as well if applicable. If you lock yourself out of the router by forgetting the password, you can always reset the router to factory defaults by pressing a button somewhere on the unit itself. Be aware that the router will behave exactly like it did when you first bought it, so you’ll need to configure it again from scratch. Advanced Router Settings Port Forwarding Routers limit Internet traffic somewhat by only allowing “common” web activity to take place. Web surfing takes place on port 80 (there are more than 65,000 ports). Other programs that use the web will use different ports. For example, FTP, a simple file transfer program, uses ports 20 and 21. On a Linksys router, I wasn’t able to use FTP until I forwarded ports 20 and 21 to my computers. 85
  • 86. Configuring a DMZ If directly specifying ports does not seem to work for your application, you can completely expose one of your PC’s to the web, effectively opening “everything”. On the Linksys, this is known as “putting the PC in the DMZ”, and you can specify a PC by its IP address: Here, the DMZ is disabled. However, if I wanted to open things up for a single PC on my network, I would specify its IP address here. You may want to statically assign an IP to the DMZ PC, so it does not change with a reboot. Wireless Overview What is wireless? Essentially, a wireless network behaves in exactly the same way as a wired network – except there are no wires. Radio waves are used instead of wires to transmit network data. There are two frequencies that wireless networks can use, 2.4GHz and 5GHz. Both of these frequencies are in the public domain, along with lots of other devices, which can lead to… Interference! Let’s put the interference issue aside for now and review the three (almost 4) wireless standards available. Keep in mind that your wireless router and wireless cards must use the same standard – not all are compatible with each other. 86
  • 87. Wireless N (as of February 2007 this is actually Pre-N / Draft N) OK, so you fell for the hype and packaging of a Wireless N router that touts superfast speeds and ultra-long range. Sorry to disappoint, but it’s not really Wireless N. It’s based on a draft standard – read the fine print of the unit. Perhaps a firmware update on the router or wireless card will bring a Draft-N device up to true N when the final version is available, but there’s no guarantee. Wireless N runs at 2.4GHz and is supposed to be fully compatible with G and B. Wireless G or 802.11G: This is the most common standard. Operating at 2.4GHz, it has a transmission speed of 54MBps, or about 20 to 50 times faster than a standard broadband Internet connection. Like all wireless standards, you’ll lose speed the further away from the router you get. One router should be able to cover a typical home. Wireless B or 802.11B: Operates at the same frequency as G, 2.4 GHz. Its transmission speed is slower than G, being 11MBps, or about 5 to 15 times faster than a broadband Internet connection. With G about the same price, there’s really no reason to opt for this standard. Wireless G and B are compatible. You can have a wireless G router, and wireless B computers, however the data transfer speed will be limited to 11 MBps. You can also use a B router with G computers, but again you’ll be limited to the slower B standard. Interference issues: Both G and B run at 2.4GHz, which is a public domain frequency. Some cordless phones, baby video monitors, and even microwave ovens run at the same frequency. Turn the microwave on, and you’ll be bumped off the web. If you have nearby neighbors, and they also have a B or G wireless network, there might be trouble. Everything from being able to see your neighbors’ wireless network to a total lack of connectivity is possible when you have two overlapping clouds of wireless signal. There are ways to minimize interference, including changing the channel, SSID and other settings. However, nothing will eliminate the fact that 2.4GHz signal will interfere with other 2.4GHz sources. There is a more powerful way to avoid interference, and it’s done by opting for another standard that uses a completely different frequency: Wireless A or 802.11A: Wireless A runs at 5GHz, has less range, and is a bit more expensive then G or B. However, it will not be interrupted by a microwave oven, your neighbors aren’t as likely to have it (they will probably be on G or B), and you’ll only have to worry about 5GHz cordless phones. In crowded 87
  • 88. places, this is your best bet. However, if your close neighbor happens to have wireless A as well, you’re out of luck. Another drawback is that laptops with built-in wireless capability tend to be G. You’ll need to disable the built-in G wireless on the laptop and buy a wireless A card. Wireless A is less common and rarely built-in to wireless laptops. Even if your neighbor uses B/G, you can still successfully use B/G. In fact, this has happened in my office, where I can see a neighbor’s wireless network, but function fine with my own. “Ad-hoc” versus Infrastructure mode There are two ways of organizing a wireless network. Ad hoc: Ad hoc is a “peer to peer” wireless network without a central point. Each PC simply has a wireless card that directly communicates with your other wireless computers. Infrastructure: A wireless network based on a central point, such as a wireless router. Your wireless computers will want to know if they are to connect to an Ad- hoc or Infrastructure wireless network. SSID (Service Set IDentifier) Also known as the ESSID, this is the “friendly name” for your wireless network. All computers must have the same SSID in order to communicate. Here are some example SSID’s: linksys default homewireless d5gr92s How the Windows versions handle wireless Windows 98, ME, 2000, XP and Vista can all accept wireless cards, check with the wireless card manufacturer for compatibility. Windows Vista and XP has the built-in ability to configure wireless settings. Windows 2000, ME and 98 will need to be configured through the wireless adapter’s own setup program. However, once you learn the basics, there’s not much difference between them – wireless is wireless. Wireless Security Overview Besides the ever-present scourge of viruses, scams and spyware plying their way around the web, wireless adds its own vulnerabilities. Since it’s only radio waves, the signal can carry out into the street or into the next house or apartment. 88
  • 89. In theory, anyone with a laptop within range of your wireless signal can surf the web through your wireless network, and quite possibly gain access to your computers. To combat this, you can employ security measures such as changing and hiding the SSID. By default, routers usually broadcast the SSID and wireless PC’s can pick this up and automatically connect. By hiding the SSID, you force each PC to require the SSID to be physically typed in. By changing the SSID, you also further protect yourself from the throngs of hackers that know the most popular default (or factory-set) SSID’s. Another option which can be in addition to the SSID method is to encrypt your wireless communications. This is done by enabling WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) or WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) at the router and at your wireless computers. Of the two, WPA is stronger but more difficult to configure. WEP WEP has been around for a while. While it will protect you against the average neighbor trying to get into your network, readily available tools on the web have cracked WEP wide open. Essentially, this encryption standard just won’t do for business applications. WPA A newer standard, WPA is also stronger against snooping. You can only enable WEP or WPA, not both. If you’re paranoid about your neighbors, WPA is the way to go. Be aware that WPA is not supported on some wireless devices even to this day. In addition, you can permit only your wireless computers to access the router, which is explained on page 111. WPA2 comes with Windows Vista, and has been released for XP SP2 in April 2005. Other devices such as routers and access points will take some time before they implement it fully. Wireless Router Settings By default, your wireless router will have settings geared toward letting you connect easily. This also makes it easy for your neighbors to connect to your wireless network. It’s a good idea to initially connect with default settings to establish a “known working” condition, and then gradually lock your wireless network down with the methods described above. Just like any router, we access the wireless router via its IP address typed in a web browser. 89
  • 90. Here on the Basic Wireless Settings tab, we find that Wireless is enabled. Our SSID is “linksys” and it’s being broadcasted. The wireless channel is 6. With these default settings, our computers should be able to automatically detect a “linksys” wireless network. These default settings make it ridiculously easy for your neighbor to connect to your network, but you’re trying to establish an initial connection here. Basic wireless settings – Windows Vista Right-click on the network icon in the lower right, near the clock, and select Connect to a network. 90
  • 91. You’ll see a list of wireless networks in range, below. If you live in a city or suburban area, it’s highly likely that you’ll be seeing you neighbors’ wireless networks. In this case, it looks like my neighbor is also using a Linksys router. I see multiple wireless networks. How do I know which one is mine? Long story short, the one with the strongest signal is probably yours. Above, I also know that the default SSID of a Linksys router is “linksys”. My neighbor, although he’s enabled encryption on his network, has failed to change his SSID from the default, and he’s also failed to prevent the broadcast of his network. I’ll highlight my network and click Connect. 91
  • 92. Security comes later – I’m just trying to establish a wireless network here. I’ll Connect Anyway. After a moment, I should be connected, shown below. Check off Save this Network and Start this connection automatically, and then click Close. 92
  • 93. Basic wireless settings – Windows XP It’s time to make sure our PC can “see” this “linksys” wireless network. Right-click on the wireless icon in the lower right, near the clock. Select View Available Wireless Networks. 93
  • 94. Below, we see that there’s a “linksys” wireless network, and we can click Connect to join it. As long as encryption is not enabled, XP will complain it’s an “unsecured” network. This is not an issue when you’re initially trying to establish a connection. We’ll “Connect Anyway” here. 94
  • 95. Note that we are now “Connected”. This PC should now be able to surf the web wirelessly. The wireless icon in the lower right no longer has an X on it, meaning that we are connected. It bears mentioning that there’s a wireless control center for XP, which is helpful when changing or confirming settings. Here’s how to access it. XP’s Wireless Control Center Go to Start > Control Panel. 95
  • 96. Double-click Network Connections (Classic View). Right-click on Wireless Network Connection and select Properties. 96
  • 97. Click the Wireless Networks tab. Note that “linksys” is in our Preferred Networks section. By highlighting a preferred network and clicking Properties, you can adjust its settings. You can’t change the SSID (note that it’s grayed out), but you can add encryption such as WEP or WPA. Actually, if you need to alter the settings of an existing wireless network, it’s usually best to just ‘Remove’ the old one and start from scratch with a new one. This tends to be cleaner, as you’ll see when we delve further into wireless security. 97
  • 98. Configuring Wireless on a non-Vista / non-XP PC If you don’t have Vista or XP, you’ll need to rely on the wireless control program provided by your wireless adapter. It’s probably in your Start > Programs list, and you may have a little icon in the lower right, near the clock. I’ll use Windows 2000 as an example. Go to Start > Programs, and find your wireless setup program. Alternatively, I can right-click on the wireless icon near the clock, and Open the setup program. Your interface may vary, but the rules are the same as far as the SSID, channel and encryption settings. I can choose to make a New wireless connection, or Edit my existing one. 98
  • 99. In a walk-through fashion, I can set up my wireless PC. I have a wireless router, so this will be Infrastructure mode. I would use Ad-hoc if there were no wireless router. You usually don’t have to hard- code the channel on a PC, and Auto will be fine here. Mixed mode refers to both B and G capability. It lets me choose my TCP/IP settings, which I can also access through Network Connections. Note that WPA is not supported, only WEP. If I had WPA enabled on my wireless network, I would need to “dumb it down” to WEP so this PC can join the wireless network. 99
  • 100. The last panel is a “confirm settings” panel that will activate your settings. A status icon should appear near the clock. I can only access wireless settings via the program, but I still can change TCP/IP information on the wireless card in the traditional manner. Note that Windows 2000 calls my wireless connection “Local Area Connection 2”, but does identify it as a Wireless-G PCI Adapter. Using a wireless access point The best way to describe a wireless access point would be to compare it to a wireless router. It’s like a wireless router, except it does not have any logic to connect to a broadband modem. You would connect a wireless access point to a router just like you would a PC. You can also directly connect a wireless access point to a PC – but that begs the question of “Why not just install a wireless card in the PC?” Access points need to follow the same rules as wireless routers. They also have browser-based setup pages, accessed by IP address, just like routers. You’ll notice that instead of IP’s ending in 1, access points tend to end in higher numbers, such as 245 or 254. This keeps them well above the range of most computers on a routered network, which will tend to end in 100 to 105. This assures that the access point won’t conflict with your existing network. 100
  • 101. When buying an access point, you need to be aware that the default IP address of the access point may not agree with your current network. In other words, if the access point is 192.168.1.245 and your computers begin with 192.168.0, there’s going to be trouble. If you don’t understand why, review the TCP/IP section on page 23. To rectify a situation like this, when a network device is not on the same subnet as your network, see the print server exercise on page 193. Access points are commonly used to provide wireless access in an established wired network. You can also use a wireless access point to extend the range of your existing wireless network (“repeater” mode), but this may require that the hardware be from the same manufacturer. With a wireless router downstairs and an access point upstairs, you can effectively cover your entire house – even if you have to create two separate wireless networks. What about those plug in “range extender” things? Well, it didn’t work for me. There are no setup pages, so how could I input wireless information such as my SSID - not to mention encryption? Anything without configuration options leaves you without a troubleshooting avenue. Let’s take a look at how I added a wireless access point to my existing network. First, I made sure it was powered on and connected to one of the ports in the back of my router, just like a PC would be. Much like a router, I got to the access point’s setup pages by typing in its IP address into my browser. Here’s the main configuration page. Note that the Gateway is set to 192.168.1.1, which is the IP of my router. Under the Wireless section, “Mixed” mode refers to the ability of this access point to do B and G at the same time. The other choices are just B or just G. The other wireless settings (and then actually connecting to the access point wirelessly) are covered in detail in the wireless router section on page 89, since they are identical. Wireless Security (encryption) is identical to a wireless router, and is covered on page 103. 101
  • 102. Here on the “AP Mode” panel, there are a few options as to how I want the unit to behave. The Access Point option simply provides a wireless network. The others connect to other wireless devices to form a chain in some form or another. Note that all the other options require the MAC address of the other device; you can review MAC addresses on page 30. Careful reading of the note at the bottom reveals that my wireless router (which is a slightly older Linksys) will not be able to play along nicely with the access point. Even if you can’t get the fancy options to work, you can still establish a different wireless network for each area of your house – they all point to the same gateway. For example, I have a wireless network called “kcg” in the basement provided by my main router, and one called “access” on the first floor provided by the access point. KCG runs on channel 11 and “access” runs on channel 1, to minimize interference. 102
  • 103. Securing your wireless network If you’re reading this, I’ll assume you’ve already established a wireless network with the default settings. The steps below will secure your network, but it will also make it more difficult for you to create a wireless network. Be sure you’ve already established a wireless network before attempting to secure it! The following steps are the same for wireless routers or wireless access points. Do this first: Change and hide the SSID Offers a minimum of protection, but it will be enough to keep most neighbors out. It involves changing and hiding the SSID at the router, then specifying the new SSID at each of your computers. You can also specify that only certain MAC addresses have wireless access (namely the MAC addresses of your own wireless computers). Then: Enable WEP Encryption In addition to the SSID method, you can enable WEP. It’s old and overcome by readily available tools on the web, but it’s better than not having it at all. When WEP is enabled on one device, it must be enabled on all devices. 103
  • 104. Or: Enable WPA Encryption If your hardware supports it, you can opt for the stronger WPA encryption. You can’t enable WEP and WPA at the same time – it’s one or the other. When WPA is enabled on one device, it must be enabled on all devices. Or: Enable WPA2 Encryption Included with Windows Vista and released as a downloadable enhancement to XP SP2, this is stronger than WPA. This begins the first of a series of ever-increasing wireless lockdown procedures that will make your wireless network more secure, but also have a distinct side effect: By securing your wireless network, you’ll make it more difficult for your wireless computers to connect. How to change and hide your SSID Access the router’s setup pages, and change the SSID. Also, set the SSID broadcast to “Disabled”. 104
  • 105. These steps alone will make it difficult for your neighbors to use your wireless network. Once I click “Save Settings”, my wireless computers will be bumped off until I configure the new settings at each wireless PC. Now it’s time to go to each wireless PC and tell each one what the new SSID is. Since we’ve changed the SSID, we’ve essentially created a new wireless network. The old one no longer exists, and since the SSID broadcast is disabled, your computers will not be able to automatically detect the new wireless network. 105
  • 106. Configuring the new SSID on Windows Vista Right-click on the network icon in the lower right, and select Network and Sharing Center. Click Manage wireless networks on the left. Feel free to highlight your old network and click Remove. I’ll leave my old one for now, and Add the new SSID. 106
  • 107. Click “Manually create a network profile” Here, type in your Network name (the SSID), and set the security to “No authentication (Open). Check off the two bottom boxes, then click Next. 107
  • 108. Click “Connect to”. It should automatically connect. Click the upper right-hand corner X. Note that in my lab, I’m constantly messing with the wireless settings to make this guide, so my wireless connections will be a bit messy. 108
  • 109. Configuring the new SSID on Windows XP In Control Panel, Network Connections, right-click on Wireless Network Connection and select Properties. It’s a good idea to keep things clean. On the Wireless Networks tab, highlight your old Preferred Network and click Remove. 109
  • 110. With a blank slate, now click Add. On the Association tab, type in the name of the new SSID. Select Open for Network Authentication, and be sure that Data Encryption is set to Disabled. If this was a peer to peer wireless network without a router, check off “This is a computer-to-computer network” at the bottom. Click OK. 110
  • 111. Click OK again to complete the configuration. You should be able to connect after a few seconds. How to allow only your wireless computers access (via MAC address) At any time during wireless security setup, you can enable MAC filtering at the router. This entails Your wireless router should have an area where you can restrict wireless access based on MAC address. Be aware that you’ll need to view expanded IP address information in order to obtain your wireless MAC addresses, such as using the ipconfig /all command, covered in the “What’s My IP?” section on page 32. Computers with multiple network cards will have multiple MAC addresses, so make sure you’re looking at the wireless card MAC address. I’ve supplied my two 111
  • 112. wireless computer’s MAC addresses (the last 4 characters are erased here, since these are my MAC’s). Enabling WEP at your router or access point WEP is an older standard, but you’ll find it’s easier to implement than WPA. At the router, under Wireless Security, it’s disabled by default. By clicking Enable under Wireless Security, we’re able to select WEP from the drop-down. “RADIUS” has to do with remote access, so we won’t be using it. 112
  • 113. For the Encryption Level, we can use 64 bit or 128 bit. 128 bit is more secure and easier to implement. Leave Passphrase blank, and supply a 26 character WEP key, using 0-9 and A- F. Remember the exact sequence, since you’ll need to input that key at each of your wireless computers. Once Save Settings is clicked, all wireless computers will be bumped off until you physically type in the WEP key at each wireless PC. Note: an easy key to remember is 1234567890abcdef1234567890. 113
  • 114. Enabling WEP at your wireless computers WEP on Windows Vista Right-click on the network icon in the lower right, and select Network and Sharing Center, then click Manage Wireless Networks on the left. Double-click on your wireless network. 114
  • 115. On the Security tab, select No authentication for the Security type. Select WEP for the Encryption type, and type in the same WEP key you did at the router. Yes, the key I’ve typed here is different than the one I’ve type at the router in this guide – but these are only examples. Be sure to type in the exact same WEP key at your router and wireless computers. Click OK and you should connect in a few moments. Enabling WEP on Windows XP At your XP PC, right-click the wireless icon near the clock and select Open Network Connections. 115
  • 116. Right-click on your Wireless Network Connection, and then select Properties. You can either alter the existing wireless network to include the WEP key, or Remove it and start from scratch by clicking Add. Here, we’ll just alter the current network by highlighting it and clicking Properties. 116
  • 117. On the Association tab, select Open for Network Authentication and WEP for Data Encryption. Type in the WEP key, character for character, twice. Click OK out of all dialog boxes and you should be able to connect. If not, Remove the wireless network and start from scratch to add WEP, as on page 112. If you still can’t get WEP to work, disable WEP at the router and restore your “known working” condition. 117
  • 118. Enabling WPA on your wireless router or access point On the Wireless > Wireless Security page of the router, Enable wirless security and select WPA – Pre-Shared Key (WPA-PSK). For the algorithm, TKIP and AES are your choices. TKIP is available on more devices. I’ve typed in an 8 character key – it can be any combination of letters and digits. Once I click Save Settings, all wireless computers will be bumped off until I configure WPA at each of them. 118
  • 119. Enabling WPA on Windows Vista To get to the panel shown here, right-click the network icon in the lower right and select Sharing and Security Center, then click on Manage Wireless Networks on the left. Finally, double-click your wireless network. On your wireless network properties Security tab, select WPA-Personal, TKIP as the encryption, and type in the same key that you did at the router. Click OK, and you should soon be connecting to the WPA-enabled network. 119
  • 120. Enabling WPA on XP Go to Start > Control Panel >Network Connections and right-click Properties on your Wireless Network Connection. On the Wireless Networks tab under Preffered Networks, highlight your current network and click Properties. Select WPA-PSK for Network Authentication, and TKIP for encryption. Type the WPA key in both the Network key and Confirm network key boxes. Click OK out of all dialog boxes, and you should soon connect automatically. 120
  • 121. In a few moments, I’m connected to the WPA-enabled wireless network. Here’s what I see in Control Panel > Network Connections. WPA2: A new (and not yet widely supported) encryption standard WPA2 is a new standard that is available for Vista, and XP Service Pack 2 as of April 2005. It builds on WPA by being more secure. However, as with all “new” standards, it will be a while before the marketplace catches up. To enable WPA2 in Vista, select it as a Security Type on the wireless network properties. You should have no issue establishing WPA2 in an ad hoc wireless network among Windows Vista and XP machines. If you use wireless routers, access points, or print servers, keep in mind that they probably won’t support WPA2 for a while to come. A magazine source said that this update would allow you to view “hidden” wireless networks, which one would think defeats the purpose of hiding your SSID. I was unable to confirm this, and it looks like the magazine misinterpreted the feature description of “…contains Wireless Provisioning Services (WPS) Information Element support, which enables improvements in wireless network discoverability.” How do I enable WPA2 on XP? You’ll need to download an update from Microsoft. It’s update KB893357. I got to it by searching Google for “wpa2 xp download”, but you can also search Microsoft’s site. 121
  • 122. . Here’s a portion of the update page. Once the update is downloaded and run, a short install wizard appears. This is your standard “next – I agree – next” affair. The install did not require a reboot. 122
  • 123. I was currently connected to a WPA access point, so I was curious as to how the update would effect my current connection. I was still connected to my WPA network, but noticed that I now had more options under Network Authentication, namely WPA2 and WPA2-PSK. It looks like the AES/TKIP encryption remains the same for WPA2, and I would still use a 26 character HEX key for WPA2. I could create an ad hoc wireless network between XP machines with this update. However, I’ll leave it at WPA, which is the highest encryption level that all my wireless devices can support. However, back at the router/access point, I do not have the option to do WPA2. Therefore, I can’t use WPA2 on my network. Perhaps a firmware upgrade might add WPA2 functionality. On the Linksys site, I look for firmware downloads based on the model of my access point or router. 123
  • 124. I’m a bit disappointed that the last firmware update is old, and not much newer than my current firmware. WPA2 certainly can’t be a part of the firmware upgrade, and a read of the update description confirms this. I won’t bother with this update, but I’ll check back every so often as they may include WPA2. However, if I did choose to download the firmware, a “Help” section of my access point provides a means to do it on one of its setup pages. Here, it wants me to browse for the firmware file I downloaded from the web. Once the firmware is uploaded to the access point (or router), the new functionality should take effect. 124
  • 125. Ad Hoc Wireless Networks In an “ad hoc” wireless network, there is no wireless router. Each wireless PC simply communicates directly with your other wireless computers. Essentially, as long as you configure each PC to have the same SSID, things should go smoothly. First, you must establish the new ad hoc network at one of your wireless computers. We’ll use Windows Vista and XP as an example, since they have uniform wireless controls. Establishing an Ad Hoc Network with Vista Right-click on the network icon in the lower right, near the clock, and select Network and Sharing Center. Click Manage wireless networks on the left. Click Add, shown here. 125
  • 126. Click “Create an ad hoc network”. Click Next. 126
  • 127. Provide an SSID (network name), and it’s usually best to go with No authentication to start out. Also check off “Save this network”. Your Ad Hoc network is established. If you’re not using ICS, then you’ll also need to consider setting up TCP/IP properly. Merely creating an Ad Hoc network does not configure TCP/IP. Now, do the same on your other Vista machines. 127
  • 128. Establishing an Ad Hoc Network with XP Go to Start > Control Panel > Network Connections. Right-click on your Wireless Network Connection and select Properties. On the Wireless Networks tab, click Add. If your Preferred Networks tab is a bit messy with previous attempts at connecting, feel free to highlight any unused wireless networks and click Remove. 128
  • 129. Let’s keep things simple at first to increase the chance of success. Type in an SSID, I used “adhoc”. I’ve selected Open for Network Authentication and Disabled data encryption. It’s very important to check off “this is an ad hoc network” at the bottom. Click OK. I’m back at the Wireless Networks tab, and our new network is in the Preferred Networks section. Click OK out of this dialog box to complete the configuration. You may notice that your PC will now “connect” to the new wireless network, even though it’s the only computer on it. The next step will be to configure your other computers in the exact same way, or simply “look” for the new network, which we’ll do next from a second computer. 129
  • 130. Now that you’ve established an Ad-hoc wireless signal from one PC, it’s time to have your other computers join it. From a second wireless PC, I’ll right-click on the wireless network icon in the lower right, and select View Available Wireless Networks. I see that the ad hoc wireless network we established on the first computer is now visible from this PC. Click Connect. 130
  • 131. I’m warned that this is not a secure network, so just Connect Anyway. Below, we find that we’re connected and trying to acquire an IP address. This brings up an important issue. You’ve just created an ad hoc wireless network between two computers, but they still lack TCP/IP configuration on their wireless cards. At this point, you’ve done the equivalent of physically connecting them with a “wireless cable” – the logical network still needs to be configured. If you’re using ICS, see page 61 and be sure to use the wireless interfaces. ICS will handle TCP/IP configuration for you. 131
  • 132. If web access is not an issue, feel free to assign static IP’s to each computer’s wireless network cards on page 44. Establishing Security on an Ad Hoc wireless network You can enable WEP, WPA or WPA2 (only with updated XP) encryption on each of your wireless computers. Whatever you do to one computer, you’ll need to do the exact same thing on your other computers. As always, it’s best to first establish your ad- hoc wireless network without any type of encryption. Once established, then you can go ahead and tighten it down. Get to the Wireless Properties by right-clicking and selecting Properties on your wireless connection in Control Panel / Network Connections. Highlight your established Ad-hoc network and click Properties, shown here. 132
  • 133. For WEP encryption, select Open for Network Authentication and WEP for Data Encryption. Uncheck “The key is provided for me automatically”. Type in a 26 character HEX key, containing the letters A-F and the numbers 0-9. Type it again in the “Confirm Network Key” field. Click OK. Be sure to do this at each of your wireless computers. For WPA encryption, select WPA-None in the Network Authentication box, and TKIP for data encryption. Type in a 26 character HEX key - numbers 0-9 and letters A-F, and again in the Confirm network key box. Click OK, and be sure to do this at each of your wireless computers. As always, if it doesn’t work, simplify the settings (turn encryption off), and start again from a “known working” condition. 133
  • 134. Prepare for file and printer sharing Before you try sharing files and printers, it makes sense to have a sound network already in place. In other words, each PC can already surf the web through ICS or a router. At a minimum, all computers should have valid IP addresses and be properly connected. Here are the general steps: 1. I’ve been offering this guide since 2003. Since then, there has been one, single, overwhelming cause for the inability to share files and printers: FIREWALLS. Norton Internet Protection, ZoneAlarm, the list goes on. Firewalls MUST BE PROPERLY CONFIGURED to allow file/printer sharing – and that section starts next. 2. Set the same workgroup name for each PC. This is not absolutely required, but does give you more ways to access your computers. 3. Share out a resource (folder or printer), then access the shared resource from another PC 4. I kid you not on the importance of step #1. You must understand how to configure firewalls to allow file and printer sharing. Firewalls So how do I configure a firewall? How do I know if I have one on my PC? First, a bit of background as to what a firewall is. A firewall is designed to block certain traffic (like file sharing between computers) so you can be on the web with reasonable safety. Since the web is rife with an enormous amount of garbage, and shows no signs of improving, the importance of firewalls will only increase. Hence, your interaction with firewalls will increase as well. Firewalls can be either hardware based, such as a firewall built into a router, or software based, contained in a program you run on your PC. 134
  • 135. Since it’s the software firewalls that will most likely give you trouble, I’ll go over the different kinds of software firewalls: 1. Windows Vista and XP have a built-in firewall. In Vista it’s disabled by default, but in XP Service Pack 2, it’s enabled by default but configurable to allow file and printer sharing. If by some reason you don’t have SP2 yet, the earlier version is not configurable and must be disabled in order to share files. We’ll take a look at XP SP2’s firewall. 2. Increasingly, firewalls are coming packaged in “suite-based” programs along with antivirus and other system tools. Norton Internet Protection 2007 is a prime example, and we’ll take a look at its firewall component. 3. Stand alone firewalls, such as ZoneAlarm, are usually downloaded from the web. These tend to be more functional by not only blocking incoming attacks, but by blocking outgoing requests for web access as well. In this age of spyware and other garbage, it’s good to know which programs are trying to “phone home”. We’ll take a look at ZoneAlarm. No matter what type of firewall you run, you’ll be following these basic steps: 1. Access the firewall’s control settings 2. Look for a “safe” or “allowed” zone 3. Input your home network IP information so the firewall “know” your home network 4. Save settings and test file sharing Configuring Vista’s firewall Go to the Windows logo >Control Panel. Click Security. 135
  • 136. Under Windows Firewall, click Turn Windows Firewall on or off. I was shocked to find that by default, the firewall was not on, so I turned it on here. Perhaps it was because my Vista PC came pre-loaded with Norton 2007. Click the Exceptions tab. 136
  • 137. Be sure that File and Printer Sharing is checked off. In my case, it wasn’t. This means that if Windows Firewall is on, you won’t be sharing files and printers until you check this box. 137
  • 138. Configuring XP SP2’s firewall Go to Start > Control Panel > Network Connections. Right- click on one of your network connections and select Properties. On the Advanced tab, click Settings under Windows Firewall. 138
  • 139. I have mine off here, because I prefer third party firewalls. Yours will probably be on. The important item will be the Exceptions tab, which we’ll look at next. If you do use the Windows Firewall, be sure to allow File and Printer Sharing, shown here on the Exceptions tab. 139
  • 140. Of note, you can turn the firewall on or off for different network adapters on the Advanced tab. Configuring Norton Internet Protection 2007 (Norton Firewall) I’ll use Norton 2007 on Vista as an example. XP would be similar. Right- click on the Norton icon, and select Open Norton Protection Center. 140
  • 141. Under Settings, click Personal Firewall, then click Configure. On the left, under Personal Firewall, click Trust Control. 141
  • 142. On the Trusted tab, click Add. Type in your subnet, and then click OK. As a refresher, 192.168.2.0 means “all computers from 192.168.2.1 to 192.168.2.254”. 142
  • 143. Configuring ZoneAlarm Right-click on the ZoneAlarm task bar icon, and select Restore ZoneAlarm Control Center. Choose Firewall on the left, then Zones on the right. Click Add, and then select Subnet. Here, I add my subnet information and click OK. 143
  • 144. Now my home network is allowed to access itself. Firewalls under control? Now you’re ready for some more network configuration. Windows Vista initial networking steps Besides the workgroup name, shown next, there are a few things to consider when preparing for file/printer sharing with Vista: 1. While you’ll still be able to “see” other computers from Vista, the “network map” feature of Vista only works with other Vista machines, or XP SP2. Even with XP SP2, you’ll need to install a patch. It installs the LLTD protocol, Microsoft KB922120) 2. You’ll need to set Vista’s network scheme to “private”, covered next. 3. “Everyone” needs to be in the permissions list of both the Sharing and Security tabs of shared folders. Setting Vista’s network to private Below, right-click on the network icon, near the clock, and select “Network and Sharing Center”. 144
  • 145. Expand “password protected sharing”, and turn it off, then click Apply. This will allow you to access files and printers on Vista from other machines with a lot less fuss. 145
  • 146. Setting the Workgroup and Computer Name To be able to browse My Network Places or Network Neighborhood (and the Network Map in Vista) and “see” other computers, you need to observe the following rules: 1. All computers have the same workgroup name. Typical workgroup names are: mshome workgroup mynetwork home pcguidebook Avoid spaces or cr@zy ch@r@ct#rs when naming your workgroup. There’s no need to get silly with the workgroup name. 2. Each computer has a unique computer name. Typical computer names are: upstairs fastpc laptop1 laptop2 xphome If you have two computers named “superpc” on your home network, you’re in for some trouble. Again, avoid funny characters. I’m not a big fan of “browsing” and “seeing” your other computers through My Network Places, etc. It requires the most overhead, and is the least likely to work (wait till you get to the Vista sharing section!). Having the same workgroup name is not mandatory. Although you won’t be able to browse for other computers, you can still share files and printers using IP addresses by mapping a drive on page 263 or using a UNC path on page 275. Read the above red text again – it’s one of the core concepts that set this guide apart, and will save you a lot of time and frustration. Workgroup vs. Domain A workgroup is a loose association of local computers. Each PC logs into itself, but since they all belong to the same workgroup, they’ll be able to browse the network. Workgroups are found on home networks. 146
  • 147. A domain is defined at a central server, running a Server-class Windows operating system. Computers on a domain don’t log into themselves, since your user account exists on the server. You’ll find this setup in most businesses – and probably on any computer you bring home from work. Once you log on once to the domain, it will let you log in even when you’re not connected to the corporate network. This will give you the impression that you have control over your work PC. You don’t. Warning for Vista Business Versions, Windows XP Pro, and Windows 2000 If you find that your computer is a member of a domain, DON’T TOUCH THE SETTINGS. LEAVE THE DOMAIN INTACT. If you change from a domain to a workgroup – you will most certainly lock yourself out of the PC. You will not be able to log in, since your account existed on the domain. If you think you can just change the PC back to a domain again – think again. Time to call the IT people at your workplace, unless you know the local administrator password. Long story short, don’t ever touch a domain. Don’t despair if this describes you: “I brought a laptop home from work but it belongs to the “supercorp” domain. This means my computers will not be on the same workgroup. Can I still share files and printers? Yes – but you’ll need to use alternative access methods such as mapping a drive or doing a UNC path. You will not be able to browse My Network Places. 147
  • 148. Setting the computer and workgroup name: Windows Vista Go to the Windows logo, right-click on My Computer and select Properties. Near the lower right, click Change Settings under Computer name, domain, and workgroup settings. Note that my current computer name is “Vista” and my workgroup is “workgroup”. I won’t be changing these. 148
  • 149. On the computer name tab, click Change. You can change the settings here, if you need to match the workgroup name to your other computers. Setting the workgroup and computer name: Windows XP Home Go to Start, then right-click on My Computer and select Properties. 149
  • 150. On the Computer Name tab, click Change. If desired, change the computer and/or workgroup names here. Plain letters and numbers will do fine for either value here. Stay away from spaces and odd characters. If you’re here to just verify your settings, click cancel. Otherwise, click OK to apply your changes, and you may be prompted to reboot your PC. 150
  • 151. These are some of the message boxes you may see if you change the computer or workgroup name. Setting the workgroup and computer name: Windows XP Professional Go to Start, then right-click on My Computer and select Properties. 151
  • 152. On the Computer Name tab, click Change. If you’re here to just verify your settings, click Cancel. Otherwise, make your changes. Avoid spaces and odd characters – numbers and letters only. Capitalization does not matter. You may be prompted for a reboot. Note there is an option for a Domain under “Member Of”. If you find your PC is a member of a domain, DO NOT TOUCH IT – YOU’LL LOCK YOURSELF OUT OF THE PC. 152
  • 153. Setting the workgroup and computer name: Windows 2000 Right-click on My Computer and select Properties. On the Network Identification tab, your current computer and workgroup name are shown. If you want to change one or both, click the Properties button. 153
  • 154. You can change your computer name, workgroup name, or both. After you make the changes, click OK out of all dialog boxes. You’ll likely be asked to reboot. If you find your PC is a member of a domain, DO NOT TOUCH IT – YOU’LL LOCK YOURSELF OUT OF THE PC. Of course, just click cancel if you’re satisfied with the current settings. Setting the workgroup and computer name: Windows 98 On your desktop, right-click on the Network Neighborhood icon and select Properties. 154
  • 155. On the Identification tab, you’ll see your current computer and workgroup name. If you’re here to just verify settings, click Cancel. Otherwise, type in your new values and click OK. Be sure to stick with numbers and letters only – no spaces or s!ll#y characters. You may be prompted for the Windows 98 CD, and you’ll most likely be prompted for a reboot. Settings the workgroup and computer name: Windows ME Go to Start > Settings > Control Panel. 155
  • 156. Double click on the Network icon. On the Identification tab, you’ll see your current computer and workgroup name. If you’re here to just verify settings, click Cancel. Otherwise, change your values and click OK. Stay away from spaces and funny characters here – numbers and letters will do fine. You may be prompted for a reboot. 156
  • 157. Sharing a Printer Here are some key issues to keep in mind: It’s best to share a printer between similar operating systems. In other words, it’s easy to have XP access a printer that’s connected to another XP machine. It’s certainly possible to have differing operating systems share and access printers, but you’ll run into driver issues. You’ll need to make sure that the PC that wants access to the printer “knows” the printer, meaning it will have the drivers on hand. The best way to ensure this, although a bit laborious is to physically install the printer on the other machine. This allows the PC to have the drivers “on hand” when it accesses the printer remotely. Another concern: the printer must be compatible with the PC that’s trying to print to it. In other words, if you have a “Turbo5000” printer on your XP PC and want to share it out to a 98 PC, the Turbo5000 printer better have 98 drivers available. If not, 98 will not be able to print to it. The host PC has to be turned on in order for other computers to print to its printer. Sharing a printer from Windows Vista Go to the Windows logo > Control Panel. Under Hardware and Sound, click Printer. 157
  • 158. Right-click on the printer you want to share, and select Sharing. On the Sharing tab, click Change sharing options. 158
  • 159. Check off “Share this printer”, then click OK. As a quick aside, these are the default permissions when you share out a printer. Most importantly, “Everyone” has Print rights, which is a good thing. 159
  • 160. Sharing a printer from Windows XP Go to Start > Control Panel > Printers and Faxes. Right-click on the printer you want to share, then select Sharing. 160
  • 161. Select “Share this printer” and provide an appropriate share name. Click OK. A “sharing hand” icon will appear beneath the printer indicating that it’s shared and ready to be accessed by your other computers. 161
  • 162. Sharing a printer from Windows 2000 Go to Start > Settings > Printers. Right-click on the printer you want to share, then select Sharing. 162
  • 163. Click “Shared as” and provide a share name. Keep it short and simple – no spaces. Click OK. A “sharing hand” appears below the printer, indicating that it’s being shared out. You’re ready to access this printer from your other computers. 163
  • 164. Sharing a printer from Windows 98 Unlike XP and 2000, you must first enable printer sharing for Windows 98. On your desktop, right-click on Network Neighborhood and select Properties. Click the File and Print Sharing button. 164
  • 165. Check off the appropriate box to enable print sharing. Since I’m here, I’ll also check off file sharing. Click OK. We’re back to the Network box. Click OK. Click Yes to reboot your PC 165
  • 166. Once rebooted, we’re ready to actually share the printer. Go to Start > Settings > Printers. Right-click on the printer you want to share, then select Sharing. If you don’t have Sharing as an option, be sure to first enable printer sharing described previously. 166
  • 167. Click Shared As, and provide a share name. Keep it short and simple. Click OK. Back in the Printers folder, a “sharing hand” appears under the printer, showing me that this printer is ready to be accessed by my other computers. 167
  • 168. Sharing a printer from Windows ME Just like Windows 98, you first need to enable printer sharing. On your desktop, right-click on My Network Places and select Properties. Click the File and Print Sharing button. 168
  • 169. Check off “allow others to print to my printers”. While I’m here, I’ll also check off file sharing. Click OK. We’re back at the Network box. Click OK. Click Yes to reboot your PC. 169
  • 170. Once you get back to the desktop, you’re ready to actually share out the printer. Go to Start > Settings > Printers. Right-click on the printer you want to share, and select Sharing. If you don’t see Sharing as an option, be sure to first enable printer sharing, described previously. 170
  • 171. Click the “Shared as” button, and provide a share name. Keep it short and simple. Click OK. Back in the Printers folder, a “sharing hand” appears under the printer, which means that this printer is ready to be access by your other computers. 171
  • 172. Printing to a Shared Printer Basically, you’ll be looking for the shared printer icon through browsing the network or doing a UNC Path. By double-clicking on that icon, you’ll begin the install. Here are some things to keep in mind: 1. If you have an “all-in-one” printer, you may be able to print to it from another PC, but the other functions may be lost. In other words, scanning and faxing will probably have to be done on the “main” PC. 2. When 95/98/ME tries to access a printer on Vista/XP/2000, you need to make sure the printer is actually compatible with 95/98/ME. In other words, if you have 98 and want to access a printer on XP, the printer had better have 98 drivers available and be 98 compatible. 3. If the sharing PC is the same Windows version as the “accessing” PC, the drivers should automatically “float over” and all should be well. In other words, the sharing PC will supply the requesting PC with the printer driver automatically. 4. If the operating systems differ, you’ll probably be prompted to select the printer from a list. If you can’t find the exact model printer in the list, there’s going to be trouble. You need to make sure the exact printer model is in the list. The best way to do this is to first physically install the printer on the “accessing” PC. I actually run into this on page 187 with Windows ME, but other Windows versions would be similar in the way they react to this. Actually, Vista, XP and 2000 provide an “additional drivers” feature, whereby you can install alternate (95/98/ME) drivers on the Vista/XP/2000 PC, so they would “float over” when required. However, actually getting this to work is a bit tricky. If you run into driver issues, it’s always best to first physically install the printer on all computers. This way, you guarantee that the PC “knows” the printer. There are two ways to access a shared printer: 1. “Browsing” the network via The Network Map, My Network Places or Network Neighborhood. This involves “drilling down” until you actually see the shared printer icon. A double-click on the printer icon will initiate the install. In order to browse the network, your computers must have the same workgroup name (page 146) and firewalls must be properly configured (page 134) 172
  • 173. 2. You can do what’s known as a “UNC path”. This is a small command that you issue from the Start > RUN line, and it can be done from any windows version. It bypasses the higher protocols necessary for a network browse, and thus has a higher chance of success. Firewalls must still be under control, but having the same workgroup name is not necessary. The UNC path method can be used to access either files or printers, and is covered in detail on page 275. Printing to a shared printer from Windows Vista Ok, we’ll start with the “fanciest” and “prettiest” way to connect to another printer. Right-click on the network icon in the lower right, near the clock, and select Network and Sharing Center. In the upper right, click View full map. 173
  • 174. In order to appear in the map (only 2 of my computers have, shown here), they must be running Vista, or XP Service Pack 2. Even then, XP SP2 needs a special patch in order to be in the map! The patch that XP SP2 requires is KB922120, available at Microsoft’s site. Note there’s a “penalty box” section below, where my remaining 2 computers appear. One of them is running XP SP2, but I haven’t patched it yet with KB922120! Whether it’s in the map or down below in the penalty box, double-click on the PC that is sharing out the printer. In this case, the printer is on my PC named “athlon64”. You’ll see the shared folders and any shared printers. It’s the HP Deskjet I’m after, so I’ll double-click on that to initiate the install. 174
  • 175. I’ll go ahead and Install driver, and I should soon connect to the printer and be able to use it. Alternate ways of finding the shared printer icon As with any Windows version, you can do a UNC Path to the PC that’s sharing the printer. The method most likely to work uses the IP address of the PC you want access to. Go to the Windows logo, and type ipadress in the box, and press enter. Be sure to use the current IP address of the PC that’s hosting the printer. Alternatively, you can use the computer name. If this works, it’s actually better to use in the long run. Why? The computer name will not change, but IP addresses do. If you connect to a printer with a PC that’s at 192.168.2.102, and a week later that IP changes to 192.168.2.104, you’ve just lost the connection to the printer and will have to re-connect. The computer name stays the same, no matter what the IP is 175
  • 176. Printing to a shared printer from Windows XP Go to Start > My Network Places. Alternatively, you can go to Start > My Computer, and My Network Places would be under “Other Places” on the left. In My Network Places, click on View workgroup computers under Network Tasks. 176
  • 177. You should see a list of your computers. Double click on the computer that is sharing the printer. If you don’t see your PC, go to page 263 or 275 to look at other ways of access. Be certain firewalls are configured on page 134. If you get an “access denied”, or it prompts you for a password, go to page 285. A list of shared items is presented. Double click on the printer to start the install. 177
  • 178. When both computers have the same operating system, in this case XP, the driver will automatically be installed. We get a warning message, so click Yes. For examples of when this automatic driver install does not happen (forcing you to choose from a list) see the 98 (page 183) and ME (page 187) printer access walkthroughs. After some file transfer, the print queue of our newly installed printer will appear. Your printer is now installed. You can simply dismiss the above by clicking the upper left hand corner X, or you can take the opportunity to print a test page: Go to Printer > Properties. 178
  • 179. Click Print Test Page. Click OK whether or not it printed, since the Troubleshoot function isn’t of much use. If it didn’t print, check the “real” print queue on the host PC to see if there are any errors. 179
  • 180. Printing to a shared printer from Windows 2000 On your desktop, double click on My Network Places. Double click on Computers Near Me. Double click on the computer that has the printer. If you can’t see computers here, or you only see your own, try accessing the printer via the UNC path method on page 275. 180
  • 181. Both printers and shared folders, if any, will be displayed. Double click on the printer to start the install. Below, I get a message saying that before we can use the printer, it has to be set up. Makes sense, right? Since this is 2000 accessing an XP-based printer, the drivers are usually the same. I just waited a bit as the drivers were automatically installed. For examples of when you’re forced to choose the printer from a list, see the Windows 98 (page 183) and Windows ME (page 187) printer access walkthroughs. 181
  • 182. The new print queue automatically pops up, and the printer is now installed. You can close this, or take the opportunity to print a test page. Go to Printer > Properties. Click Print Test Page. 182
  • 183. Printing to a shared printer from Windows 98 On your desktop, double click on Network Neighborhood. Double click on the computer that has the printer. If you don’t see the PC, “drill down” through Entire Network until you do. If you can’t get anywhere with Network Neighborhood, try using the UNC path method, described on page 275. You’ll see the printer as well as any shared folders. Double click on the printer. 183
  • 184. I get a message saying I need to set up the printer before I can use it. I don’t think I print from DOS based programs. Click Next. 184
  • 185. This step is critical. It’s forcing me to choose the printer from a list of “known” printers. Since this is 98 accessing an XP printer, XP is not capable of sending me the driver automatically. Well, actually it is capable, but it’s a pain to configure. The only reason why I’m able to select the exact model (3840) from this list is because I’ve previously physically installed the printer on this 98 PC. For an example of what happens when the printer is not in this list, see the Windows ME printer access walkthrough on page 187. Click Next. As further evidence that I’ve previously installed this printer locally, it wants me to keep the existing driver. Click Next. 185
  • 186. Provide a printer name (don’t get silly here), and select whether you want this to be the default printer. Click Next. The print queue will automatically pop up. The printer should now be installed. You can dismiss this, or take the opportunity to print a test page. Go to Printer > Properties. 186
  • 187. Click the Print Test Page button. Printing to a shared printer from Windows ME (contains print driver issues) On your desktop, double click the My Network Places icon. 187
  • 188. We need to find the computer that has the printer. We’ll need to “drill down” until we find it. Double Click Entire Network. If you have no luck with My Network Places, try to access the printer via the UNC path method, outlined on page 275. Click “View the entire contents of this folder”. 188
  • 189. Double click on your workgroup. In this case, all of my computers belong to a workgroup named “Workgroup”. Pretty inventive, huh? It took me a while to think up that one. Double click on the computer that’s sharing the printer. Any shared folders will be present as well. Double click on the printer to start the install. 189
  • 190. Before I can use it, it needs to be set up. Sounds fair to me. I don’t print from DOS programs. Click Next. I’m forced to choose the printer from a list. It’s an HP 3845, but it’s nowhere to be found under the list of HP printers. This means big trouble. That printer simply must be in this list before I can print to it. 190
  • 191. I’ll click cancel and physically install and attach the printer to this PC. This will guarantee that the next time I’m presented with this list, the printer will be here. Here, I’ve started the process over. The printer is no longer connected to this PC, but back on the other machine where it belongs. Note the huge difference – I can choose the printer! Of note, this PC has made a new “Hewlett-Packard” category that was not present before. The 3845 was not to be found under HP, but under Hewlett-Packard. Click Next. As evidence of the prior physical installation, it recommends I keep the existing driver. Click Next. 191
  • 192. The printer name may default to a “copy 2” version if you’ve had to physically install it first. No problem, name it what you wish. Choose whether it will be the default, then click Finish. A printer queue will automatically appear, and your printer is installed. You can choose to close this out, or take the opportunity to print a test page. Go to Printer > Properties. 192
  • 193. Click Print Test Page. Print Server Setup A print server is a small device that attaches to your printer with a USB or older parallel cable. The print server would also have a network interface to connect to a router, or it may be wireless. In our example, the print server has both wired and wireless capabilities. Things to keep in mind: 1. Print servers are notorious (even in 2007) for not working with “all in one” printer/fax/scanner machines. Read the packaging very carefully. You may be able to get the printing function to work, or it simply won’t work altogether. Stick with plain printers. 2. A print server is a network device and will require an IP address that is on the same subnet as your home network. You need to understand that the print server will have a default IP address, which may or not be compatible with your home network. You have two choices at this point: Make the “newcomer” conform to your existing network by changing its IP address or Change your entire home network IP scheme to conform to the print server. 193
  • 194. Are you thinking what I’m thinking? That’s right, I’m going to change the IP of the print server to conform to my existing network. If your router and print server are the same brand, you probably will not have to change IP’s, since the manufacturer wants to keep things compatible within its own line of products. Also pay attention to the “boot order” – in this case, the instructions wanted me to connect the printer to the print server, turn on the print server, then turn on the printer. This assures proper recognition of hardware. First and foremost, you need to determine the default IP address of the print server as it came out of the box. To do this, consult the instructions, or in this case, we’ve read the PDF guide for our print server, which happens to be a DLink: At right is a portion of the instructions that tells me the default IP address of this print server. Note that there’s only a one sentence explanation as to how you would handle the IP addressing. We’ll let’s see how an IP of 192.168.0.10 would work on our current home network: Router: 192.168.1.1 PC 1: 192.168.1.100 PC 2: 192.168.1.101 PC 3: 192.168.1.102 PC 4: 192.168.1.103 Print Server: 192.168.0.10 Uh oh. That print server is not going to work without an IP change. Back in the TCP/IP basics chapter, specifically on page 26, you learned about subnets. An IP beginning with 192.168.0 is not compatible with one that begins with 192.168.1. No device on my current network will be able to access or communicate in any way with the print server. Here’s what happens when I try to access the print server via my browser as per the instructions: 194
  • 195. We’re not getting anywhere. I have to come up with a new IP for the print server. Which IP do I choose? I know that it can’t be the same IP as any of my other devices, since that would cause a conflict. Usually, with statically assigned IP addresses, you tend to see them at the low or high range (like below 10 or above 240), so as not to interfere with the “meat” of the central IP range, which is taken up by computers. This is reflected in the fact that the default IP ends in a 10, which is at the low end. Let me digress a moment – you may be wondering why I’m going to assign a static IP here. After all, wouldn’t it be easier to get an IP automatically? Network devices other than computers, such as routers and network printers, tend to have static IP’s as this makes them easier for the computers to find. Imagine the chaos if your corporate laser printer changed its IP every 3 days. Your computer would be saying “Last time I printed to 192.168.7.5, but now it’s gone!” You’ll have to reinstall the printer, since it’s now at 192.168.7.8. Hence, a static, permanent IP is the way to go. I’ve decided on 192.168.1.10 for the IP. It’s on my subnet, and does not conflict with any other device on my network. Here’s a quick tip: establish communication via wires before making the leap to wireless. Now here’s the conundrum: If I can’t even access the print server, how do I change it’s IP? The answer is simple: I’ll temporarily change the IP of one of my computers to be on the same subnet as the print server. Let’s see how this is done: Note: If you find you don’t need to change the IP of your print server, skip directly to the bottom of page 197, which assumes you can access the print server via a web browser. 195
  • 196. I’ll go to Start > Control Panel, Network Connections and right-click on my Local Area Connection. Here are my current settings – everything is automatic, just like most home networks with a router. The print server is connected to the router, just like this PC is. I’ll change my IP to 192.168.0.20, provide a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0, and leave the DNS servers blank. I won’t be surfing the web anyway. I could have changed it to almost anything beginning with 192.168.0: 192.168.0.2 192.168.0.5 192.168.0.56, etc I could not have changed the PC’s IP to 192.168.0.10, since that would be in conflict with the print server! 196
  • 197. Now that my PC’s IP address is changed to be compatible with the print server, I’m able to access it via a web browser, shown here. I can’t surf the web, but I don’t care – the goal was to temporarily access the print server. My first task is to change the print server’s IP. On the Network Configuration tab, I’ll manually assign the proper IP, subnet mask and default gateway. Once I click Apply, I won’t be able to access the print server from this PC until I change the PC’s IP back to what it was! I changed my PC back to “obtain an IP automatically, and now I’m able to access the print server at its new IP: Note that the print server is no longer at 192.168.0.10, it’s now at 192.168.1.10. 197
  • 198. This also happens to be a wireless print server, which introduces an added level of complexity. I suggest making sure it works “wired” first, then go on to wireless. However, here’s a screenshot of what the wireless configuration page looks like. Just like configuring your wireless computers, you must make these settings “agree” with your current wireless configuration; see the wireless section starting on page 86 to brush up. Note that WPA is not supported. This print server will not work with WPA! Here on the System – Home tab, it shows that the printer is “online”. This means that the print server knows there’s a printer connected to it. If you find your printer is ‘offline’, or otherwise not being recognized by the print server, be sure to follow the “boot order” described previously. The print server may be picky about which device gets powered up first. 198
  • 199. On the Configuration tab, the instructions say to pay close attention to the “port name” of PS-536575-U1. I’ll need to input this port name when setting up the printer at a PC. Printing to a Print Server Perhaps the most confusing part about using a print server is that from XP/2000’s point of view, it’s considered a “local” printer and not a network printer. You’ll be creating a “local” TCP/IP port. How can this be? Well, that’s just the way it is. Just like accessing a PC-based printer, you’d better have the drivers on hand. During the install process, you may be presented with a list of printers. If the printer is not in the list, you’re out of luck. The only way to guarantee the printer will be in the list is to have physically installed it to the PC previously. 199
  • 200. Printing to a print server from Windows Vista Go to the Windows logo, and select Control Panel. Under Hardware and Sound, click Printer. 200
  • 201. Click Add a printer. Click “Add a network, wireless, or Bluetooth printer”. 201
  • 202. Click on the networked printer, and click Next to finish the install. Printing to a print server from Windows XP Although I’m not a big fan of wizards, I have to use one in this case. Go to Start > Control Panel > Printers and Faxes. On the left, click Add a printer. 202
  • 203. Click Next. Click “Local printer attached to this computer” and uncheck “Automatically detect”. I know you want to select “network printer” – but trust me on this one. Click Next. 203
  • 204. Select Create a new port, and choose Standard TCP/IP port from the drop-down list. Click Next. A new TCP/IP port wizard launches. Click Next. 204
  • 205. Type the IP address of the print server in the top field. As you type, the port name will automatically be filled out. Click Next. With multiple attempts, it’s likely you’ll get a “port name already exists” error. If this is the case, simply add a letter to the end of the port name. Note that this is not the “port name” specified at the print server – that comes later. Under Device Type, click on Custom, then click the Settings button. 205
  • 206. Under Protocol, click LPR. In LPR settings, type the queue name as specified at the print server. In this case, it’s PS- 526575-U1. Click OK. Click Next. 206
  • 207. Click Finish. Choose your printer brand on the left, then the model on the right. Click Next. If you don’t see your printer here, you’ll need to first physically install it on your PC, so that it becomes available in this list! Click Next. 207
  • 208. I’ll keep the existing driver. Click Next. Type a printer name. You may end up with a “copy 2” if your PC was previously physically attached to the printer. Choose whether it will be the default printer, then click Next. 208
  • 209. Sharing out a networked printer doesn’t make much sense. Click Next. I’ll print a test page. Click Next. 209
  • 210. Click Finish. I’ve successfully printed. 210
  • 211. Printing to a print server from Windows 2000 Essentially, the procedure is virtually identical to setting up XP to use a print server. Go to Start > Settings > Printers. Double click on Add Printer. 211
  • 212. The Add Printer Wizard begins. Click Next. Select Local Printer, and uncheck “Automatically detect and install”. Click Next. 212
  • 213. Select “Create a new port”. Then choose Standard TCP/IP Port from the drop-down list. Click Next. The TCP/IP Printer Port Wizard launches. Click Next. 213
  • 214. In the Printer Name or IP Address field, type the IP address of the print server. As you type, the Port Name will be automatically filled out for you. Note that this is not the “port name” of the print server; that comes later. If you get a “port name already exists” error, simply add a letter to the end of the port name. Click Next. Under Device Type, select Custom, then click the Settings button. 214
  • 215. Under Protocol, select LPR, then type in the Queue name under LPR settings. In this case, our queue name is PS-536575-U1, which is provided at the print server. Click OK. I’ve already done the custom settings, so I’ll click Next here. 215
  • 216. Click Finish. Select the printer manufacturer on the left, then the specific model on the right. If you can’t find your printer, physically install it to your PC first. This will guarantee that you’ll be able to find it in this list. Click Next. 216
  • 217. I’ll keep the existing driver. Click Next. You may see a “copy 2” here for the printer name. Feel free to provide a printer name that makes sense to you. Choose whether this will be the default printer, then click Next. 217
  • 218. Why share a networked printer? Click Next. I’ll print a test page. 218
  • 219. Click Finish to complete the wizard. Our test page successfully prints. 219
  • 220. Printing to a print server from Windows 98 If you thought XP/2000 was a bit involved when it comes to printing to a networked printer, you’re in for even more fun with 98! I followed the instructions provided by the print server manufacturer. Windows 98 does not have native TCP/IP printing capability, so I have to add it. In this case, the instructions call for adding an “LPR” client from the CD that came with the print server. On your desktop, right-click on Network Neighborhood and select Properties. On the Configuration tab, click Add. 220
  • 221. Highlight Client, then click Add. I need to get the client from the print server CD, so I’ll click Have Disk. My CD ROM is D drive, and from the instructions, the client is in a folder called “lpr”, so I’ll provide the path of D:lpr and click OK. 221
  • 222. The new client, “LPR for TCP/IP Printing”, is found. I’ll click OK. Back at the Network panel, click OK. 222
  • 223. As with most major protocol and settings changes, it requires the 98 CD. It’s actually looking for the “cab” files, which may be already present on your hard drive, in the directory c:windowsoptionscabs. The obligatory reboot. Click Yes. When the PC comes back up, I’ll go back into the Network panel (right click Network Neighborhood, Properties). I’ll highlight our newly installed client, LPR for TCP/IP Printing, and then click Properties. 223
  • 224. Click Add Port. Type the IP address of the print server, and then type the actual port name provided by the print server. The instructions for the print server will let you know the “port name”. In this case, the port name is PS- 536757-U1. Click OK. 224
  • 225. Note that in the Port List box, the full path to the print server in the form of IPAddressportname is listed. Click OK We’re back at the Network box. Click OK. 225
  • 226. We’re now ready to add the printer using the new port we’ve installed. Go to Start > Settings > Printers. Double click on Add Printer. The Add Printer Wizard starts. Click Next. 226
  • 227. Select Network Printer and click Next. Click Browse to search for the print server. Eventually, the network path should reflect the IP address and port name of the print server. 227
  • 228. I’ve expanded “Entire Network” down through Print Servers until I highlight the actual port name. Once the port name is highlighted, the OK button becomes clickable. Click OK. Note that the Network Path reflects the IP and port name. Click Next. 228
  • 229. I must choose the brand of printer on the left and the specific model on the right. If your exact printer does not show up here, the best way to get it to appear in this list is to first physically install it locally. Click Next. I’ll keep the existing driver. Click Next. 229
  • 230. Supply an appropriate printer name. You may find that a “copy 2” is here by default, which is not an issue. Choose whether Windows 98 will use this as its default printer, and click Finish. The new printer should now be in the Printers folder. To see if it works, print put a test page by right-clicking on the printer and selecting Properties. 230
  • 231. On the General tab, click Print Test Page. Click Yes whether or not it successfully printed, since the troubleshooter isn’t of much use. 231
  • 232. Printing to a print server from Windows ME You’ll find that the procedure for printing to a print server is identical to Windows 98, see page 220. Sharing files Things to keep in mind: Firewalls. If they are not configured properly, you won’t be sharing files. This is a vital concept. You can’t share programs. If this were true, only one person would have to buy Microsoft Word, and they would then share it with the rest of the world. You can certainly share the documents that Word produces, but in order to view the documents you’ll need to have Word physically installed on your PC. You also can’t share individual files. You’ll be sharing folders. You’ll notice that I don’t touch any “network wizards” of any kind, preferring instead to simply share out a folder, and then access it. The wizard creates a floppy that you would insert into your other computers to set them up as well. This is bad for a few reasons: 1. Floppy drives are becoming less common on new computers. 2. The wizard shelters you from the mechanics of what needs to happen for a successful network. 3. Firewall configuration is not addressed. 4. If it doesn’t work, there’s not much in the way of help. Vista, XP Pro and Windows 2000 are picky about letting other computers access them. This can also happen with XP Home. If you’re getting “permission denied” or “access denied” errors, see the Error messages section on page 281. Sharing out the entire C drive is possible, and you would share it out just like you would a folder. However, is sharing the entire drive, including the Windows operating system files, needed? Sharing out entire drives is more suited to second hard drives. 232
  • 233. Sharing out a folder from Vista First, you need to set your network to “private”. Right-click on the network icon in the lower right, and select Network and Sharing Center. Click Customize on the right. Click the Private radio button, then click Next. 233
  • 234. Click Close. Right-click on the folder you want to share, then select Properties. Note: Yes, I did select “Share…” from the menu, but I found that the path it leads you down is somewhat unstable – my PC hung twice. 234
  • 235. On the Sharing tab, click Advanced Sharing. Check off “Share this folder”, then click on Permissions. 235
  • 236. Be sure that “Everyone” has the appropriate permissions. In this case, I’d like to modify the contents of this folder from my other computers, so I’ll check off Change. Click OK. Click the Security tab. Notice how “Everyone” does not appear here – we need to add it. Click Edit. 236
  • 237. Type in “everyone” in the box, and click OK. Highlight Everyone, and check off the appropriate permissions. In this case, all the way up to Modify works for me. Now, with Everyone on both the Sharing and Security tabs, click OK and the folder will now be shared out, designated by two little people in the lower left of the folder icon. 237
  • 238. Sharing out a folder from XP Home Right-click on the folder you want to share, then select Sharing and Security. On the Sharing tab, notice there’s an invitation to the Network Setup Wizard. Instead, click on “If you understand the security risks…” 238
  • 239. Again, the wizard is thrust upon you. Select “Just enable file sharing” and click OK. Check off “Share this folder on the network”, and select “Allow network users to change my files” if you want your other computers to be able to put files in this folder. Otherwise, they will only be able to retrieve files from the folder. Click OK. 239
  • 240. The folder now has a “sharing hand” graphic, indicating the folder is being shared. Sharing out a folder from XP Pro One important concept to keep in mind is that XP Pro was designed to be in a corporate environment, with user accounts and privileges defined at the server. On a home network, XP Pro is still accessible, but you may have to do some tweaking. This is covered in detail in the “How to Access Shared Files” section on page 250. Right-click on the folder you want to share, then select Sharing and Security. Instead of the wizard, click on “If you understand the security risks…”. 240
  • 241. Again, the wizard is shoved in your face. Select “Just enable file sharing”, and click OK. Check off “Share this folder on the network”, and check off “allow network users to change my files” if desired. Click OK. Note that this panel looks exactly like the XP Home sharing tab. This is because XP Pro has something called “Simple File Sharing”, which is enabled by default. When trying to access a folder on XP Pro, you may need to disable simple file sharing, among other changes. This is covered as part of the “Error messages” section on page 281. 241
  • 242. A “sharing hand” graphic is under the folder, denoting its shared status. Sharing out a folder from Windows 2000 Just like XP Pro, Windows 2000 was designed to be in a corporate environment, with user accounts and privileges defined at the server. On a home network, Windows 2000 is still accessible, but you may have to do some tweaking. This is covered in detail in the “How to Access Shared Files” section on page 250. Right-click on the folder you want to share, and select Sharing. 242
  • 243. Select “Share this folder” and click OK. A “sharing hand” graphic appears under the folder, showing that this folder is being shared out. If you have trouble accessing folders from your other computers, you can troubleshoot based on the error message on page 281. 243
  • 244. Sharing out a folder from Windows 98 First, you’ll need to make sure that file sharing is enabled. You may need the Windows 98 CD. On your desktop, right-click on Network Neighborhood and select Properties. Click the File and Print Sharing button. 244
  • 245. Check off “I want to be able to give others access to my files”. While you’re here, check off printer sharing if desired as well. Click OK. Back at the Network panel, click OK. 245
  • 246. You’re prompted to restart the PC. Click Yes. When the PC comes back up, right- click on the folder you want to share, and select Sharing. Click the “Shared As” button. Choose the Full access type if you want to allow other computers to be able to write to this folder. Click OK. 246
  • 247. A “sharing hand” graphic appears under the folder, showing that the folder is being shared out. Sharing out a folder from Windows ME Just like Windows 98, you’ll need to make sure that file sharing is enabled. On the desktop, right-click on My Network Places and select Properties. Click the File and Print Sharing button. 247
  • 248. Check off “I want to be able to give others access to my files” While you’re here, also check off print sharing if desired. Click OK. Back at the Network panel, click OK. 248
  • 249. You’ll be prompted to reboot your PC. Click Yes to reboot. Right-click on the folder you want to share, then select Sharing. Select “Shared As”, and select the Access Type. Select “Full” if you want other computers to be able to put files in the folder. Click OK. 249
  • 250. A “sharing hand” graphic appears under the folder, denoting its shared status. Accessing Shared Folders Make sure that all firewalls on all computers are properly configured. I can’t stress enough that firewalls are the number one reason why most people can’t share files and printers. Review the firewall section on page 134. There are three ways to access files on another computer on your home network: First method: Browsing The Network Map, My Network Places or Network Neighborhood You “see” the other PC. This requires that the workgroup name on each PC be identical (page 146), and also requires the most configuration. When this method fails, you can use the other methods described below. Learn how to browse the network on page 250. Second method: Mapping a network drive You can assign a free drive letter, such as K, to a folder on another PC. It’s also a good way to point programs, such as Word, to another PC to get files. This is a fairly neat way of sharing files. You can use either the computer name or its IP address to map a drive – but IP addresses are more likely to succeed. Mapping network drives are covered starting on page 263. 250
  • 251. Third method: IP-based UNC path By doing a short command from the RUN line, you can try to access another PC via its IP address. This is the preferred troubleshooting method because any error messages here tend to reflect the true nature of the problem. You can use either the computer name or IP address, but the IP address has a better chance of working. Learn how to do a UNC path on page 275. The UNC path, when combined with the IP address of the PC you’re trying to access, represents the most basic way you can access another PC on your network. It has the highest chance of success, and any error messages that result will point you to the root of the issue quickly. Browsing the network from Windows Vista Right-click on the network icon in the lower right, and select Network and Sharing Center. 251
  • 252. In the upper right, click View full map. Did you remember to set the network type to Private on page 144? All computers on your network will be visible here, but only Vista and a patched XP SP2 (with KB922120) will be able to be in the map. Your unworthy systems appear in the penalty box at the bottom. Either way, double-clicking into a computer here will allow you to see its shared items. 252
  • 253. Here, I can see and access the shared folders on my PC named Athlon64. Browsing the network from Windows XP Go to Start > My Network Places. Alternatively, you can go to Start > My Computer. My Network Places is listed under “Other Places” on the left. 253
  • 254. Under Network Tasks on the left, click View Workgroup Computers. A listing of your computers should appear, as long as your workgroup name is the same on all computers and firewalls are under control. Double click on the PC you want access to. 254
  • 255. You should see the shared folders available, and by double clicking the folder, you can access the files and copy/paste or otherwise transfer files to and from the folder. For a convenient way to access this folder, you can place a shortcut to it on your desktop. Right-click on the folder, and select Create Shortcut. 255
  • 256. You’ll get a message offering to create a shortcut on the desktop. Click OK. Instead of having to “drill down” through My Network Places, I have quick access to the folder on my desktop. Browsing the network from Windows 2000 On the desktop, double-click My Network Places. 256
  • 257. Double click Computers Near Me. Alternatively, you can also “drill down” by clicking on Entire Network. Double click on the computer you want access to. You’ll see the folders being offered by the PC. Double click on the folder to see its contents. 257
  • 258. Of course, folders can contain subfolders. By clicking into the folder of your choice, you can transfer files to or from it by dragging files. You can also create a shortcut. Right-click on the folder, select Send To > Desktop (create shortcut). A shortcut now appears on the desktop. 258
  • 259. Browsing the network from Windows 98 On your desktop, double click on the Network Neighborhood icon. Double click on the computer you want access to. Alternatively, you can “drill down” through the Entire Network. The shares available will be displayed, including folders and printers. 259
  • 260. You can also create a shortcut for frequently accessed folders. Right-click on the folder and select “Create Shortcut”. Click Yes to place the shortcut on the desktop. A shortcut appears on the desktop. Browsing the network from Windows ME On your desktop, double click on My Network Places. 260
  • 261. Double click Entire Network. Double click on your workgroup. As an aside, I’m not sure why “Mshome” is showing up here, since my computers all have “workgroup” as their workgroup name. It could be that leftover network information has been cached at this PC. 261
  • 262. Double click on the PC you want access to. The folders offered for sharing are visible. Double click into the folder, and you’ll be able to transfer files to or from it. Instead of “drilling down” through My Network Places, you can create a shortcut directly to your shared folder. Right-click on the folder and select Create Shortcut. 262
  • 263. Click Yes to place the shortcut on the desktop. Now you can access the shared folder directly via the desktop shortcut. Mapping a Network Drive You probably know that “C” drive is your hard drive, and is visible in My Computer. A network drive takes an available drive letter, such as K, and “maps” it to a folder on another PC on your network. For example, “K” drive may point to a folder called “workfiles” on a computer named “Main”. Mapped drives can be made “permanent”, so they are available each time you start the PC. Of course, as with any shared resource, the PC sharing the folder has to be on in order for a drive mapping to be successful. Why map a drive if I can access the same thing by browsing the network? A good question. Besides being a bit more professional, mapped drives allow you to use IP addresses in addition to computer names. As always, using IP addresses has a better chance of success. What letter do I use for the mapped drive? 263
  • 264. You can use any letter, as long as it’s not currently in use. The low letters such as C, D and E are likely to be taken already by hard drive partitions, CD/DVD drives, and other devices. Once you get above F, you’re pretty safe. When mapping a drive, you’ll be able to see the available drive letters, thus narrowing down the choices for you. When mapping a network drive, the format is computernamesharename. Or, if troubleshooting, the format will be IPAddresssharename. Examples of mapped drive paths are: upstairspcworkfiles 192.168.1.101musicfolder laptopcust_accounts 192.168.0.100stuff Note that the path will never be more than two sections – a mapped drive never takes the form of computer1fullpathdesktopstuff. Also, you can never specify just computername when mapping a drive. Again, the syntax is: computernamesharename or IPaddresssharename Uppercase/lowercase does not matter. I’ve mapped a network drive. How do I use it? The drive will be in My Computer, shown here. You can simply click on it to gain access. You can also do a File > Open on programs such as Word, and open files directly from the mapped drive. Here, I’m telling Word to look for documents on M drive. 264
  • 265. Mapping a network drive from Windows Vista Go to the Windows logo, right- click on Computer and select Map Network Drive. 265
  • 266. Below, I’ve selected “R” as a drive letter, and typed in the path to the shared folder I want to map to. In this case, it’s a shared folder called “bak” on a PC named “xpro”. Pay close attention to the exact syntax in the Example above servershare. “Server” is actually the computer name. Note how it’s not servercdocuments and settingseddesktopbak, which would be the full path to the bak folder – it’s simply the computer name, then the share name. Be sure “Reconnect at logon” is checked. You could also click Browse to look for the folder you want, but it’s somewhat unreliable. Click Finish. 266
  • 267. A box will pop up showing you the contents of your new mapped drive. To access it again, go to the Windows logo > Computer, and it will be displayed in Network Locations at the bottom. 267
  • 268. Mapping a network drive from Windows XP Go to Start > My Computer, then right-click and select Map Network Drive. Choose a drive letter, and then specify the path to the shared folder. Check off “reconnect at logon” if desired. This will mean the mapped drive will be there when you reboot. Click Finish. Note you can log on with a “different user name” and this will become important if you’re having permissions issues such as “access denied” or “permission denied”, covered on page 281. 268
  • 269. In a few moments, a window should pop up showing you the contents of the new drive. This happens to be a shared folder called “me_stuff” on a Windows ME computer in the other room. Of course, you can transfer files to and from this drive. All of your mapped drives will be visible in My Computer under Network Drives. You can right-click on the drive to create a shortcut, or even Disconnect it if you no longer want the mapping. 269
  • 270. Mapping a network drive from Windows 2000 On your desktop, right-click on My Computer and select Map Network Drive. Choose an available drive letter, and type the path to the shared folder. In this case, it’s a folder called “me_stuff” on a computer named ME. Check off “Reconnect at logon” if you want the mapped drive to be available each time you reboot. Click Finish. Note that you have an option to connect using a “different user name”. This can be helpful in getting around “access denied” and “permission denied” errors. This is covered on page 281. 270
  • 271. After a few moments, a window showing the contents of the mapped drive should appear. You can drag/drop or otherwise transfer to and from the mapped drive. The mapped drive will be visible in My Computer. You can also create a shortcut or disconnect the drive by right-clicking on it. 271
  • 272. Mapping a network drive from Windows 98 Right click on My Computer, and then select Map Network Drive. Select an available drive letter, and then type the path to the shared folder. In this case, we want to map K drive to a folder called “Friday” on a PC named “Athlon64”. Check off “Reconnect at logon” if you want the drive to be available each time you reboot. Click OK. The mapped drive will now be visible in My Computer, and you can transfer files to or from it. 272
  • 273. You can manage the network drive by right-clicking on it. You can create a shortcut, or disconnect it when no longer needed. Mapping a network drive from Windows ME On your desktop, right click on My Computer and select Map Network Drive. Select an available drive letter, and then type the path to the shared folder. In this 273
  • 274. case, I’ve mapped K drive to a folder called xp_stuff on a computer named Athlon64. Check off Reconnect at logon if you want the drive to be available each time you reboot. Click OK. After a few moments, a window should pop up reflecting the new drive. You can transfer files to or from this drive. By opening My Computer, you can see your network drives. Right-clicking on a mapped drive will give you the option to create a shortcut, or disconnect it if you no longer need it. 274
  • 275. UNC Path: the guru method UNC stands for “Universal Naming Convention”. Actually, when you map drives you are in effect using a UNC path. I use it here in the context of directly typing in a UNC path in the RUN line. Why is this your favorite way to access other computers? An IP-based UNC path bypasses all higher protocols, and has the greatest chance of success. Any error messages also reflect the true nature of the network problem. If you’re having trouble sharing files or printers, I’ll want to know what happens when you run an IP-based UNC path command. What does a UNC path look like? A UNC path typed in the RUN line. What is it supposed to do? 275
  • 276. In the example above, you can translate the command as “Show me what the PC at 192.168.1.105 has to offer (all shared folders and printers), and bypass all fancy protocols like workgroups and computer names”. If all goes well, you should see a window pop up showing you what 192.168.1.105 has to offer. If not, any error messages generated will represent the “real issue”, and you’ll be well on your way to troubleshooting through to a resolution. Error messages are covered on page 281. In the “map a drive” section, you said that the path needs to be IPAddresssharename. You also said that just specifying the computer name or IP address will not work. How come you can get away with it here? Indeed, we aren’t mapping a drive here, but instead using a UNC path typed directly in the RUN line. You can also use the following formats in the RUN line: computername IPAddresssharename computernamesharename However, if you’re doing a UNC path, it’s probably because you’re having some difficulties with browsing the network. Using the IPAddress format represents the lowest level access test you can do, and it will work when other methods fail. Here are the general steps: 1. Obtain the current IP of the PC you want access to, covered on page 32. Be sure to check – just because it was 192.168.1.100 yesterday does not mean it’s the same today. It could have changed with a reboot. 2. On another PC, type the UNC command using the IP address of the PC you want access to. UNC path from Windows Vista Go to the Windows logo, and type ipaddress in the Search box. Of course, replace ipaddress with the actual, current IP of the PC you want access to. 276
  • 277. UNC path from Windows XP/2000 Go to Start > RUN. Type in two backslashes, followed immediately by the current IP address of the PC you want access to. Watch the direction of the slashes, and there are no spaces. Click OK. If all goes well, you should see a window displaying the folders and printers being shared out by the PC at 192.168.1.105. 277
  • 278. UNC path from Windows 98/ME Go to Start > RUN. In the RUN line, type two backslashes followed immediately by the current IP address of the PC you want access to. Watch the direction of the slashes, and there are no spaces. Click OK. If all goes well, you should see a window displaying the folders and printers being shared out by the PC at 192.168.1.102. 278
  • 279. Troubleshooting Wireless Security measures such as hiding the SSID and enabling WEP or WPA make it more difficult for your computers to connect. First establish wireless connectivity with the basic settings – meaning your SSID is being broadcasting without WEP or WPA. Once connectivity is established, then go ahead and lock it down. Wireless A is not compatible with B/G. Cordless phones and microwaves are trouble for wireless networks. Also make sure there’s no source of electromagnetic interference near your wireless devices, such as televisions or heavy wires. Try testing a connection when both wireless devices are in the same room, to rule out distance or walls as the issue. If you see lots of “available” wireless networks to connect to, you’re probably in a congested area such as a city apartment, and you’re seeing everyone who’s broadcasting their SSID. By hiding your SSID and setting the other “rougue” networks to “don’t automatically connect to this network” on the Connection tab of the rogue wireless network’s properties, you can probably avoid interference. Sharing the web If you’re using ICS: Step 1: Establish that you still have web access on the “main” PC that’s running ICS. Try to surf the web at the ICS PC. If not, it could be that your ISP or modem is down. Re-dial the connection, or check your cable/DSL modem to see if all the lights are on as they should be. This would usually include Power, Link, and Ready. The Ready light should be on solid green, showing that the modem is “synced”. If not, power off/on the modem. If it continues, call your ISP. Step 2: Confirm that ICS is enabled and IP’s are correct. 279
  • 280. Check the IP of the main PC. It should be 192.168.0.1 with a blank default gateway. This is not assigned by you, this is assigned by ICS. The other computer(s) should be set to “obtain an IP automatically”, and should have IP’s beginning with 192.168.0.x. If you’re getting “bogus” 169.254.x.x IP’s on your client computers, it means that ICS is not enabled, or that the physical connectivity between the ICS PC and client computer is bad. Remember that a crossover cable (page 12) must be used when directly connecting two computers. If you use a router: Step 1: Check your broadband modem. Are all the lights on? If the Ready/Internet light blinks, you have trouble at the modem. Try to powercycle (turn off then on) the modem. If you don’t get a steady Ready/Internet light, you’re not getting to the web – time to call your ISP. Step 2: Make sure at least one PC has a valid IP address, so that it can access the router’s setup pages. If your router is at 192.168.1.1, your computers better be 192.168.1.x. Likewise, if your router is at 192.168.0.1, your computers better be 192.168.0.x. Step 3: Assure that the router is logically connecting to your modem. All routers will have some kind of Status page, where you can check whether the router is “connected”. An example of a router status page is on page 84. There should be a button to click on to attempt a connection. Cable modems usually like settings of “obtain automatically” without any usernames or passwords. Most DSL prefers PPPoE as the connection type, with a username and password. This is not written in stone, as I’ve seen some DSL without PPPoE. When in doubt, check with your ISP. Once you alter settings, try to ‘Connect’ to see if the new settings work. Sometimes it’s helpful to powercycle the router – routers can get “stuck”. Accessing files and printers Don’t forget about the Ping command on page 41. If you can’t ping it, you can’t share files with it or access it in any way. A ping failure suggests a firewall is in the way. 280
  • 281. Step 1: Get a “real” error message You can have a lot of symptoms, like “I can’t browse the network”, but without an exact error message, you really can’t start troubleshooting. The best way to get an error message to work with is to do an IP-based UNC path. You can review page 275, but here’s a quick reminder how to do it from any Windows version: Go to Start > RUN, then type 192.168.1.101 <click OK> Where 192.168.1.101 is the current IP of the PC you want access to. Watch the direction of the slashes, and there are no spaces. I say “current IP” because since most home networks have computers that “obtain an IP automatically” there’s no guarantee that a PC will have the same IP as it did yesterday, or between reboots. Be patient. After a few moments, you will get an error message, or a window showing you the shares available at that IP. Step 2: Interpret and resolve the error message Error messages come in two categories, connectivity and permissions. Connectivity errors: “Not found” or “cannot be found” are classic indicators of a connectivity issue. 99 times out of 100, if you get a connectivity error, it means there’s a firewall in the way. Disable all firewalls temporarily and retry the UNC path. You’ll need to review the firewall section on page 134. You may come to the point of “I checked my firewalls again and again, and I’m still getting a connectivity error”. I’ve told some customers to run msconfig from the RUN line, go to the Startup tab, uncheck everything, and reboot. This will assure that no firewall is running. Of course, you’ll need to re-check off the items later, but the point is to let you know that something in startup (a firewall) is giving you the error. Let’s take a look at some connectivity (firewall) errors. “The Network Path Was Not Found” is a classic. This one is from XP. 281
  • 282. Windows 98 likes to say “The network name cannot be found”. However, it still follows the “not found” theme, which points to a firewall issue. This one is from Windows Vista. Rather than “path not found”, you’ll get a “windows cannot access” message if there’s a firewall in the way. Long story short, if you get one of the above errors, you have a firewall that’s blocking access. First disable it temporarily to establish that it is indeed the issue, and then make sure it’s configured properly. Check out the firewall section on page 134. Permissions errors: These messages will be more varied, and include obvious messages like “permission denied”, or “access denied”, but may also include prompts for a username/password. The reason why you would get a permissions error is because the PC you’re trying to access does not know who you are. This is most likely to occur when trying to access a Windows XP Pro or Windows 2000 PC, but can also occur with XP Home. The fix is to go to the PC you’re trying to access and free up the permissions, and possibly configure the “requesting” PC to ‘connect as’ a known user account on the other computer. 282
  • 283. Let’s take a look at some specific error messages with some recommendations. We’ll look at all the possible error messages, and then start solving them on page 284. At first glance, the above error will make you think it’s a permissions issue, since it suggests you may not have permission to use the network resource. However, take a close look at the last sentence: The network path was not found. This is a connectivity error message, not a permissions issue! (see above Connectivity section). Note that the message begins with win2000, indicating I’ve typed the computer name instead of the IP in the RUN line. This was a mistake on my part, as I should know that IP’s are better than computer names when troubleshooting! “Access is denied” and “not accessible”. This and the above error message are pure permissions issues – the other PC is not letting you in. 283
  • 284. “Not logged on” can occur on Windows 98/ME machines if you click ‘cancel’ when you see the logon prompt on bootup. Be sure to click OK and not Cancel. After rectifying this error, you’ll probably end up with “access denied” above. Sometimes permissions problems can show up as prompts to log in: “IPC$” is a classic. Usually from 98/ME, no password will work here. Click cancel and start opening up the permissions on the other PC, described shortly. This is a pure login prompt, and wants a specific username and password. By typing in a user/password that has permission to access the resource, you can actually get by this and access the resource. However, this isn’t the best way to access shared folders. 284
  • 285. I have a permissions issue. How do I fix it? You’re likely to get permissions issues when trying to access Vista, Windows XP Pro, Windows 2000, and somewhat less likely would be XP Home. With Vista, remember to put Everyone on both the Sharing and Security tabs of the folder. You’re being denied access because the person you’re logged in as is not recognized by the other PC. A way to get around this would be to log into each PC with the exact same username and password. However, this scenario is unlikely to occur, but you do have some choices: 1. Enable the Guest account on the PC that’s denying you access and then supply permissions for Guest to the shared folder/printer on XP Pro/2000. If it’s XP Home, enabling Guest should be enough. This is the “cure all” solution for permissions issues. The Guest account is considered a security risk, but as long as you have a firewall it should not really be an issue. This is also the best choice for printer sharing. Enabling the Guest account is covered on page 286. Or 2. Create an additional user on XP Pro / 2000, then “connect as” that user. In my example, I created a user named “access” on XP Pro, then “connect as” the user ‘access’ from XP Home. This is covered on page 302. Enabling the Guest account on XP Home XP Home has a simple security scheme, and you can’t get fancy with permissions. However, you can open things up by enabling the Guest account. Go to Start > RUN 285
  • 286. Type cmd in the RUN box and click OK. In the resulting black command window, type net user guest /active:yes Hit Enter, and you should now be able to access the XP Home PC from your other computers. Feel free to close the window. Enabling the Guest Account on XP Pro Enabling Guest gives you the best chance of overcoming permissions issues on XP Pro. Here’s how: Go to Start > RUN 286
  • 287. Type compmgmt.msc and then click OK. Expand Local Users and Groups on the left, and then click the Users folder. Right click on Guest, and then select Properties. Never touch the administrator account. Uncheck Account is Disabled. By unchecking this, you’ve enabled the Guest account. You can check/uncheck the other boxes as desired, but I always like User cannot change password and Password Never expires. Click OK. 287
  • 288. At this point, the Guest account is enabled – but you need to complete a critical next step: actually giving Guest rights to the shared items on XP Pro. First you’ll need to “disable simple file sharing”. By doing this, you’ll have the Security tab that will be necessary to assign permissions for Guest on your folder and printer properties. Disable simple file sharing on XP Pro First, open any folder on XP Pro by double clicking on it. This can be the folder you want to share out, your pictures folder – whatever. Any folder will do. Go to Tools > Folder Options. On the View tab, scroll down to the very last item, “Use simple file sharing (recommended)”. Uncheck it, and click OK. Now you should be able to give Guest permissions on the Security tab of your shared folders and printers. 288
  • 289. Give Guest permission to access a folder on Windows XP Pro Now it’s time to give Guest permission to access your shared folders. You’ll need to do this with each folder you’re sharing. Right-click on the shared folder and select Sharing and Security. On the Security tab, click Add. If you don’t have a Security tab, Simple File Sharing is still active, or you’re running XP Home. Only XP Pro with Simple File Sharing disabled will give you a Security tab. 289
  • 290. In the “Enter the object names” area, type in guest. Click OK. You’ll be back at the Security tab. Highlight Guest in the list at the top, then check off your desired permissions. Here, I’ve checked off everything but “full control”. This will let me remotely add or remove files from my other PC. Click OK. 290
  • 291. If you’re still having issues with accessing the share, it’s wise to also check out the Sharing tab. Click Permissions. By default, “Everyone” will be here. The “Everyone” group means just that – everyone on the local PC including Guest. Therefore, it’s not necessary to add any user to the list here. However, I found that I could write files to the folder only after checking off “Change” in the permissions list. As always, click OK to apply your changes. 291
  • 292. At this point, you’re probably wondering why there are two sets of permissions, one for the Sharing tab and one for the Security tab. The Sharing tab contains permissions for those who access the folder through “sharing”, or remotely from another PC on your network. The Security tab manages permissions for users that are logged into the PC directly, sitting in front of it. Now you’re wondering why we changed the Security tab at all. When you access a shared folder, you first must get past the Sharing permissions, and then the local Security permissions are applied to you, as a remote user. If the two tabs differ, the “lesser” of the two take precedence. In other words, if the Security tab allows you Full Control, but the Sharing tab allows you Read, you’ll only be able to Read. Give Guest permission to access a printer on Windows XP Pro In order to be able to print to a printer hosted by an XP Pro PC, you’ll probably have to let Guest print to the printer. This assumes you’ve already enabled the Guest account above. Right click on the printer and select Sharing. 292
  • 293. On the Security tab, click Add. Type guest in the white field. Click OK. 293
  • 294. Back at the printer Security tab, highlight Guest and be sure that at least Print permission is checked off. Click OK. Enabling the Guest Account on Windows 2000 Go to Start > RUN, then type compmgmt.msc Click OK. 294
  • 295. Expand Local Users and Groups on the left, and then click the Users folder. Right click on Guest and select Properties. Never touch the Administrator account. Uncheck ‘Account is Disabled’. I also usually check off “User cannot change password” and “Password never expires”. Click OK. You’ll be returned to the Computer Management window, feel free to close it. 295
  • 296. Enabling Guest is not enough. Now it’s time to apply permissions for Guest to your shared folders on Windows 2000. Right click on a shared folder, and select Sharing. On the Security tab, click Add. 296
  • 297. Highlight Guest, then click Add. Click OK. You may also want to check out the Sharing tab. Click Permissions. 297
  • 298. “Everyone” is here by default and there’s no reason to add any users, since Everyone also includes Guest. Check off Change if you want to be able to ad or delete files here from another PC. If you’re uncomfortable using the Guest account to access Windows XP Pro or Windows 2000 machines, you can create another user, then access shared folders as that user. This will only work for files, not printers. Here’s what we’re going to do. We’ll create a user called “access” on an XP Pro machine. Next, we’ll apply permissions for the “access” user on a shared folder. Then, from an XP Home PC, we’ll map a drive “connecting as” that new “access” user. Create a new user on Windows XP Pro From XP Pro, go to Start > RUN 298
  • 299. In the RUN box, type compmgmt.msc and click OK. Expand Local Users and Groups on the left, and then click the Users folder. Right-click on an empty area on the right, and select New User. 299
  • 300. Type in a user name. The full name has no effect on the user. Also type in a password. By default, XP Pro will have difficulty accepting “remote” logins that use blank passwords. I like to check off “user cannot change password” and “password never expires”. Click Create. It expects you to keep on entering users until the end of time. Click Close. 300
  • 301. Now it’s time to add the new user to the permissions list of the shared folder. On the Security tab of your shared folder(s), click Add. Type in your new user in the white field, and then click OK. 301
  • 302. The user should now be in the access list, Highlight it and be sure to check off the appropriate permissions. In this case, the “access” user will have the ability to read, write and modify (change) files in the folder. Click OK. Map a network drive as the new user From another XP or 2000 PC on your network, right-click My Computer and select Map Network Drive. Note: Windows 98/ME does not have the capability to map drives under a different user name. 302
  • 303. Select a free drive letter, and specify the path to the folder in the form of computernamesharename. Click “Connect using a different user name”. Type in the user name and password that you created on XP Pro. Click OK. You’re back at the Map Network Drive dialog box. Click Finish. 303
  • 304. In a few seconds, our mapped drive appears. Congratulations! You’ve reached the end of the guide and you’re now a far better home networker than you ever thought you could be. But there’s still a bit more… Some bits of advice Here are some thoughts that I’ve garnered from years of experience with home networks and home computers: Don’t use third party tools to network your computers. They need to interface with Windows’ native networking capabilities anyway, and just add more complication to an already complicated machine. Firewalls, firewalls, and more firewalls. Understanding them is vital to a successful network. In Network Connections, you may see a “bridge”. More often than not, this is leftover from previous networking attempts and could be interfering with your network. You can try disabling/removing it. Likewise, if you see a “Teredo pseudo tunneling” item in your protocols or 304
  • 305. listed in an ipconfig output, this means you have IPv6 (IP version 6) installed. IPv6 is not yet in use, and you don’t need this adapter/protocol. Even after you’ve followed all the steps in the guide, there is the possibility that your PC is just too corrupt to function properly. If you have a 6 year old Windows ME machine that has never seen a format/restore, there are a lot of miles on that PC. Also, be aware that spyware is rampant, and can reduce your PC to a pile of garbage overnight. I urge you to read my Scourges of the Web guide, found on the same download page as this PDF. Logically uninstalling your network card in Device Manager (right-click My Computer, Properties, Hardware Tab, Device Manager) seems to work wonders. A reboot should automatically reinstall the card with a fresh network stack. Take note of the make/model of the card just in case you need to reinstall the driver. Sadly, sometimes the only answer is a complete re-install of Windows, depending on how bad your PC is. If you need help… Let’s face it – strange error messages do occur on occasion, and sometimes things don’t work out quite right. I’ll be happy to answer any questions you may have, but keep in mind the following: The more I know about your network, the more I can help you. Believe it or not, I’ve had people email me and say “I can’t set up my network” – and that’s all they write! I’ve been troubleshooting home networks globally since 2003, so I know what questions to ask you to get straight to the root of the problem. Email me at info@pcguidebook.com or emcauliffe@kelsoconsultinggroup.com with the following information: A description of your problem. The more detailed you are, the less questions I’ll have to ask you. In that same vein, I’ll need to know your basic setup: How do you get to the web? (Cable/DSL/satellite/dialup) 305
  • 306. Do you use a router or ICS? How many computers do you have? What operating system does each run? (Vista, XP Home, XP Pro, 2000, 98, etc) What firewalls are running on each PC? (This is a big one) Are there any wireless computers? Can all computers surf the web, or just some? What are the IP addresses at each PC? (page 32) If you’re having trouble sharing files or printers, what is the exact error message when you try to access the other PC via an IP-based UNC path? (page 275) 306

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