Guide to Novell NetWare 6.0 Network Administration


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Guide to Novell NetWare 6.0 Network Administration

  1. 1. Guide to Novell NetWare 6.0 Network Administration Chapter 5
  2. 2. Chapter 5 - Planning the Network File System <ul><li>Describe the components of the NetWare file system </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the purpose of each NetWare-created directory and Novell-suggested directory </li></ul><ul><li>Apply directory design concepts to developing and documenting a directory structure for an organization </li></ul><ul><li>Identify NetWare and Windows utilities used to view volume and directory information </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>A network file system is a design for storing files on one or more hard disks in the NetWare servers on the network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>File system refers to the file storage structure on an individual NetWare server, whereas network file system refers to how file storage is structured across all NetWare servers in the network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Novell has improved the network file system in NetWare 6 by implementing Novell Storage System (NSS) version 3, with main components being disk partitions, storage pools and volumes </li></ul></ul>Network File System Components
  4. 5. <ul><li>Disk partitions involve dividing the physical disk into one or more partitions in order to format and manage data storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NSS3 provides a virtually unlimited number of NSS partitions and actually designates certain partitions during installation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NSS partitions are considered part of the NetWare server’s disk storage, they do not appear as separate objects in the eDirectory tree, instead they are accessed by clicking on the NetWare server object </li></ul></ul>Network File System Components
  5. 8. <ul><li>Disk partition fault tolerance is essential because having all operating system files and data on one drive creates a potential single point of file service failure if the drive crashes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot Fix detects bad disk blocks and automatically redirects the data being written to a reserved area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mirror automatically keeps data on two partitions synchronized by writing data to both partitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duplexing describes the process of mirroring disk partitions that exist on separate disks on separate controller cards </li></ul></ul>Network File System Components
  6. 11. <ul><li>Storage Pools are created from disk partitions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After a disk partitioning, the next step in setting up an NSS file system is creating storage pools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When a disk partition is added to a storage pool, the amount of space in the pool is increased by the size of the disk partition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The space in the storage pool is divided into one or more NSS logical volumes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There can be only one storage pool on a partition, but unlimited logical volumes can be placed in the storage pool array </li></ul></ul>Network File System Components
  7. 13. <ul><li>Volumes are the basic storage unit that the network file system uses to give users access to network directories and files </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NetWare 6 supports traditional and NSS volumes, which are preferred because of higher capacity and high-speed mounting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NSS volumes are logical divisions of a storage pool and are contained in disk partitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NSS volumes are given a specific static size, or they are given an initial size and allowed to grow </li></ul></ul>Network File System Components
  8. 16. <ul><li>NSS volume features include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Server clustering, which allows volumes to be shared among two or more servers; shared volumes are usually placed on a network storage device attached to a high-speed storage area network (SAN) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overbooking allows the sum of all volumes in the storage pool to be larger than the pool size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flush Files Immediately causes a file to be saved to disk immediately after it is closed, instead of waiting for the next server disk write cycle </li></ul></ul>Network File System Components
  9. 19. <ul><li>NSS volume features (cont.): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>File Snapshot keeps the most recent copy of a closed file for backup purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modified File List causes the volume to track the names of files changed since the last backup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>File Compression is when the server compresses files that have not been used for a specified period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Shredding ensures sensitive data is completely destroyed for security purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disk Space Restriction restricts volume space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salvage Files allows salvaging of deleted files </li></ul></ul>Network File System Components
  10. 20. <ul><li>Traditional volumes will remain when upgrading a NetWare server to NetWare 6 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With traditional volumes, data is written to the disk in units called blocks, which represent the amount of data written to or read from the disk at one time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network Administrators can set a larger block size for traditional volumes when creating volumes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional volumes offer a suballocation feature, which divides a block into 512-byte units as a way to store data from multiple files in the same block; suballocation allows better disk space utilization </li></ul></ul>Network File System Components
  11. 22. <ul><li>NetWare volume storage space can be organized into directories and subdirectories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directories are logical volume storage areas and subdirectories are a further division of directories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directories and subdirectories help keep files organized in a volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An important network administrator responsibility is designing a directory structure for each volume that separates software and data according to functionality and use </li></ul></ul>Network File System Components
  12. 23. <ul><li>During NetWare 6 install, system directories are created to store system files and utilities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The SYS:Login directory contains files and programs that can be accessed before logging in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SYS:Public contains utility programs and files that are available to all network users after login </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SYS:System contains OS files and utilities that are accessible only to users such as Admin users who have been given supervisory privileges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SYS:Etc contains TCP/IP configuration files </li></ul></ul>Network File System Components
  13. 26. <ul><li>Novell suggests that beyond the required directories, three types of directories should be part of an organization’s file structure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Application directories are created for the applications and data the network users need </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Home directories are created for each user as a private home directory in which to store files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared directories allow multiple users to share common files and documents </li></ul></ul>Network File System Components
  14. 29. <ul><li>Files contain the actual blocks of data that can be loaded from the disk storage system into the computer’s RAM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every NetWare volume contains a directory entry table (DET) and a file allocation table (FAT) to keep track of each file’s name and location </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A directory path is a list of file system components that identifies the location of the directory or file to access </li></ul>Network File System Components
  15. 30. <ul><li>Directory structure design involves two steps: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defining the directories and subdirectories needed and then placing those directories in the file system structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before designing an organization’s directory structure, analyze the processing needs of users to determine which directories are needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In creating a directory structure, there is no single best approach that all network administrators use, instead administrators develop unique styles </li></ul></ul>Directory Structure
  16. 31. <ul><li>The first step in directory structure design is determining the storage needed for the services the server will provide to users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To determine storage needs, start by examining an organizational chart in order to assess the computer users and any workgroups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Next, define NetWare server use throughout the organization by determining department and workgroup processing and resource needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many network administrators create naming schemes for the servers in their network </li></ul></ul>Directory Structure
  17. 33. <ul><li>Directory structure design (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With network users and workgroups identified, determine what applications and data storage areas they will need </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directories can be divided into four general categories: general-purpose applications (software used by users to create their own files), vertical applications (software that performs a specialized process), shared data (files that multiple users access), and home directories </li></ul></ul>Directory Structure
  18. 35. <ul><li>Directory structure design (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After determining directory needs, begin to design the layout and determine the location of the directories within the NetWare server’s volumes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First define the data and software directories required by users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then organize these directories into a logical and easy-to-use structure that will provide a foundation for the network’s file system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the NSS Volume Design Form to document each volume’s directory structure </li></ul></ul>Directory Structure
  19. 38. <ul><li>Directory structure design (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The simplest method for organizing the SYS volume is to branch all directories from the root of the SYS volume, but this approach has drawbacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To avoid drawbacks, separate the SYS volume from data storage by using a DATA volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In a multiple-volume design, many network administrators place directories for operating system and general purpose applications in the SYS volume </li></ul></ul>Directory Structure
  20. 41. <ul><li>Directory structure design (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DATA volumes are generally organized using two methods: application or department/workgroup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The application-oriented structure groups the directories by applications used by users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The departmental structure, directories are located within the workgroups and departments that control them, with directories containing files available to all users are located at the root </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The combined structure combines the application-oriented and departmental approaches </li></ul></ul>Directory Structure
  21. 45. <ul><li>NetWare provides several ways to create and manipulate files and directories and to view information on them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows Explorer allows you to view NetWare volumes, their contents, and related properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are command-line utilities available to perform file system functions as well as to automate a process, such as NetWare’s powerful NDIR command which has many options for sorting and displaying files </li></ul></ul>NetWare File and Directory Utilities
  22. 50. <ul><li>NetWare provides several ways to create and manipulate files and directories and to view information on them (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Files and directories in Windows Explorer can be copied in many ways, but in particular, using NetWare Copy gives greater flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NetWare Copy goes beyond standard methods of copying files by preserving the rights specified for a file, as well as preserving all file attributes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network Administrators also have the option of renaming files through Windows Explorer </li></ul></ul>NetWare File and Directory Utilities
  23. 51. Chapter Summary <ul><li>The basic components of the Novell Storage System (NSS) include partition, storage pools, volumes, directories, and files </li></ul><ul><li>Storage pools are made up of one or more physical disk partitions. The volume is the logical division of the storage pool and is comparable to a file cabinet drawer in that it holds folders and files. Each server is required to have a minimum of one NSS volume named SYS consisting of at least 2 GB, with 4 GB recommended </li></ul>
  24. 52. Chapter Summary <ul><li>When NetWare is installed on your server, the required SYS volume and system directories are created automatically. Some of the NetWare required directories include Login, Public, System, Mail, Etc, and Deleted.sav. Each serves a specific purpose </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to the directories created by NetWare, directories should be created for application software, shared data, and personal user home directories </li></ul><ul><li>Two major methods exist for arranging directories: application-oriented structures are grouped around applications; departmental structures are grouped around workgroups </li></ul>
  25. 53. Chapter Summary <ul><li>A path is used to specify the location of a file or directory in the NetWare file system. A complete path contains all components of the directory structure leading to the specified file or directory </li></ul><ul><li>You can use command-line utilities or Windows Explorer to work with the NetWare file system. Novell Client for Windows adds some features to Windows to enhance working with the NetWare file system and allow you to access volume, directory, and file information on NetWare servers and to rename and delete files and directories from NetWare volumes </li></ul>