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  1. 1. CHAPTER Practical Ethernet Implementation
  2. 2. Chapter Objectives <ul><li>Provide a background on Ethernet itself and describe its characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the practical implementation of various Ethernet LANs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10BaseT, 10Base2 and 10Base5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Show sample networking devices and network connections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduce the 100 Mbps Ethernet that is also known as fast Ethernet </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the various operating systems for Ethernet networks </li></ul>
  3. 3. Chapter Modules <ul><li>Background on Ethernet </li></ul><ul><li>Ethernet Basic Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Overview of Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE Implementation of 10BaseT </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE Implementation of 10Base2 </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE Implementation of 10Base5 </li></ul><ul><li>Fast (100 Mbps) Ethernet Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Network Operating Systems for Ethernet Networks </li></ul>
  4. 4. MODULE Background on Ethernet
  5. 5. Module Objectives <ul><li>Describe Ethernet in general </li></ul><ul><li>Trace the origin of Ethernet </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the current status and speeds </li></ul>
  6. 6. Ethernet Defined <ul><li>A highly standardized popular network architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the CSMA/CD transmission protocol </li></ul><ul><li>It is a logical bus network that is implemented both as a physical star and a physical bus network </li></ul><ul><li>Governed by the IEEE 802.3 standard </li></ul>
  7. 7. Origin <ul><li>CSMA/CD originated in Univ. of Hawaii in the 60s </li></ul><ul><li>Cabling and signaling schemes were invented at Xerox </li></ul><ul><li>Subsequently standardized by a group of companies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Xerox, Intel and DEC </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Current Status <ul><li>Highly standardized </li></ul><ul><li>Standards set by IEEE 802 committee </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE 802.3 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standards exists for different speeds of Ethernet implementations </li></ul>
  9. 9. Current Speeds <ul><li>10 Mbps Ethernet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: 10BaseT </li></ul></ul><ul><li>100 Mbps Ethernet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: 100BaseTX </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1 Gigabit Ethernet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New and evolving network technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>10 Gigabits Ethernet is currently emerging </li></ul>
  10. 10. END OF MODULE
  11. 11. MODULE Ethernet Basic Characteristics
  12. 12. Module Objectives <ul><li>Topology </li></ul><ul><li>Cabling </li></ul><ul><li>Communication channels </li></ul><ul><li>A typical Ethernet frame </li></ul><ul><li>Access method and speed </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE 802 implementations </li></ul>
  13. 13. Topology <ul><li>Logical bus </li></ul><ul><li>Physical implementation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Either Star or Bus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each has its own advantage </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Cabling <ul><li>Popular </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) (10baseT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Different categories for different speeds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thin coaxial (10base2) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thick coaxial (10Base5) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optical Fiber (10baseFL) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Communication Channels Network Cable Single Channel Baseband Technology Ethernet Frame
  16. 16. A Typical Ethernet Frame Format Preample Receiver’s address Sender’s address Frame Type CRC Trailer Ethernet II Frame Format used for TCP/IP Communication
  17. 17. Frame Components <ul><li>Preamble </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start of frame indicator </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Destination address </li></ul><ul><li>Source address </li></ul><ul><li>Type </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network layer protocol identifier </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trailer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CRC Error checking code </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Access Method and Speed <ul><li>IEEE 802.3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 Mbps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IEEE 802.3u </li></ul><ul><ul><li>100 Mbps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also known as fast Ethernet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IEEE 802.3z </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 Gbps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also known as gigabit Ethernet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IEEE 802.3ae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 Gbps </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. END OF MODULE
  20. 20. MODULE Overview of Implementations
  21. 21. Module Objectives <ul><li>List 10 Mbps IEEE implementations </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss 100 Mbps implementations </li></ul><ul><li>Show typical star and bus implementations </li></ul>
  22. 22. 10 Mbps IEEE 802.3 Implementations <ul><li>10BaseT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Twisted pair implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>10Base2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thin coaxial implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>10Base5 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thick coaxial implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>10BaseFL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiber implementation </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. 100 Mbps IEEE 802 Implementations <ul><li>100BaseTX </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Twisted pair implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>100BaseT4 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses two pairs of regular Cat 3 wires to transmit at 100M bps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>100VG AnyLAN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Twisted pair implementation with variation to the 100BaseTX implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The network of choice at present is </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gigabit Ethernet that is gradually replacing 100BaseTx networks </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. A Typical Star Ethernet LAN Configuration Client Server Client NIC NIC NIC NIC Hub RJ 45 Connection Twisted Pair Wire Cat 5e (1000baseT)
  25. 25. A Typical Bus Ethernet LAN Configuration Client Server Client Thin coaxial cable (10base2) T-Connector Terminator NIC NIC NIC NIC
  26. 26. END OF MODULE
  27. 27. MODULE IEEE Implementation of 10BaseT Star Networks
  28. 28. Module Objectives <ul><li>10BaseT implementation hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Length limitation and use of repeaters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implementation in a building </li></ul><ul><li>An actual 10BaseT configuration </li></ul>
  29. 29. 10BaseT Implementation Hardware Requirements <ul><li>10BaseT NIC </li></ul><ul><li>Hub </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May act as a multi-port repeater </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UTP or STP wiring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RJ 45 based </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Actual Implementation Hardware Hub Cables Network Cards
  31. 31. 10BaseT Implementation Rules <ul><li>Maximum length of a 10BaseT segment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>100 meters (328 feet) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maximum number of computers supported in the LAN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1024 </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Length Limitation Client Server Hub < 328 feet < 328 feet
  33. 33. Use of Repeaters for Length Extension Server Hub If the distance is greater than 328 feet, a repeater can be used to extend the distance. Repeater
  34. 34. Use of Fiber Line Drivers for Length Extension Server Switch If the distance is greater than 328 feet, a fiber-optic line driver can be used to extend the distance to several km. Fiber Driver Fiber Driver
  35. 35. Implementation in a Building Hub Punch Down Client Client Server Wiring Rack (Wiring Closet) Switch Backbone UTP
  36. 36. Installation in a Building <ul><li>Wiring closet is a reserved space in the building for housing wiring hubs </li></ul><ul><li>Wiring rack </li></ul><ul><li>Hubs and switches </li></ul><ul><li>UTP cables are run to the wall </li></ul><ul><li>UTP connection is run from the wall to the desktop using a patch cable </li></ul>
  37. 37. An Actual Star Ethernet LAN Configuration
  38. 38. END OF MODULE
  39. 39. MODULE IEEE Implementation of 10Base2 Bus Networks
  40. 40. Module Objectives <ul><li>Briefly outline the hardware needed to implement a 10Base2 network </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the 10base2 implementation rules such as those relating to maximum segment length, minimum distance between nodes etc. </li></ul>
  41. 41. 10Base2 Implementation: Hardware Requirements <ul><li>10Base2 NIC </li></ul><ul><li>10Base2 cable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thin coaxial cable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BNC T connectors </li></ul><ul><li>BNC terminators </li></ul><ul><li>BNC barrel connectors, if necessary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usage must be kept to a minimum, if not avoided </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Actual Implementation Hardware
  43. 43. A Simple 10Base2 Implementation Maximum Segment Length Minimum Cable Length
  44. 44. 10Base2 Implementation Rules <ul><li>Maximum segment length </li></ul><ul><ul><li>185 meters (607 feet) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Minimum cable length </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0.5 meters (20 inches) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maximum number of computers per segment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>30 </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Length Limitation > 20 inches < 607 feet
  46. 46. 5-4-3 Segmentation Rule <ul><li>To build larger networks, segments can be combined together based on the 5-4-3 rule </li></ul><ul><li>5 Segments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A 10Base2 LAN can consists of 5 segments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4 Repeaters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 repeaters are used to form the 5 segments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 segments with computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 of the segments can have stations attached </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. A Sample 5-4-3 Implementation Repeater Repeater Repeater S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 Repeater
  48. 48. Extension of the 10Base2 LAN <ul><li>A combined effect of the 4 repeaters is to extend the overall length of the network </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum length </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3035 feet </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Variations to the Rule <ul><li>In practice, variations to the rule exist for practicality </li></ul><ul><li>Such implementations can therefore be considered as nonconforming with IEEE </li></ul><ul><li>The implication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interoperability with other conforming devices is not guaranteed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The functional features are the responsibility of the manufacturer of the nonconforming device </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. END OF MODULE
  51. 51. MODULE Sample Implementations of 10base2
  52. 52. Module Objectives <ul><li>Implementing 10Base2 using switches </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation in a building </li></ul><ul><li>Variations in 10Base2 configuration </li></ul><ul><li>10Base2 and 10BaseT internetworking </li></ul>
  53. 53. Implementing 10Base2 LANs Using Switches Switch S1 S2 S3
  54. 54. 10Base2 Implementation in a Building Router S1 S2 S3 Backbone
  55. 55. Variations in Ethernet Bus LAN Configuration
  56. 56. 10Base2 and 10BaseT Internetworking Client Server Hub Client Client Server Transceiver 10Base2 10BaseT AUI
  57. 57. END OF MODULE
  58. 58. MODULE IEEE Implementation of 10Base5 Bus Networks
  59. 59. Module Objectives <ul><li>Give an overview of 10Base5 hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the implementation rules </li></ul><ul><li>Present a sample implementation for a building </li></ul><ul><li>Include other relevant notes on 10Base5 implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Present an example of 10Base2 and 10Base5 integration </li></ul>
  60. 60. 10Base5 Implementation Hardware Requirements <ul><li>10Base5 NIC </li></ul><ul><li>Transceiver </li></ul><ul><li>10Base5 cables </li></ul><ul><li>Transceiver cables </li></ul>
  61. 61. A Simple Implementation Thick Coax (10Base5) Transceiver Transceiver Client Server Vampire Clamp 15-pin AUI Connector
  62. 62. 10Base5 Implementation Rules <ul><li>Maximum segment length </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1,640 feet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Minimum length between connections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8 feet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5-4-3 rule holds for 10Base5 LAN as well </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum length in 5 segments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8,200 feet </li></ul></ul></ul>
  63. 63. Other Notes on 10Base5 <ul><li>Transmission characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thicknet is better than Thinnet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used as the Backbone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Workability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinnet is better than Thicknet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for floor distribution </li></ul></ul>
  64. 64. An Example of 10Base2 and 10Base5 Deployment Building Floor 10Base5 Backbone Transceiver Repeater 10Base2
  65. 65. END OF MODULE
  66. 66. MODULE Fast (100 Mbps) Ethernet LANs
  67. 67. Module Objectives <ul><li>100 Mbps Ethernet variations </li></ul><ul><li>100BaseTX Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>A simple 100BaseTX implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Media variations in implementing 100BaseX </li></ul>
  68. 68. 100 Mbps Ethernet Variations <ul><li>100VG-AnyLAN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced by HP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standardized by IEEE 802.12 group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>100BaseTX </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also known as Fast Ethernet </li></ul></ul>
  69. 69. 100BaseTX <ul><li>A very popular implementation at present </li></ul><ul><li>Still based on CSMA/CD </li></ul><ul><li>Baseband technology </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation is similar to 10BaseT </li></ul><ul><li>Requires better UTP cable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Category 5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media variations are present </li></ul></ul>
  70. 70. A Simple 100BaseTX Implementation Client Server Hub
  71. 71. Media Based Variations of 100BaseX <ul><li>100BaseT4 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4-pair Category 3, 4 or 5 UTP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>100BaseTX </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2-pair Category 5 UTP or STP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>100BaseFL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2-strand fiber-optic cable </li></ul></ul>
  72. 72. END OF MODULE
  73. 73. MODULE Network Operating Systems for Ethernet Networks
  74. 74. Module Objectives <ul><li>Microsoft operating systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer-to-peer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Client-server </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unix operating system and variations of the same </li></ul><ul><li>Other operating systems </li></ul>
  75. 75. Microsoft <ul><li>Peer-to-Peer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows Workgroup 3.11 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 9x (95, 98 etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows NT Workstation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Client-Server </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows NT Workstation for small LANs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows NT Server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small Business Server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A combination of NT Server, Exchange Server etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  76. 76. UNIX <ul><li>Many versions of Unix </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SCO Unix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linux </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AIX </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul></ul>
  77. 77. Others <ul><li>Novel NetWare </li></ul><ul><li>Banyan Vines </li></ul><ul><li>AppleShare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For apples on an Ethernet network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul>