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  1. 1. Wireless Network Security Presented by: Prabhakaran Theertharaman
  2. 2. Presentation Plan <ul><li>An overview of wireless technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits, Security risk, Mitigation for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>802.11 WLAN technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bluetooth ad hoc network technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handheld wireless devices </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Wireless Technology <ul><li>Enables one or more devices to communicate without physical connections </li></ul><ul><li>Does not require network or peripheral cabling </li></ul><ul><li>Receive and transmit information using electromagnetic (EM) waves. </li></ul><ul><li>Ranges from Radio Frequency [RF] to Infrared frequency [IR] for transmitting data </li></ul><ul><li>Extends from 9 kilohertz (kHz) to thousands of gigahertz (GHz) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Wireless Networks <ul><li>Wireless Wide Area Networks ( WWAN ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wider Coverage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2G Cellular </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mobitex </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Wireless Local Area Networks ( WLAN ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller Networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>802.11 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HiperLAN </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Wireless Personal Area Network ( WPAN ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ad hoc Networks* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bluetooth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Infrared (IR) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Threats and vulnerabilities of wireless systems <ul><li>Vulnerabilities that exist in a wired network apply to wireless technologies too. </li></ul><ul><li>Malicious entities may </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gain unauthorized access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intercept and disclose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denial of service (DoS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Masquerade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>deploy unauthorized equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use un-trusted wireless network services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sensitive data may be corrupted during improper synchronization. </li></ul><ul><li>Handheld devices are easily stolen and can reveal sensitive information </li></ul>
  6. 6. Wireless attacks Attacks Passive Active Eavesdropping Traffic Analysis Masquerade Replay Message Modification Denial of Service
  7. 7. General Wireless Security Requirements <ul><li>Authenticity - A third party must be able to verify that the content of a message has not been changed in transit. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Repudiation - The origin or the receipt of a specific message must be verifiable by a third party. </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability - The actions of an entity must be traceable uniquely to that entity. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Wireless Local Area Network a.k.a., WiFi, 802.11 WLAN
  9. 9. Wireless LAN - Benefits <ul><li>User Mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid Installation </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Scalability </li></ul>
  10. 10. Security features of WiFi <ul><li>Authentication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only authorized persons allowed to gain access to my network. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Confidentiality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intended to prevent information compromise from casual eavesdropping (passive attack) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Integrity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures that messages are not modified in transit between the wireless clients and the access point in an active attack. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. WEP <ul><li>WLANs security services are provided by Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) protocol. </li></ul><ul><li>WEP protects link-level data during wireless transmission between clients and access points. </li></ul><ul><li>WEP does not provide end-to-end security (just the wireless portion of the network) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Risk Mitigation <ul><li>Management Countermeasures </li></ul><ul><li>Operational Countermeasures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical security </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technical Countermeasures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Software Solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware Solutions </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Technical Countermeasures <ul><li>Software Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Access Point Configuration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Updating default passwords </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishing proper encryption settings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlling the reset function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using MAC ACL functionality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing the SSID </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximize the Beacon Interval </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disable broadcast SSID feature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing default cryptographic keys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using SNMP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing default channel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using DHCP – Dynamic Host Control Protocol </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Software Solutions <ul><li>Access Point Configuration </li></ul><ul><li>Software Patches and Upgrades </li></ul><ul><li>Authentication </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Firewalls </li></ul><ul><li>Intrusion Detection System (IDS) </li></ul><ul><li>Encryption </li></ul><ul><li>Security Assessments </li></ul>
  15. 15. Hardware Solutions <ul><ul><li>Smart Cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual Private Networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biometrics </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Wireless PAN – Bluetooth Technology
  17. 17. Bluetooth Technology <ul><li>Bluetooth is a standard that will </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate wires and cables between both stationary and mobile devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate both data and voice communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offer the possibility of ad hoc networks and deliver synchronicity between personal devices </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Benefits <ul><li>Cable replacement </li></ul><ul><li>Ease of file sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless synchronization </li></ul><ul><li>Automated wireless applications </li></ul><ul><li>Internet connectivity </li></ul>
  19. 19. Bluetooth Security modes Security Modes Security Mode 1 No security Security Mode 2 Service Level Security Flexible / Policy based Security Mode 3 Link Level Security Fixed Authentication Confidentiality Authorization Authentication Confidentiality
  20. 20. Security Requirements for Risks <ul><li>Loss of Confidentiality </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of Integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of Availability </li></ul>
  21. 21. Risk Mitigation <ul><li>Software Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>- Bluetooth PIN </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>- Device Address </li></ul><ul><li>- Frequency-Hopping Schemes </li></ul><ul><li>- Trusted Third Party (TTP) Authentication </li></ul>
  22. 22. Wireless Hand Held Devices Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) & Smart Phones
  23. 23. Security Requirements <ul><li>Loss of Confidentiality </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of Integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of Availability </li></ul>
  24. 24. Risk Mitigation <ul><li>Authentication </li></ul><ul><li>Encryption </li></ul><ul><li>Antivirus Software </li></ul><ul><li>PKI </li></ul><ul><li>VPN and Firewalls </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise Solutions </li></ul>
  25. 25. Questions <ul><li>? </li></ul>
  26. 26. Thank You