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COSC 4750 CentOS Installation and maintenance
 

COSC 4750 CentOS Installation and maintenance

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    COSC 4750 CentOS Installation and maintenance COSC 4750 CentOS Installation and maintenance Presentation Transcript

    • COSC 4750 CentOS Installation and maintenance
    • Installation
      • Pretty easy to do
      • Requires a minimum amount of knowledge on the part of the installer
      • Finds most hardware during the installation
        • May have problems with some laptops and very new motherboards (mostly video issues).
      • Can be installed using a boot disk and the CDROM
      • Just the CDROM, if you can boot from the CDROM
      • A boot disk (CD, USB or specialized floppies) and install from the network, if you have a network card
      • The installation can be done in several modes
        • Normal: Uses a GUI interface to ask questions
        • text: No GUI interface, used when it is unable to detect your monitor/video card correctly
        • expert: Expected you know what you are doing.
        • Askmethod: uses normal and asks if you want to use network.
    • With CDs
      • It will tell you a CD was found.
      • Then asks if you want to verify the media.
        • Make sure all 4 disks are good and it can install from them.
        • Takes 30 to 60 minutes depending on the CDROM drive.
    • Normal mode
      • The installer will begin up a GUI interface now, if you using local media
      • Which language
        • English is default
      • Keyboard Configuration:
        • us
      • Mouse type:
        • - Default is normally correct. (wheeled Mouse PS/2)
    • If network install
      • Wants to know if it should use DHCP or static IP number
        • May need a network driver disk.
      • Then where to get the files from
      • Once it finds the install media, it will startup the GUI interface.
    • Upgrade options
      • If a version of linux is installed, it will ask
        • Upgrade
          • Lists current version.
        • New install
    • Install Type
      • Personal desktop install
        • Meant for personal computers and laptops
        • Installs GUI
        • No server deamons installed.
          • i.e. can’t telnet into this machine, because there is no telnet server.
        • Min install 2.3GB
      • If running Windows, will automatically configure for dual-boot
    • Install Type (2)
      • Workstation and laptop class
        • Install everything from Personal desktop
        • Installs development environment
        • Installs system admin tools.
        • Requires at least 3 GB free disk space
    • Install Type (3)
      • Server-Class
        • Must choose to install X Windows system
        • Install network applications, such as file and printer sharing, web services,
        • Removes ALL existing partitions on ALL drives
        • Need at least 1.1GB of disk space, without X-windows
    • Install Type (4)
      • Custom Install
        • 620 MB minimum install, max 9 GB
        • You select packages to be installed
        • Configure grub if necessary
      • Upgrading system
        • Will not delete any data (backup anyway)
        • upgrades the kernel and all installed packages, if able to.
          • May require of max of 9 GB to upgrade the system.
    • Custom Installation
      • Partition drives
        • Have installer auto partition
          • Choose to erase only linux partitions, all partitions, or only use free space
          • Will setup swap partition, /boot partition which is 100 megs, and the rest goes to the / partition
            • Note: swap for partition 2x until 2GB, then 1x after that. Min of 64MB.
          • Allows you to review and make changes.
        • Using Disk Druid (linux Druid = Windows Wizard)
          • Easier to use then fdisk
          • Fewer mistakes can be made with Disk Druid
        • Need at least a / and swap partition in order to install the system
        • Recommended for servers, you have /, /boot, /usr, /home, /tmp, /var, and swap. /usr needs to be at least 5 GB (for a full installation).
        • For workstations or personal machines, the auto partition works very well.
        • Using fdisk
          • Complicated, similar to Microsoft fdisk program.
      • With Disk druid, you request how much space you want to partition and it assigns it as close a possible
      • typically: 500MB comes out as 502MB
        • Due to drive restriction, sectors, and partitions already created.
      • Has “Grow to fill disk” option. Use it on the last partition to get the rest of the space.
    • Partitions to Format
      • The installer will ask which partitions to format. You don’t have format all of them, unless they are new.
      • checking for bad blocks while formatting
        • Normally a good idea, but it takes about an hour to check a 4GB to 8GB drive
        • We’ll be using 20+ GB drives in lab.
    • Boot loader configuration
      • If you plan to boot only from a floppy disk, you can skip the configuration
        • It created near the end of the installation. Also useful when lilo/grub has failed or other problems booting.
      • Otherwise choose lilo or grub as the boot loader
      • If will list dual boot options automatic for you
        • If it is able to find them correctly.
        • Choose when one you want to boot by default
      • You can then opt for a boot password
      • For SMP (symmetric Multi Processor) motherboards, grub will create two boot entries.
        • 1. uses all the processors
          • Normal use
        • 2. uses only one processor
          • for use when you are having problems with a processor
    • Network Configuration
      • Choose DHCP or manual
        • DHCP will ask the DHCP server for all the network information that it needs.
      • Choose Activate on boot
        • Will your networking start when the system boots
    • Manual Network Settings
      • Need IP number, Netmask, Network, and Broadcast
        • Example: IP 129.72.216.101, Netmask: 255.255.255.0, Network: 129.72.216.0, and Broadcast 129.72.216.255
      • Also Need Hostname, Gateway, Primary DNS, 2 nd (if known), and 3 rd (if known), DNS search
        • Hostname:rhinst, Gateway: 129.72.216.1, DNS: 129.72.216.4, 129.72.216.13, 129.72.60.8, Search cs.uwyo.edu, uwyo.edu
    • Firewall Configuration
      • Security level: High
        • Only DHCP can connect to the computer
        • NOT allowed: FTP, IRC DCC file transfers, RealAudio, Remote X windows clients
        • Good for computers connected to the internet, but not servers
      • Security level: medium
        • Allows all Ports lower than 1023 to accessed
          • FTP, SSH, telnet, HTTP, etc.
        • NFS server port allowed, Remote X clients, and X Font server (xfs is disable by default)
        • RealAudio does work.
      • Security level: No firewall
        • No blocking.
    • Language Support
      • By default it installs English
      • You can choose to add more languages
        • Or remove english and install another one.
    • Time Zone Configuration
      • You can choose you location or UTC (Universal Coordinated Time)
      • Location is Denver, Mountain Standard time.
      • UTC for Wyoming is UTC-07 US Mountain
        • You can also choose to use Daylight Savings Time as well.
      • Setting the system clock to UTC
        • The time on files will be UTC instead of local time.
          • UTC is GMT
    • Set root password.
      • Account Creation
        • Set the root password
        • Can also create other user accounts at this time.
      • Authentication Configuration
        • MD5 Password: Can use up to 256 characters, instead of the normal 8 or less
        • Shadow Password: Passwords are stored in a file called: /etc/shadow
    • Package Group Selection
      • You select components to install
        • Can choose everything (need max of 7 GB of disk space)
        • Choose Minimal need only 620 MB
      • You can also choose to select individual packages, instead of component group
        • choose only www, instead of Mail/WWW/news tools.
    • Package installation
      • At this point the installer, formats the hard drives, and installs the packages selected and configures the system.
      • Testing in our lab with a network install,
        • The actually package installation took about 45 minutes to install everything.
    • Finish the install.
      • It will install all the packages and then ask you to reboot.
      • Next it will bring up the “First Time boot” configurations
      • Asks to agree to License agreement
    • Date and Time
      • Enter correct time/date
      • Setup Network Time Protocol to set the time automatically from a known time server.
      • On campus, we use time.uwyo.edu instead of the ones listed.
    • Configure X
      • Choose the resolution and color depth.
      • You can also
      • Choose a Monitor
        • Usually, Redhat normally chooses the correct monitor by default, but always a good thing to check
      • Choose a Video card, video memory
        • usually chooses the correct information by default
          • May not select very new video cards correctly. Cards that are less then 6 months old.
            • May have to deal with after the installation is completed.
          • Also may have problems with laptop video cards.
      • Many vendors offer video drivers, so you can check with their web site as well.
    • Account creation
      • Account Creation
        • Can create user accounts at this time.
      • Authentication Configuration
        • MD5 Password: Can use up to 256 characters, instead of the normal 8 or less
        • Shadow Password: Passwords are stored in a file called: /etc/shadow
    • User Authentication
        • Enable NIS
          • Can use an existing group of computer accounts on the network, instead of having to create account local to this machine.
        • Enable LDAP, Hesiod, Kerberos5
        • Enable SMB
          • Use a windows server to authenticate users. You still have to create local account, but use windows for passwords.
    • Done
      • It should now boot in GUI multiuser mode.
      • See if everything works.
        • Now it is time to customize your machine
      • Next Time
        • Customizing
        • upgrading
        • maintenance