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CIS105 Networking: Computer Connections Describe the basic ... CIS105 Networking: Computer Connections Describe the basic ... Presentation Transcript

  • CIS105 Networking: Computer Connections
    • Describe the basic components of a network.
    • Explain the methods of data transmission, including types of signals.
    • List communication equipment and channels options.
    • Describe various network topologies.
    • Define firewall and communication protocols.
    • A Computer Network is two or more computers connected together with data communications equipment over a communications channel/media.
    • Benefits of Networks?
      • Reduce costs by sharing hardware, software, and data (information).
      • Communication!
  • Initiates instruction Converts data Signal path Converts data Receives Instruction
    • Modem – modulate /demodulate
      • Converts digital signal to analog and vice versa
    • Telephone Dialup Modem (56 Kbps)
    • DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) modem
    • Cable Modems (cable companies)
    • Cellular Modem (uses cellular system)
    • Network Integrated w/ Motherboard
    • Network Interface Card (NIC)
      • Installed in expansion slot
      • Wired or wireless cards
    • Twisted Pair (TP) Cable
      • Shielded (STP)
      • Unshielded (UTP)
      • Ethernet uses RJ45
      • Telephone uses RJ11
      • RJ – Registered Jack
    • Coaxial Cable (coax)
      • Copper + 3 layers of insulation
    • Fiber Optic Cable
      • Glass/plastic – uses light to transmit
      • Speed of light
      • Tubes are insulated
    • Wireless (next slide)
    Physical Media
    • Wireless
      • Generally slower
      • Susceptible to interference
      • Wi-Fi – Wireless Fidelity – standard 802.11 MIMO ( Multiple-in, Multiple-Out )
      • Infrared
      • Bluetooth (see page 478)
      • Cellular Radio
    • Microwave (line of site)
    • Satellite – placed about 22,300 miles above
    Wireless Media
    • Bandwidth – is the measurement of how much information can be transmitted over a medium over a prescribed period of time.
    • Signal Type
      • Analog (continuous signal for older media).
      • Digital (individual electrical pulses - binary).
    • Broadband transmission– multiple signals simultaneously in both directions - shared line - (Internet connections).
    • Baseband transmission – one signal at a time.
      • Simplex – data is transmitted one direction only (TV).
      • Half-duplex – data is transmitted in both directions, but not at the same time (CB Radio, ATM, FAX).
      • Full-duplex – data is transmitted in both directions at the same time for same device (telephone, modem dial-up service).
    • Asynchronous – start/stop signals for each message.
      • Message is usually one or two bytes long.
      • Low-speed communication
    • Synchronous – larger block of characters are transmitted together.
      • Includes error-check bits at the end of the message.
      • More complex and more expensive.
    • A LAN is a collection of computers connected together to share hardware, software, and data.
    • LAN Hardware
      • Network Interface Cards (NIC) for devices
      • Communications Channel / Media
      • Hub – connects computers to create a LAN
      • Bridges and Routers – connects LANS that use the same protocol
      • Gateways – connects LANS that use different protocols, and also serve as routers.
    • Node - each computer, printer, or server on network
    • Network Topology is the physical layout of a network.
    • Three common topologies
      • Star
      • Ring
      • Bus
      • See next slide
    Ring Network Star Network Bus Network
    • Star
      • Server is in center with attached clients
      • If server goes down, network goes down
      • Easy to expand
      • Server controls collisions
    • Ring
      • All computers connected by a single line
      • If any computer goes down, the network goes down
      • Difficult to expand
      • No collisions, because token travels around one way
    • Bus
      • All nodes share a single line
      • If a computer goes down, the network is still up
      • Easy to expand
      • Many collisions – causes resend – Terminator’s located at ends.
    • Connecting two or more LAN’s of the same company.
    • Can link computers across town or span the world.
    • Common carriers are companies licensed by FCC to provide these services as leased lines.
    • Dedicated lines provides permanent connection between two or more locations
      • Companies can build their own (microwave, fiber, etc.)
      • T1 and T3 high-capacity digital lines can be leased
      • Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) use telephone lines
    • Connect with Router or Gateway
    • Will need a firewall to keep intruders out, which can be hardware and/or software (see next slide).
    • Firewalls block unauthorized users from entering the network and unauthorized software from making outbound connections (spyware).
    • Windows includes personal Firewall protection.
    • Separate products can also be purchased.
  • GateWay Internet
    • All of this networking hardware requires software.
    • After connecting all of the hardware, software needs to be installed on the administrator’s computer.
    • Connect to the networking devices from the administrator’s computer and use the software to configure the hardware.
    • Then everything will work  .
    • Client computer requests services from server.
    • Server returns requested information / data.
    • Common uses include Web Server, Print Server, File Server, and Email Server.
    • Connect directly to another computer to create a LAN.
    • Need to activate Operating System features.
    • Server is not required.
    • All computers have equal status.
    • Users share each other’s files, printers, etc.
    • Common in small offices.
    • How is all of this communication possible?
    • Protocol - a set of rules for the exchange of data.
      • Agreement on how data is to be sent and receipt acknowledged.
      • Needed to allow computers from different vendors to communicate.
      • Common protocols include Ethernet, Wi-Fi, TCP/IP
      • Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
        • Permits any computer to communicate over the Internet.
        • Uses packet switching – original message is broken up; each piece has address of destination; each piece may take a different route; receiving computer puts all the pieces together.
    • Want to learn more…
      • CIS190 Introduction to LAN
      • CNT140 Cisco Networking Basics
      • MST150 Microsoft Windows Professional
    • HowStuffWorks-Firewalls
    • Review MCC’s Wireless Network: http://www.mc.maricopa.edu/its/net_services.html