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CIS 1140 - CHAPTER 6 - PHYSICAL NETWORK.ppt

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  • Tech Tip The Big Wireless Lie Anyone who makes a trip to a local computer store sees plenty of 802.11 devices. There’s little doubt as to the popularity of wireless. This popularity, however, is giving too many people the impression that 802.11 is pushing wired networks into oblivion. While this may take place one day in the future, wireless networks’ unreliability and relatively slow speed (as compared to 100BaseT and Gigabit Ethernet) make it simply challenging to use in a network that requires high reliability and speed. 802.11 makes great sense in homes, your local coffeehouse, and in offices that don’t need high speed or reliability, but any network that can’t afford downtime or slow speeds still uses wires! Note The one exception to the use of UTP is fiber. It’s not that much of an exception  almost all fiber network technologies from 10BaseFL to fiber-based Gigabit Ethernet use a star topology and the same type of fiber cable: 62.5/125 multimode.
  • Tech Tip Rack Mount Units All racks use a unique height measurement called U (units). A U equals 1.75 inches. When you purchase a rack it will come in a “U” unit such as 44U. All rackmounted equipment also comes in U’s. It’s common to see rackmounted servers, hubs and patch panels with U dimensions, such as 2U (3.5”) or 4U (7”).
  • Exam Tip A single piece of cable that runs from a work area to an equipment room is called a run.
  • Unlike previous CAT standards, EIA/TIA defines CAT 5e and CAT 6 as four-pair only cables.
  • Tech Tip Plenum and Riser The space between the acoustical tile ceiling in an office building and the actual concrete ceiling above is called the plenum —hence the name for the proper fire-rating of cabling to use in that space. A third type of fire rating, known as riser , designates the proper cabling to use for runs vertically between floors. Riser-rated cable provides less protection than plenum-rated cable, though, so most installations today choose plenum rating for runs between floors.
  • Tech Tip Serious Labeling The EIA/TIA 606 standard covers proper labeling and documentation of cabling, patch panels and wall outlets. If you want to know how the pros label and document a structured cabling system, check out the EIA/TIA 606 standard.
  • Tech Tip Serious Labeling The EIA/TIA 606 standard covers proper labeling and documentation of cabling, patch panels and wall outlets. If you want to know how the pros label and document a structured cabling system, check out the EIA/TIA 606 standard.
  • Exam Tip Watch out for the word “drop” as it has more than one meaning. A single run of cable from the equipment room to a wall outlet is often referred to as a drop. Drop is also use to define a new run coming through a wall outlet that does not yet have a jack installed.
  • Remember that manufacturers update their drivers often and, even if Windows loads a driver for you, go get the latest from the manufacturer’s web site or by using the Windows Update tool.
  • Many people order desktop PCs with NICs simply because they didn’t take the time to ask if the systems has a built in NIC. Take a moment and ask about this!
  • Tech Tip Show Your NICs! Windows 2000 and XP give you the ability to show the status of the network connections in the task bar. By default, only disconnected networks show up, but it’s handy to tell Windows to always show the connection. To change this, go into the Network and Dial-up Connections in the Control Panel. Select the Properties for the Network connection and check the “Show icon in taskbar when connected” checkbox.
  • Tech Tip NIC Diagnostics Despite many claims by many software makers, there is no such thing as a single utility program that will test any NIC. The ones that make these claims try to communicate with the NIC via the NIC’s drivers to send packets. If the NIC is physically bad or if the driver isn’t working, you get a failure. You can come to the same conclusion just by trying to access a web page using your browser! If you want to test your NIC, hope it comes with a diagnostic or that you can download one from the manufacturer’s website.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Installing a Physical Network Recognize and describe the function of basic components in a structured cabling system Explain the process of installing structured cable Install a network interface card Perform basic troubleshooting on a structured cable network
    • 2. Structured Cabling Structured cabling is a set of standards for cable installers to follow, defined by EIA/TIA , used all over the world to install physical cabling and networks in a safe and orderly fashion!
    • 3. Successful Cabling
      • Successful networks require three main ingredients:
      • Telecommunications Room (Central Room)
      • Horizontal Cabling runs from central room to all rooms in your organization and eventually to all PCs
      • Work Area is where your offices and clients are located and where PC’s often connect to wall-jack or to a switch that connects to wall-jack
    • 4. Telecommunications Room
      • Telecommunications Room
      • Central room where all horizontal cabling runs to
      • Each of your rooms throughout your organization connect to this room
      • These rooms are also known as IDF-intermediate distribution frame
    • 5. Telecommunications Room
      • Telecommunications Room (Central Room)
      Equipment Room
    • 6. Equipment Racks
      • Telecommunication Room Requirements
      • EIA/TIA’s structured cabling standards define special components you need in the telecommunications room including: Equipment Rack, Patch Panel, Hub/Switch, Servers
      • Equipment is mounted into equipment racks …a central component
        • 19 inches wide but vary in height
    • 7. Equipment Racks
      • Equipment racks
        • Most equipment rooms use a floor-mounted equipment rack
        • A smaller network may be able to use a wall-mounted short rack or just a wall-mounted patch panel
    • 8. Rack Mountable Equipment
      • Equipment Rack Devices
      • Hubs
      • Switches
      • Servers
      • Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPSs)
      Rack mounted UPS
    • 9. Horizontal Cabling
      • Horizontal cabling is used to connect the Telecommunications room (central room) to all of the other work areas throughout your orgnaization
      • A single piece of horizontal cabling is called run
      Horizontal cabling
    • 10. Horizontal Cabling Details
      • Usually CAT 5e or better UTP cable
      • UTP cable has either a solid or stranded core
        • Solid core conducts better but is stiffer and breaks easier
        • Stranded core is easier to work with (used in work areas)
      Stranded core Solid core
    • 11. Horizontal Cabling Details
      • Horizontal Cabling (Equipment Room to Work Area)
      • EIA/TIA specifies horizontal cabling use a solid core because it is a better conductor than stranded core cabling. Solid Core is more stiff and breaks easier, but again, it is a better conductor than stranded core
      • Patch Cables (Work Area Cables)
      • Stranded Core cabling will be used for ‘Patch Cables’ that you use in your Work Area (whereas Solid Core is better for horizontal cabling that you run through your walls & ceiling to the equipment room)
      Stranded core Solid core
    • 12. Fire Ratings
      • When a building catches on fire the insulation on cables that burns could cause noxious fumes and smoke
      • Underwriter’s Laboratories and the National Electrical Code have developed fire ratings
        • Poly-Vinyl Chloride ( PVC ) creates smoke and noxious fumes when burned
        • Plenum-rated cable creates much less smoke and fumes
          • Most city ordinances require the use of plenum-rated cable
    • 13. Patch Panels and Cables
      • All Horizontal cabling runs to the Equipment room where it get’s punched down into the Patch Panel/Punch Down Block
    • 14. Patch Panels and Cables
      • A patch panel is the box where you run all horizontal cabling to & punch down all cabling into the back of the patch panel (the punch down block side)!
      • Horizontal cabling is punched down to the back of the Patch Panel, & then you run a Patch Cable from the front ports to the Hub or Switch
    • 15. Patch Cables
      • Once the horizontal cabling is run and connected to the back of the patch panel (punched down) then you can use patch cables to connect the Patch Panel to the central hub/switch in the main Equipment Room
      • Patch cables are short 2 to 5 foot straight-through UTP cables using a stranded wire core (not solid core)
    • 16. Patch Panels
      • Patch Panels can get messy over time, so Label your patch panels (so your Equipment Room doesn’t get too messy)
      • You might have a variety of different type of ports such as UTP, STP, or fiber ports
    • 17. Work Area
      • The work area is simply the office where the PC is located
      Work area
    • 18. Work Area
      • The work area is where your PCs are!
      • In the old days, your PCs would connect directly to the Wall Jack (straight into the wall)
      • You would use a Patch Cable (UTP Stranded Core) to connect your PC to the Wall Jack which required a RJ-45 connector
      • Most network failures occur in the work area
    • 19. Wall Outlet
      • It is a good idea to label your wall outlet to identify the position on the patch panel in the closet where the cable goes
      • In this picture A320 would match up to the A320 patch panel connection in the Equipment Room
    • 20. Limitations to Network Design
      • The horizontal cable (solid core) may be at most 90 meters in length according to the EIA/TIA 568 specification, so that means you have 90 meters between your telecommunications room to the wall-jack of each work area room
      • The patch cables (stranded core) in the work area may be up to 10 meters (maximum) in length
      • The patch cables used in the telecommunications room to connect the Patch Panel to the the Switch (stranded core) can be up to 6 meters in length
    • 21. Floor Plan
      • Installers should always begin with a floor plan
        • Shows the locations of potential closets, firewalls, and so forth
    • 22. Floor Plan – Cable Drops
      • A cable drop is the location where the cable comes out of the wall (usually at the wall-jack location, which generally is around the bottom of the wall)
      • Map out where the cable drops will be run to
      • Talk to users and management about current and future needs
      • The typical price for a network installation is around $150 per drop
    • 23. Inside or Outside the Walls
      • Do you want to run your cables inside or outside the walls
      • Raceways adhere to the outside of the walls and make sense in some older buildings
    • 24. Telecommunication Room
      • Distance
        • Choose an equipment room location that is centrally located to keep maximum runs to 90 meters
      • Power
        • Generally put your equipment room outlets on their own dedicated circuit
      • Dryness
        • Choose a dry room with low humidity
    • 25. Telecommunication Room
      • Coolness
        • Telecommunication Rooms get warm; make sure there is an air conditioning duct in the room
    • 26. Telecommunication Room
      • Access
        • Prevent unauthorized access – the room should be locked
        • Make it easy to get to the equipment to maintain and troubleshoot it
      An equipment room that has become a broom closet – not good! A server wedged in the back of a closet and hard to get to – not good!
    • 27. Installing the Cable
      • Pulling cable requires two people to get the job done quickly
      • Most pullers start from the equipment room and run the cable to the work area locations (specifically the wall outlets/jacks or cable drop locations)
    • 28. Pulling Cable
      • Good cable management is important and must adhere today to local codes, EIA/TIA, and the National Electrical Code (NEC) rules
      • Proper hooks and cable trays should be used
    • 29. Pulling Cable
      • Running the cable down through the wall to an outlet on the wall takes skill
        • A hole is cut in the drywall using a stud finder
        • A weight on the end of a nylon string is dropped through the wall down to the opening
        • The network cable is tied to the nylon rope and then pulled down
    • 30. Pulling Cable through the Wall
        • An outlet box or low-voltage mounting bracket is then installed in the wall
        • The cable is then terminated on the back of the jack
        • A faceplate covers the front of the mounting bracket
    • 31. Equipment Room Cables
      • Many cables coming from work areas must be consolidated in the equipment room
      • Special cable guides will help to bring the cables down to the equipment rack
    • 32. Making Connections
      • The cable then needs to be connected at both ends
        • On the jack in the work area
        • On the back of the patch panel in the closet
        • The cables should be documented and labeled
        • Every connection should be tested
    • 33. Connecting the Work Area Attaching a jack to a wire Fitting the jack into a faceplate Tool used to make a 110-punchdown - the most common
    • 34. Connecting the Patch Panels Poor cable manage-ment Good cable manage-ment
    • 35. Labeling the Cable
      • Organize the patch panel based on your network
        • Either based on the physical layout of the network
        • Or based on user groups
      • EIA/TIA defined the 606 labeling scheme
      • Design a labeling scheme that matches your network’s organization
      • Label the outlet in the work area and the jack on the patch panel with the same number
      • Color coding may be desirable
    • 36. Labeling Well organized patch panels Labels on the patch panel and outlet match
    • 37. Simple Cable Testers
      • Continuity Testers
      • Simple cable testers cost under $100 and only test for breaks in the wire by testing continuity (they are called Continuity testers )
    • 38. Time Domain Reflectometer
      • TDR Testers
      • A medium priced cable tester (around $400+) can determine the length of the cable and where a break is located
      • Called a Time Domain Reflectometer ( TDR )
    • 39. Fox and Hound (Tone Generator) Tone Generator The Fox and Hound is a Tone Generator (Attach one end to cable to generate a tone, then fund the Hound finder up the cable until it beeps)
    • 40. Advanced Cable Testers
      • Advanced cable testers cost over $1000
        • Tests the electrical characteristics of the cable
        • May generate a printed report
        • May draw a diagram of the network including MAC addresses, IP addresses, and even operating systems for each computer
        • Called media certifier tools
    • 41.  
    • 42. There are ‘Fiber Optic’ cable testers as well known as OTDR-Optical time domain reflectometer
    • 43. NICs
      • Network Interface Cards
      • Network Interface Cards (NICs) are a common component in PCs today
      • They are used to connect to a network
      • A NIC needs to meet three criteria
        • TECHNOLOGY : Technology such as Ethernet, Token Ring, or FDDI (which also determines connector type like RJ-45, ST/SC)
        • SPEED : Speed such as 10 Mbps, 100 Mbps, or 1000 Mbps
        • SLOT/BUS : Type of bus such as ISA or PCI or newer PCIe
    • 44. Ethernet NICs – 10Base5
      • Ethernet NIC (OLD DAYS)
      • 10Base5, or Thicknet, NICs use a female, 15-pin DB connector
        • Called Digital-Intel-Xerox (DIX) connector
      • Drop cable runs from the DIX connector on the NIC to the Attachment Unit Interface (AUI) or transceiver
    • 45. Ethernet NICs – 10Base2
      • Ethernet NIC (OLD DAYS)
      • 10Base2 or Thinnet NICs use a BNC connector that attaches via a T-connector
    • 46. Ethernet NICs – 10BaseT
      • ETHERNET NIC
      • 10BaseT, 100BaseT, and Gigabit Ethernet NICs all use RJ-45 connectors
    • 47. Ethernet NICs – Fiber Optic
      • FIBER-OPTIC NIC
      • Fiber optic NICs use either SC or ST connections
        • An ST connector is shown in the
        • Modern-day NICs might come with MTRJ or LC connectors (but ST & SC are more common)
    • 48. Token Ring NICs
      • Token Ring NICs use either the older and rarer female DB-9 connector or the newer RJ-45 connector
      • Newer RJ-45 Token-Ring NICs are hard to distinguish between Ethern NICs
    • 49. Installing NICs
      • Installing a NIC involves 3 steps
        • Physically install the card in the PC
        • Assign unused system resources to the NIC using Plug and Play or manually
        • Install the proper drivers
    • 50. Buying NICs
      • Purchasing a New NIC:
      • Use name brands like 3Com or Intel
      • Multispeed cards are usually better (Example: 10/100/1000 cards)
      • Get the connectors you need (RJ-45, etc..)
      • Try to stick with the same model
        • Many companies standardize on which NICs to buy
    • 51. Physical Connections
      • Physically inserting the NIC into the PC is straight forward
      • Make sure the NIC is for the proper expansion slot type
        • The most common is Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI)
        • PCI-Express
        • PCMCIA or PC Card connections are seen on laptops
      PCI USB
    • 52. Drivers
      • Most NICs are plug and play and install easier in Windows systems
      • However, Windows will most likely choose its own driver that is outdated
      • It is better to install the driver that came with the NIC, and even better to download and install the latest driver off the Internet
    • 53. Link Lights
      • Most NICs have lights (really Light Emitting Diodes or LEDs)
      • A link light tells you the NIC is connected to a hub or switch
        • There’s also a light on the hu
        • b or switch
    • 54. Activity Lights and More
      • The activity light on a NIC will flicker when there is network activity
      • Multispeed NICS may also contain speed lights
      • Older NICs may contain collision lights
    • 55. Fiber Optic NICs
      • Fiber optic NICS rarely have lights
      • Most problems are traced to the ST or SC connection on the NIC
      • An optical tester will allow you to test the connections
    • 56. Direct Cable Connections
      • Recent versions of Windows include software that enables direct serial-to-serial, parallel-to-parallel, or infrared-to-infrared port connections
        • Serial port connections require a null-modem cable
        • Parallel port connections use a IEEE 1284-rated bi-directional parallel cable
      • These connections are only good to connect two PCs together
    • 57. Diagnostics and Repair of Physical Cabling
    • 58. Diagnosing Physical Problems
      • Most network problems are layer 1, or Physical layer, issues (Cable not plugged in, NIC not plugged in properly, Computer not plugged in, etc…)
      • These manifest themselves as a device not showing up in My Network Places or “server not found” errors
      • However, if you can do one network task (such as browse the Internet) but can’t do another (like check e-mail), then it is a software issue
    • 59. Check Your Lights
      • Check your link lights – if they are not on then you have a cable issue
        • A bad connection or maybe the wall outlet is bad or turned off at the closet
        • The System Tray icon may indicate “Network cable unplugged”
        • The horizontal cabling may be at fault
        • If other users in the area also have a problem, then the issue may be the switch or hub
    • 60. Check the NIC
      • A bad NIC could also cause a problem with network connection
        • Verify the NIC is working in Device Manager
        • Run the NIC’s diagnostic software if available
        • A loopback test sends data out of the NIC to see if it comes back
    • 61. Cable Testing
      • Horizontal cable may be tested with a mid-range tester with TDR
      • If the horizontal cable is bad, then it is best to replace the entire cable
    • 62. Toner
      • If cables aren’t properly labeled, then they may need to be traced
      • Use a toner to trace cables
        • Uses a tone generator that connects to the cable and sends an electrical signal along the wire
        • A tone probe makes a sound when placed near the right cable at the other end
        • Toners are rather inexpensive
        • Sometimes called by the brand name Fox and Hound
    • 63. Switches
      • A network with three switches installed instead of hubs
    • 64. Multispeed Switches
      • Segments with servers attached or segments that connect with other parts of the network (called the backbone) may need higher speeds than other segments
      High-speed ports Multispeed ports lit up on a switch