Chapter13.ppt

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Chapter13.ppt

  1. 1. CNT105 Computer Networking Hardware/Software Chapter 13 Troubleshooting Network Problems
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Describe the steps involved in an effective troubleshooting methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Follow a systematic troubleshooting process to identify and resolve networking problems </li></ul><ul><li>Document symptoms, solutions, and results when troubleshooting network problems </li></ul><ul><li>Use a variety of software and hardware tools to diagnose problems </li></ul>
  3. 3. Troubleshooting Methodology <ul><li>Proceed logically and methodically </li></ul><ul><li>Follow recommended steps </li></ul><ul><li>Use experience when necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Logical approach benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents wasteful, time-consuming efforts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unnecessary software, hardware replacements </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Troubleshooting Methodology (cont’d.) <ul><li>Troubleshooting steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify symptoms, problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify affected area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine what has changed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish most probable cause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine if escalation necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create action plan, solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implement solution, test result </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify results, effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Document solution, process </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Identify the Symptoms and Problems <ul><li>Ask questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Answers help identify network problem symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Avoid jumping to conclusions about symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Pay attention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Users, system and network behaviors, and error messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treat each symptom uniquely </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Identify the Affected Area <ul><li>Determine affected area and group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One user or workstation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A workgroup? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A department? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One location within an organization? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An entire organization? </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Identify the Affected Area (cont’d.) <ul><li>Narrow down time frame </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When did the problem begin? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has the network, server, or workstation ever worked properly? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Did the symptoms appear in the last hour or day? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have the symptoms appeared intermittently for a long time? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do the symptoms appear only at certain times of the day, week, month, or year? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminates some causes; points to other </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Identify the Affected Area (cont’d.) <ul><li>Take time to troubleshoot correctly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask specific questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify problem scope </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filter unrelated user information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discover time and frequency of problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May reveal more subtle network problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identify affected problem area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to next troubleshooting steps </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Figure 13-1 Identifying the area affected by a problem
  10. 10. Figure 13-2 Identifying the chronological scope of a problem
  11. 11. Determine What Has Changed <ul><li>Become aware of recent network changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask questions pinpointing problem resulting from network change </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Possible actions if change generated problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correct problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reverse change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less risky, less time consuming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Network change records </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Track what has changed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make records available to staff members </li></ul>
  12. 12. Establish the Most Probable Cause <ul><li>Close to determining problem cause </li></ul><ul><li>Verify user competency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure human error is not problem source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verify user is performing network tasks correctly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Watch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connect using remote desktop software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Talk over phone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Catch user-generated mistakes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gain clues for further troubleshooting </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Establish the Most Probable Cause (cont’d.) <ul><li>Re-create the problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn more about problem causes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduce symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Log on as user; log on under privileged account </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Follow same steps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determine whether problem symptoms reproducible, to what extent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ask user precisely what was done before error </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Establish the Most Probable Cause (cont’d.) <ul><li>Verify Physical layer connectivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Half of all network problems occur at Physical layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms of Physical layer problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Segment, network lengths exceed standards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Noise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improper terminations, faulty connectors, loose connectors, poorly crimped connections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Damaged cables </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Faulty NICs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software errors may point to physical connectivity problem </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Establish the Most Probable Cause (cont’d.) <ul><li>Verify Physical layer connectivity (cont’d.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnosing Physical layer Problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ask questions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Verify connections between devices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Verify soundness of connection hardware </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swapping equipment: tests theories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exchange faulty component for functional one </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Change patch cable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Better option: build in redundancy </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Figure 13-3 Verifying physical connectivity
  17. 17. Establish the Most Probable Cause (cont’d.) <ul><li>Verify logical connectivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Review questions identifying logical connectivity problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical connectivity problems more difficult to isolate, resolve than physical connectivity problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software-based causes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resource conflicts with NICs configuration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improperly configured NIC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improperly installed, configured client software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improperly installed, configured network protocols, services </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Determine Whether Escalation is Necessary <ul><li>Help desks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Help desk analysts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proficient in basic workstation, network troubleshooting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First-level support </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network specialist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Second-level support </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help desk coordinator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Third-level support personnel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Know when and how to escalate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow given procedure </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Create an Action Plan and Solution Including Potential Effects <ul><li>Consider how solution affects users, network functionality </li></ul><ul><li>Scope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess solution’s scope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Before implementing solution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wait if not an emergency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trade-offs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restore functionality for one user group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May remove functionality for others </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Create an Action Plan and Solution Including Potential Effects (cont’d.) <ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be aware of inadvertent security implications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Network access, resource privileges addition or removal consequences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before upgrade, patch installation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Understand access changes for authorized, unauthorized users </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Create an Action Plan and Solution Including Potential Effects (cont’d.) <ul><li>Scalability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solution types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Position network for future additions, enhancements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary fix organization will outgrow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weigh options carefully </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider poor network performance identification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Address those areas separately </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Create an Action Plan and Solution Including Potential Effects (cont’d.) <ul><li>Use vendor information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturer documentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free online troubleshooting information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Searchable databases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sophisticated web interfaces for troubleshooting their equipment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vendor’s technical phone support </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consult with others, within, outside your organization </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Implement and Test the Solution <ul><li>Implement only after proposed solution’s effects researched </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brief or long </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires foresight, patience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use methodical and logical approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to efficient correction process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unless major problem – fix as quickly as possible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow series of steps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Implement a safe, reliable solution </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Implement and Test the Solution (cont’d.) <ul><li>Roll out solution in stages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially in large-scale fixes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After solution implementation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verify problem solved properly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testing dependencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solution itself </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Area affected by problem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to test immediately </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Identify the Results and Effects of the Solution <ul><li>After testing solution implementation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine how and why solution was successful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine solution’s effect on users and functionality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid creating unintended, negative consequences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate solution to colleagues </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Document the Solution and Process <ul><li>Always record: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem symptoms and cause (or causes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Justification for recording </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impossible to remember each incident’s circumstances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job changes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use centrally located database </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessible to all networking personnel </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Document the Solution and Process (cont’d.) <ul><li>Call tracking system (help desk software) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User-friendly, graphical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prompts for problem information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assigns unique problem number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly customizable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If not available, use simple electronic form </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supported services list document </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lists all supported service, software and contacts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Follow-up with user </li></ul>
  28. 28. Document the Solution and Process (cont’d.) <ul><li>Notify others of changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Record resolution in call tracking system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alerts others about problem, solution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Notifies others of network changes made </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many types of changes to record </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not necessary to record minor modifications </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Help to Prevent Future Problems <ul><li>Avert network problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Documentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upgrades </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Troubleshooting Tools <ul><li>Utilities help troubleshoot network problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specifically designed to analyze, isolate network problems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simple continuity testers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protocol analyzers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tool selection dependencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problem being investigated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Network characteristics </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Crossover Cable <ul><li>Crossover cable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reverses transmit and receive wire pairs in one connector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Directly interconnect two nodes without intervening connectivity device </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Verify NIC transmitting, receiving signals properly </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Tone Generator and Tone Locator <ul><li>Ideal situation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telecommunications closet ports, wire terminations all labeled properly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telecommunications closet disorganized, poorly documented </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tone generator (toner) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues signal on wire pair </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Tone Generator and Tone Locator (cont’d.) <ul><li>Tone locator (probe) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emits tone when electrical activity detected </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Probe kit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generator and locator combination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fox and hound </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Testing requires trial and error </li></ul><ul><li>Use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine where wire pair terminates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not used to determine cable characteristics </li></ul>
  34. 34. Tone Generator and Tone Locator (cont’d.) Figure 13-4 Use of a tone generator and tone locator
  35. 35. Multimeter <ul><li>Tests cables for faults </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Isolates problems with network cables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multimeter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measures electric circuit characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resistance and voltage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Voltmeter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measures electric circuit pressure, voltage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Voltage creates signals over network wire </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Multimeter (cont’d.) <ul><li>Resistance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fundamental wire property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent on wire’s molecular structure, size </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured in ohms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using ohmmeter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Impedance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resistance contributing to controlling signal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured in ohms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telltale factor for ascertaining where cable faults lie </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some required for proper signal transmission and interpretation </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Multimeter (cont’d.) <ul><li>Multimeter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate instruments for measuring wires impedance, resistance, voltage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has several uses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sophistication, features, and costs vary </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Multimeter (cont’d.) Figure 13-5 A multimeter
  39. 39. Cable Continuity Testers <ul><li>Cable checkers (continuity testers, cable testers) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tests whether cable carrying signal to destination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tests cable continuity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Copper-based cable tester </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of two parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Base unit generates voltage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remote unit detects voltage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Series of lights, audible tone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signal pass/fail </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Cable Continuity Testers (cont’d.) <ul><li>Verify UTP, STP wires paired correctly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not shorted, exposed, crossed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fiber optic continuity tester </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues light pulses on fiber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determines whether pulses reached other end </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tests the cable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Test all cables to ensure meeting network’s required standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Homemade or purchased </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Offer convenience: portable, lightweight, low cost </li></ul>
  41. 41. Cable Continuity Testers (cont’d.) Figure 13-6 Cable continuity testers
  42. 42. Cable Performance Testers <ul><li>Determines if cable carrying current </li></ul><ul><li>Continuity testers versus performance testers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sophistication and price </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance tester accomplishes same continuity, fault tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuity testers perform additional tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sophisticated performance testers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include TDR (time domain reflectometer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Issue signal, measures signal bounce back </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indicate proper terminator installation, function, node distance </li></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Cable Performance Testers (cont’d.) <ul><li>Fiber-optic connections testers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use OTDRs (optical time domain reflectometers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transmit light-based signals of different wavelengths over fiber </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OTDRs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measure fiber length </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determine faulty splice locations, breaks, connectors, bends </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measure attenuation over cable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul>
  44. 44. Cable Performance Testers (cont’d.) Figure 13-7 A cable performance tester
  45. 45. Voltage Event Recorders <ul><li>Voltage event </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any condition where voltage exceeds or drops below predefined levels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Voltage event recorder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collects data about power quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Downloaded to workstation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzed by software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost up to $5000 </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Voltage Event Recorders (cont’d.) Figure 13-8 Voltage event recorder
  47. 47. Butt Set <ul><li>Lineman’s handset, telephone test set </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Butt into telephone conversation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rugged, sophisticated telephone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine if line functioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Receiving signal, picking up noise affecting signal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sophisticated butt sets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perform rudimentary cable testing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detecting dial tone on line </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Butt Set (cont’d.) Figure 13-9 Butt set
  49. 49. Network Monitors <ul><li>Software-based tool </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continually monitors network traffic from server, workstation attached to network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interprets up to Layer 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine protocols passed by each frame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot interpret frame data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Included in NOS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft’s Network Monitor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Purchase or free download tools developed by other software companies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All use similar graphical interfaces </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Network Monitors (cont’d.) <ul><li>Network adapter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must support promiscuous mode </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common terms for abnormal data patterns, packets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local collisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Late collisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Runts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Giants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jabber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative frame sequence checks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ghosts </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Protocol Analyzers <ul><li>Protocol analyzer (network analyzer) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Captures traffic, analyzes frames </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Typically to Layer 7 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Variety of protocol analyzer software available </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireshark </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Same features as network monitor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Few extras </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generates traffic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sniffer (packet sniffer) hardware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Older term </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Protocol Analyzers (cont’d.) Figure 13-10 Traffic captured by a protocol analyzer
  53. 53. Protocol Analyzers (cont’d.) <ul><li>Offers versatility in information type, depth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Could collect more information than can be reasonably processed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set filters to avoid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Before using network monitor or protocol analyzer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn what network traffic normally looks like </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Capture data for time period on regular basis </li></ul></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Wireless Network Testers <ul><li>Tools containing wireless NICs, running wireless protocols </li></ul><ul><li>Workstation wireless network connection properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shows a little about wireless environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connection duration, signal speed and strength, number of packets exchanged </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only applies to one workstation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Programs scan for wireless signals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discover access points, wireless stations transmitting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. Wireless Network Testers (cont’d.) <ul><li>Commercial tools advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Portability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Installed with wireless network analysis tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain more powerful antennas </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. Wireless Network Testers (cont’d.) Figure 13-11 Wireless network testing tool
  57. 57. Summary <ul><li>Methodical, logical troubleshooting methodology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Key to solving network problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Troubleshooting tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tone generator and tone locator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multimeters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic cable continuity testers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable performance tester </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voltage event recorder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Butt set </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network monitors and protocol analyzers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless network testing tools </li></ul></ul>

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