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Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems
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Chapter 9 Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems

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Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2. Introduction to Network Server Operating Systems Networking Basics Basic Server Concepts Server Roles—Past and Present Sharing and Protecting Resources Chapter 9
  • 3. Learning Objectives
    • Explain the basic concepts of networking
    • Describe basic server concepts
    • Describe the common roles of network servers
    • Share and protect network resources
  • 4. Networking Basics
    • Why Network PCs?
      • Resource Sharing
        • Resources include files, folders, modems, printers, CD and DVD players/recorders, and backup devices
        • Resources may also include services, such as e-mail and fax
      • Communicating
        • E-mail
        • List servers, newsgroups
        • Chat rooms
  • 5. Networking Basics
    • Why Network PCs? (continued)
      • Network Resource Management
        • Data Backup
        • Single-Server Security
        • Multi-Server Security
  • 6. Networking Basics
    • Networks Small to Large
      • LANs
        • Geographically the smallest
        • Room, floor of a building, entire building, business or academic campus
        • Common network technology
        • Usually the fastest speeds
        • LAN speeds in millions or billions of bits per second
  • 7. Networking Basics
    • Networks Small to Large (continued)
      • MANs
        • Cover an entire metropolitan area
        • Usually high-speed fiber-optic cable
        • Operating in the billions of bits per second
        • A MAN may be somewhere between you and the Internet
        • Community of LANs to connected to each other and to the Internet
  • 8. Networking Basics
    • Networks Small to Large (continued)
      • WANs
        • Cover the largest geographic area
        • Two or more networks connected over long distances
        • Connected networks make up an internetwork
        • The most famous is the Internet
        • WAN speeds range from thousands of bits per second up into the millions of bits per second
        • Low-end WAN uses a 56-Kbps modem
        • Internet backbone uses high-end WAN connections
  • 9. Networking Basics
    • Logical Network Organization
      • Peer-to-Peer Networks
        • Data and resources distributed
        • No central authority responsible for security
        • An administrator must make the individual resource available as a share
        • Microsoft term for peer-to-peer is “workgroup”
        • Microsoft recommends workgroups for 10 or fewer
        • A small network with high security needs should not be organized as a workgroup/peer-to-peer
  • 10. Networking Basics
    • Logical Network Organization (continued)
      • Server-Based Networks
        • The most common network administrative organization
        • Each PC interacts with one or more servers
        • Servers are dedicated to providing network services
        • A Microsoft server-based network with central administration is called a domain
  • 11. Networking Basics
    • Step-by-Step 9.01
    • Peer-to-Peer or Server-Based Network?
    • Page 445
  • 12. Networking Basics
    • Network Pieces and Parts
      • Physical Components
        • Network Interface and Media
          • Network interface card (NIC) or modem
          • Media may be metal wires, fiber-optic cable, or air
        • Other Network Connection Devices
          • Hubs and switches
          • Bridges and routers
          • Firewalls
  • 13. Networking Basics
    • Software Components
      • Drivers
      • Network Operating Systems (NOSs)
      • Services
      • Protocols
  • 14. Basic Server Concepts
    • The Two Sides of the Equation
      • Server and client are the two sides of the equation
      • A service enables a system to share its resources
      • Peer-to-peer computers are both client and server
      • A networked computer may play many roles at once
      • A special client is required for each resource type
  • 15. Basic Server Concepts
    • The Two Sides of the Equation (continued)
      • Client requests resource and works with it locally
      • A server performs tasks to provide the services
      • Processing is distributed
      • The relationship is client/server networking
  • 16. Basic Server Concepts
    • The OSs Supporting the Services
      • Windows Server Operating Systems
        • Windows NT Server 4.0 products
          • Windows NT Server 4.0
          • Windows NT Server 4.0 Enterprise Edition
          • Microsoft discontinued sales on January 1, 2005
      • Windows 2000 Server products
        • Windows 2000 Server
        • Windows 2000 Advanced Server
        • Windows 2000 Datacenter Server
  • 17. Basic Server Concepts
    • The OSs Supporting the Services (continued)
      • Windows Server 2003
        • Windows Server 2003 Standard Edition
        • Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition
        • Windows Server 2003 Web Edition
        • Windows Server 2003 Datacenter Edition
  • 18. Basic Server Concepts
    • The OSs Supporting the Services (continued)
      • UNIX Server Operating Systems
        • Many versions of UNIX for many hardware platforms
        • Powerful and stable
        • Server of choice for network infrastructure services
        • Popular on servers that host large databases shared by thousands of users
  • 19. Basic Server Concepts
    • The OSs Supporting the Services (continued)
      • UNIX Server Operating Systems (continued)
        • Specialized database-specific software has been developed for UNIX
        • Deeply entrenched in insurance, medicine, banking, manufacturing, and on web servers.
  • 20. Basic Server Concepts
    • The OSs Supporting the Services (continued)
      • Linux Server Operating Systems
        • Growing in popularity within organizations of all sizes
        • Becoming more accepted in the small business and home markets
        • Open operating system, available by itself for free
        • Vendors bundle it and charge a fee for add-ons
  • 21. Basic Server Concepts
    • The OSs Supporting the Services (continued)
      • Linux Server Operating Systems (continued)
        • A cost-effective alternative for sharing files, applications, printers, modems, and Internet services
        • Linux is competing with all other server OSs
        • Linux is distributed according to the Open Source standard (www.opensource.org)
  • 22. Basic Server Concepts
    • The OSs Supporting the Services (continued)
      • Novell Server Operating Systems
        • In the 1980s, Novell, Inc. produced hardware and software for corporate networks
        • They continued to update their flagship product, the NetWare network operating system
        • NetWare once had a nearly 70%share of the market
        • Lost market share, but are gaining again
        • Latest version is Open Enterprise Server (OES)
        • OES is just one server product offered by Novell
  • 23. Server Roles—Past and Present
    • Server Roles in the Past
      • Early 1980s LANs focused on file and printer sharing
      • Mission-critical network services in large organizations were provided by mainframe computers
      • Users worked at dedicated terminals connected to the mainframes over proprietary networks
      • Typical early LAN was not connected to the corporate network
      • One or two servers would meet the needs of an entire department
  • 24. Server Roles—Past and Present
    • Server Roles in the Past (continued)
      • PC-based servers improved and now have capabilities rivaling the mainframe systems
      • Number of roles played by these servers has increased
      • The mantra of IT professionals has become "interoperability"
      • Network services have moved off proprietary networks
      • All the interconnected networks of a single organization is an enterprise network
      • An organization's data may be anywhere on the enterprise network—even on a mainframe
  • 25. Server Roles—Past and Present
    • Server Roles Today
      • Many additional server roles
      • Single-purpose or multiple purpose servers
      • Roles may be elaborate services that are added to a network operating system
      • A service is often an extra-cost option
      • Source of an added service may be the same vendor as the OS, or a third-party vendor
  • 26. Server Roles—Past and Present
    • Server Roles Today (continued)
      • Directory Service Server
        • Maintains the directory service database
        • Domain controllers are servers running the Active Directory service
        • Active directory accounts can be administered remotely or locally
        • An administrator uses the Active Directory Users and Group console to manage accounts
  • 27. Server Roles—Past and Present
    • Server Roles Today (continued)
      • File and Print Server
        • A file server allows users to connect to it to store files
        • A print server allows users to connect to print
        • These two roles are combined in file and printer
        • File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Networks
        • The client side is called Client for Microsoft Networks
  • 28. Server Roles—Past and Present
    • Server Roles Today (continued)
      • File and Print Server (continued)
        • Most NOSs have a file and print service as a base service that does not have to be added to the NOS
        • The most common reasons for using a file server
          • It is easier to physically ensure the security of a server
          • Data can be made available to multiple users
          • Data can be used in a collaborative effort
          • Data can be centrally backed up
  • 29. Server Roles—Past and Present
    • Server Roles Today (continued)
      • File and Print Server (continued)
        • share (verb) – to make a network resource available
        • share (noun) – the point at which network user can access a resource
        • A computer with shared resources is a server
        • A computer used to access network resources is a client
        • A PC can be both a server and client at the same time
  • 30. Server Roles—Past and Present
    • Server Roles Today (continued)
      • File and Print Server (continued)
        • A desktop operating system does not have some of the same capabilities and services as a server OS
        • Server OSs can handle many simultaneous connections
        • Server OSs can take advantage of very high-end server computers with many processors, high-speed disk drives, and gigabytes of RAM memory
        • Servers attached to high-speed networks provide file and print services on large enterprise networks
  • 31. Server Roles—Past and Present
    • Server Roles Today (continued)
      • E-Mail Servers
        • In the early days of PC networks, the electronic delivery and management of messages was the turf of the mainframe systems
        • LAN networks grew, became more capable, reliable, and interconnected
        • E-mail function gradually migrated to LAN servers
        • Mail server (or e-mail server ) transmits, receives, and stores electronic mail
        • E-mail – messages transmitted electronically
  • 32. Server Roles—Past and Present
    • Server Roles Today (continued)
      • E-Mail Servers (continued)
        • Mail servers used within organizations, as well as on the Internet
        • Communicate via e-mail seamlessly within organizations and over the Internet
        • For many individuals, e-mail is the most compelling reason to have Internet access from home
        • In a Microsoft network, the e-mail server is Exchange
        • In a NetWare environment, the e-mail server is GroupWise
  • 33. Server Roles—Past and Present
    • Server Roles Today (continued)
      • Data Backup Servers
        • Centralized data backup is an important network service
        • Data frequently backed up to removable media and stored off-site
        • In a simple scenario, users save all of their data to one or more network servers
        • Each server is then backed up nightly
        • The backup task is moving from the desktop to the server
  • 34. Server Roles—Past and Present
    • Server Roles Today (continued)
      • Data Backup Servers (continued)
        • A tape backup system may be on each server
        • Centralized backup systems back up many servers
        • Backup services run on Windows, Novell, or UNIX
        • Internet-based backup services:
          • CapSure
          • Connected
          • Xdrive
          • Clunk Click
          • 1stForData
  • 35. Server Roles—Past and Present
    • Server Roles Today (continued)
      • Application Server
        • An intermediary program between users running client software and a back-end business application or database
        • Client-side component may be on a PC, or it may be a simple web browser on a minimally configured network computer called a thin client
        • Thin client model is replacing client-server application
        • Internet-based application service providers are called (ASPs)
  • 36. Server Roles—Past and Present
    • Server Roles Today (continued)
      • Web Servers
        • Host web pages on the Internet and in private networks
        • Content previously made available by other means is now published on the company intranet
        • An intranet is a private network using Internet technologies, such as web servers
  • 37. Server Roles—Past and Present
    • Server Roles Today (continued)
      • Web Servers
        • For many years, users connecting to the Internet could see only text content
        • The Internet existed, but not the Web
        • The Web came about thanks to the efforts of Tim Berners-Lee, designer of the hypertext markup language (HTML)
        • HTML is now the language of the World Wide Web
  • 38. Server Roles—Past and Present
    • Server Roles Today (continued)
      • Web Servers (continued)
        • An Internet browser uses HTTP to interpret HTML
        • A URL starts with “HTTP” to indicate use of this protocol
        • Microsoft and Novell offer web server add-ons for their operating systems
        • Apache Server is used on up to 60% of all web servers
  • 39. Sharing and Protecting Resources
    • Adding Computers to a Microsoft Domain
      • Some computers can join a domain
        • Windows NT family of OSs can join a domain
        • A computer needs an account in the domain database
        • A computer joins the domain
      • Some computers cannot join a domain
        • Windows 9 x and Windows XP Home cannot join
        • Users of 9 x can log onto the domain and assign permissions to local shares to domain accounts
  • 40. Sharing and Protecting Resources
    • Adding Computers to a Microsoft Domain (continued)
      • Some computers cannot join a domain (continued)
        • Users of Windows XP Home cannot log onto the domain
        • Users of either OS can access domain shares
      • More benefits of domain membership
        • Centralized management of the desktop computer
        • When a computer joins a domain, certain group accounts in the domain become members of local groups
          • Domain Administrators become members of local Administrators group
          • Domain Users become members of the Local Users group
  • 41. Networking Basics
    • Step-by-Step 9.02
    • Adding a Computer to a Domain
    • Page 462
  • 42. Sharing and Protecting Resources
    • Creating User and Group Accounts
      • Users and Group Membership
        • Domain Users
          • Individual accounts with identifying information
          • Up to 20 characters in the username
        • Windows NT Domain Groups
          • Local
          • Global
        • Active Directory Domain Groups
          • Domain Local
          • Global
  • 43. Networking Basics
    • Step-by-Step 9.03
    • Creating User Accounts
    • Page 466
  • 44. Sharing and Protecting Resources
    • Creating User and Group Accounts (continued)
      • Passwords
        • Windows desktop OSs allow blank passwords by default
        • Always use a password on a networked computer
        • Enforce with local password policies
        • Windows Server 2003 requires complex passwords
        • Domain password policy affects all domain users
        • Administrators set local or domain password policies
  • 45. Sharing and Protecting Resources
    • Creating User and Group Accounts (continued)
      • Passwords (continued)
        • Use the strongest password possible
        • Windows allows mixed case and a mix of alpha, numeric, and other symbols Create strong passwords
        • Remember your password
        • Do not use your name or any common words
        • Change your password frequently
        • Do not write your password on your office calendar, etc.
  • 46. Sharing and Protecting Resources
    • Creating Shares
      • Setting File-Level Permissions
        • NTFS file permissions are the last defense
        • Set permissions at the most restrictive
  • 47. Sharing and Protecting Resources
    • Creating Shares (continued)
      • Creating a Share and Setting Share-Level Permissions
        • Local files and folders are not visible over a network until a share is created above them
        • A file share is the point at which a network user can access files
        • A file share must point to a folder
        • Once created, permissions can be set
        • The share default permissions on desktop Windows and some server versions = Everyone full control
        • Windows 2003 default = Everyone Read
        • Everyone group is every user connected to the network
  • 48. Sharing and Protecting Resources
    • Creating Shares (continued)
    • Creating a Share and Setting Share-Level Permissions (continued)
        • First set NTFS permissions on the folders and files that will be under the share
        • Then create the share
        • Remove the Everyone group from share permissions
        • Share permissions should be equal to or greater than the NTFS permissions on underlying folders and files
        • Combining share permissions and NTFS permissions results in the most restrictive of the two sets
  • 49. Networking Basics
    • Step-by-Step 9.04
    • Setting Permissions and Sharing Folders
    • Page 468
  • 50. Chapter Summary
    • Basics of Networking
      • PCs are networked for resource sharing, communicating, and network resource management.
      • The single-server security model works when just one or a very few servers are required.
      • The many-server security model centralizes security management for a large number of servers.
  • 51. Chapter Summary
    • Basics of Networking
      • A computer network consists of two or more computers connected by communications media in order to share resources, communi- cate, and centralize management of resources.
      • A LAN is limited geographically to a room, a floor of a building, an entire building, or a campus that is all connected with a common network technology, usually at the fastest speeds (10 Mbps, 100 Mbps, 1 Gbps, or 10 Gbps).
  • 52. Chapter Summary
    • Basics of Networking
      • A MAN is a network that covers a metro- politan area, usually connected by a high- speed fiber-optic cable, and that runs at speeds measured in gigabits per second.
      • A WAN is two or more networks connected over long distances using phone lines or satellite communications with speeds normal- ly ranging from thousands of bits per second to millions of bits per second.
  • 53. Chapter Summary
    • Basics of Networking
      • A peer-to-peer network (a workgroup in Microsoft terminology) has no central authority responsible for security, and the management of resources becomes more difficult as the number of PCs increases.
      • A server-based network provides a central place for keeping and controlling resources.
  • 54. Chapter Summary
    • Basics of Networking
      • A client is the software that requests services from server software.
      • A Microsoft server-based network with central administration is called a domain.
      • Network hardware components include network interface, media, hubs, switches, bridges, routers, and firewalls.
  • 55. Chapter Summary
    • Basics of Networking
      • Network software components include network operating systems, device drivers, services, and protocols.
      • Network communication protocols suites include TCP/IP (by far the most common), NetBEUI (very rarely used today), Apple's AppleTalk (replaced by TCP/IP), and Novell's IPX/SPX (also being replace by TCP/IP).
  • 56. Chapter Summary
    • Basic Server Concepts
      • A server is a computer on a network that provides a service to other computers.
      • A client is a computer on a network that accesses the service of the server.
      • Microsoft’s major server versions in use today include Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, and Windows Server 2003.
  • 57. Chapter Summary
    • Basic Server Concepts
      • Windows NT 4.0 is still running on many servers today. Its server products include the Server and Enterprise editions.
      • Windows 2000 Server products include Windows 2000 Server, Windows 2000 Advanced Server, and Windows 2000 Datacenter Server.
  • 58. Chapter Summary
    • Basic Server Concepts
      • Windows Server 2003 products include Windows Server 2003 Standard Edition, Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition, Windows Server 2003 Web Edition, and Windows Server 2003 Datacenter Edition.
  • 59. Chapter Summary
    • Basic Server Concepts
      • UNIX runs on a variety of platforms and is offered by vendors such as IBM, Compaq, Caldera, Hewlett-Packard, and Sun. It has long been the server of choice for hosting network infrastructure services. It remains the top choice for servers that host large databases shared by hundreds or thousands of users, especially in industries such as insurance, medicine, banking, and manufacturing.
  • 60. Chapter Summary
    • Basic Server Concepts
      • The many versions of Linux, distributed by vendors such as Red Hat, Novell, Hewlett-Packard, the Gentoo Foundation, and MandrakeSoft SA, are growing in popularity within organizations, competing with all other server operating system in many arenas.
  • 61. Chapter Summary
    • Basic Server Concepts
      • Novell’s NetWare server OS dominated the LAN server market in the 1980s, but declined in the 1990s, although Novell introduced Novell Directory Services (NDS) in 1994, years ahead of Microsoft’s competing Active Directory.
  • 62. Chapter Summary
    • Basic Server Concepts
      • Currently, NetWare is just one server product line offered by Novell. They have added two Linux Server products: SuSE Enterprise, for a broad range of computers up to mainframes, and SuSE Standard, for basic small business or departmental servers.
  • 63. Chapter Summary
    • Server Roles—Past and Present
      • File and printer sharing was the earliest role for servers. It is still a huge function of servers.
      • A server that transmits, receives, and stores e-mail is called a mail server.
      • A server that maintains a directory service database is a directory service server. A Microsoft Active Directory server is called a domain controller.
  • 64. Chapter Summary
    • Server Roles—Past and Present
      • In a Microsoft network, the e-mail server is called Exchange. In a NetWare environment, the e-mail server is GroupWise. Both of these products do much more than simply manage e-mail.
  • 65. Chapter Summary
    • Server Roles—Past and Present
      • Centralized data backup has long been an important network service, and several vendors sell centralized backup systems that use a dedicated backup server, large tape archiving systems, and specialized client software.
  • 66. Chapter Summary
    • Server Roles—Past and Present
      • A large number of Internet-based backup services allow subscribers to back up data over the Internet to their servers.
      • An application server is a program that acts as an intermediary between users running client software and a large back-end business application or database.
  • 67. Chapter Summary
    • Server Roles—Past and Present
      • Web servers are found on the Internet, hosting millions of web pages, and they are also found on private networks, replacing file servers in some cases.
  • 68. Chapter Summary
    • Sharing and Protecting Resources
      • Effective sharing and protection of network resources requires careful planning.
      • The network administrator implements the plan for sharing and protecting network resources.
      • An administrator’s server-side tasks include adding a computer to a domain, creating user accounts and groups, and creating file and print shares.
  • 69. Chapter Summary
    • Sharing and Protecting Resources
      • A Windows 9 x or Windows XP Home computer cannot join a domain, but a user at a Windows 9 x computer can log onto a domain, while one using Windows XP Home cannot.
      • An administrator’s client-side tasks include connecting to resources and testing network security.
      • A Windows Active Directory domain has several types of security accounts.
  • 70. Chapter Summary
    • Sharing and Protecting Resources
      • Administrators save time and effort by organizing users into groups that have common resource needs.
      • Groups in Windows NT domains and Active Directory domains are similar but vary in scope and membership.
  • 71. Chapter Summary
    • Sharing and Protecting Resources
      • Planning for effective use of user accounts and group accounts is complex but worthwhile.
      • After users and groups have been created, create shares to give users access to the resources they need. If a share is on an NTFS volume, set NTFS permissions on the under-lying files and folders before creating the share.
  • 72. Chapter Summary
    • Sharing and Protecting Resources
      • When you create a new share, immediately set the permissions on the share. You should usually remove the Everyone group from the permissions list.
      • Once shares have been created, network clients can connect to the shares from their computers.

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