Chapter 8


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Chapter 8

  1. 1. Guide to Networking Essentials Fifth Edition Chapter 8 Simple Network Operations
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Explain the operation fundamentals of network operating systems </li></ul><ul><li>Describe networking software components </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the basic steps of network operating system installation </li></ul><ul><li>Configure network services </li></ul><ul><li>Explain network application installation and configuration concepts </li></ul>
  3. 3. Network Operating Systems <ul><li>Network operating system (NOS): OS with functions that facilitate network communication, allow computer resources sharing on a network, and provide access control to those resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interface for users and applications to access the network and its resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced during the mid-1980s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handle standalone computer activities as well as communication over the network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., Novell NetWare, Windows Server 2000/2003, UNIX, and Linux </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Basic Functions of an Operating System <ul><li>OS coordinates interaction between software applications and computer hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Most applications are written so that they can be used only with a particular OS family </li></ul><ul><li>Two features necessary in a NOS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multitasking: capability to support numerous processes at one time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time slicing occurs when the CPU’s computing cycles are divided between more than one task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Human inability to distinguish instances of this brief time period creates the illusion of multitasking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Every contemporary OS includes these functions </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Basic Functions of an Operating System (continued) <ul><li>Two types of multitasking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preemptive multitasking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperative multitasking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A true high-performance NOS must be a preemptive multitasking system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All contemporary operating systems are designed to use preemptive multitasking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OSs include many NOS features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some of these features are still reserved for OSs designed to be installed on a server computer </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Software Components of Networking <ul><li>NOS manages computer’s activities and provides a network environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizes hardware into an interactive whole </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinates/controls functions of machines/peripherals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports security and privacy (network and users) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls access to resources (user authentication) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advertises/manages resources (centralized directory) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide access to shared resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NOS components: naming services, directory services, and client and server software </li></ul>
  7. 7. Naming Services <ul><li>On most networks, a name is necessary to identify and access resources of all kinds </li></ul><ul><li>Humans recognize symbolic names more easily than numeric names </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Naming services translate symbolic names into corresponding network addresses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This chapter explains the relationship between how Microsoft uses NetBIOS names and how the TCP/IP-based Domain Name System uses domain names </li></ul>
  8. 8. NetBIOS Names <ul><li>Names can be no longer than 15 characters </li></ul><ul><li>Ending a name with $ prevents it from appearing in the NetBIOS browse list </li></ul>
  9. 9. NetBIOS Names (continued)
  10. 10. Universal Naming Convention <ul><li>Drive mapping: process of associating a network storage resource with a local drive letter </li></ul><ul><li>Windows and Linux (running Samba) OSs and most other modern NOSs recognize Universal Naming Convention (UNC) paths, a standard method for specifying network resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>servername sharename </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In UNC-aware applications and many command-line activities, a UNC path can be used instead of a drive letter to access a network resource </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Domain Names and DNS <ul><li>DNS translates symbolic domain names into numeric IP addresses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Permits users to access resources and services by using symbolic domain names on the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DNS server maintains a DB of computer name and IP address pairs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At least one DNS server is maintained for a domain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domain: named logical grouping of network resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When a network request for is made, the request is sent to the DNS server responsible for the domain </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Directory Services <ul><li>Directory service: manages information about network services, resources, users, groups, and objects so that users can access resources and services by browsing or asking for them by type </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manages and controls access to network resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access control (stores info and performs checks) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., Windows’ Active Directory, Novell’s eDirectory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses “tree and forest” metaphor to organize contents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Patterned after X.500 directory service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LDAP is far easier to implement </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most Linux versions include NIS </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Client Network Software <ul><li>Client network SW: part of NOS installed on PCs that access network services or network resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important component is a redirector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SW component operating at the OSI model’s layer 6 that is found on both client and server NOSs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hides from users the complicated tasks involved in accessing network resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designator: aids in network resource interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keeps track of the drive letters assigned locally to remote or shared drives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A shared drive is known as a share </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Client SW can refer to Internet access applications </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Server Network Software <ul><li>Server SW can restrict access to resources by using access controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also: user/group management, logon authentication, network administration, fault tolerance </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Server Network Software (continued)
  16. 16. Client and Server Capabilities <ul><li>Many NOSs (e.g., Windows Server 2003, XP, Vista) include client and server capabilities in both the server and desktop versions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally, the desktop version of the NOS is not as powerful or robust as the server version </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Novell NetWare is strictly a server NOS, so there’s no desktop version of NetWare </li></ul><ul><li>In Linux, the choice between a desktop or server installation is usually made during installation </li></ul>
  17. 17. Installing a Network Operating System <ul><li>Installing an NOS is not much different than installing a standard desktop OS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires only a few additional steps focused on configuring the network and the server services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before installation of an NOS can begin, however, you must complete a few preparatory steps </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Installation Preparation <ul><li>Before you begin an NOS installation, you need to understand the following network aspects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size of the network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job requirements of the server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization of storage devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>File systems to be used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification or naming convention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network adapter configuration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protocol selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware compatibility </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Size of the Network <ul><li>The size of a network can affect which services you decide to configure, how many servers you need, and the number of connection licenses you require </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A small LAN with fewer than 10 users who require only file and printer sharing can probably function fine with a peer-to-peer network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows XP or Vista could serve as the OS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With more users or more advanced networking service requirements, a dedicated server with an NOS designed for servers is definitely in order </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Server Job Requirements <ul><li>The services and resources hosted by a server determine what components are installed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., DNS, DHCP, Web services, remote access, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other server responsibilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Domain controller: authenticates users and maintains directory services and the security DB for a domain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For fault tolerance, install at least two per domain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Member server: hosts a service or resource and doesn’t maintain the directory and security DB </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In NetWare, use existing tree or create new one </li></ul><ul><li>In Linux, decide individual services to install </li></ul>
  21. 21. Storage Device Organization <ul><li>Crucial to network’s success when accessibility, performance, and fault tolerance are essential </li></ul><ul><li>Partition: logical organization of disk space; each partition appears as a separate logical drive </li></ul><ul><li>Ways to organize NOS host drive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple-boot : good for testing; not good for security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single-partition, single-NOS : most secure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple-partition, single-NOS : useful for separating data from OS files; increases drive activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fault-tolerant storage : e.g., disk mirroring, RAID </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. File Systems <ul><li>File system: method used to store, organize, and manage access to files on a mass storage device </li></ul><ul><ul><li>File systems differ in how they allocate space, how files are located on disk, the level of fault tolerance, and how access to files is secured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fault-tolerant features include backup copies of FAT, journaling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Folder- and/or file- level security are important </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., as provided by NTFS or ext3 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It’s best to use the most secure file system available for the OS you’re installing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Naming Conventions <ul><li>Naming convention: method of creating names </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should have scheme for user accounts, computers, directories, network shares, printers, and servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common naming schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Construct user names from the user’s first and last names, plus a code identifying job title or department </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Construct group names from resource types, department names, location names, project names </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Construct computer names for servers and clients from their department, location, and an ID number </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be consistent, easy to use and understand, and must enable clear object identification </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Network Adapter Configuration <ul><li>The NIC is the primary communication device between a computer and the rest of the network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A computer purchased as a server already has an NIC installed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must verify manufacturer and model number to ensure compatibility and update device drivers as necessary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most NICs are plug-and-play-compatible with the OS, so NIC configuration isn’t usually necessary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Verify compatibility with the OS version you are using, and have a driver disk ready in case the OS doesn’t recognize the NIC </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Protocol Selection <ul><li>Protocol and configuration options must be compatible for computers to communicate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, TCP/IP requires the following pieces of information before NOS installation begins: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IP address </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subnet mask </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Default gateway </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DNS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WINS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DHCP </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Hardware Compatibility <ul><li>HW components of the computer on which it’s installed must be compatible with the NOS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you use incompatible hardware, the vendor might not provide technical support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double-check that your computer’s HW components are fully compatible with the NOS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft publishes the Windows Catalog </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formerly called the Hardware Compatibility List (HCL) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Linux distributors publish a similar list for the various Linux versions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Novell typically certifies whole systems as NetWare compatible </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Installing Microsoft Windows Servers <ul><li>Windows server versions are not much more difficult to install than Windows XP or Vista </li></ul><ul><li>With the proper preparation, the Setup Wizard makes the installation process as simple as entering a few key data items </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The major steps or sections of the installation included here give you insight into the architecture and simplicity of the Windows server line of operating systems </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Beginning the Installation
  29. 29. Text-Based Phase
  30. 30. GUI Phase <ul><li>In the GUI phase, you use a mouse or keyboard to enter items or make selections </li></ul><ul><li>You define computer and domain names, enter the identification key from installation CD, select the server type (domain controller or member server), assign a password to Administrator account, select environment and desktop components </li></ul><ul><li>Setup copies some files from the temporary folder to the destination folder and then moves into the network setup phase </li></ul>
  31. 31. Network Setup Phase <ul><li>You install drivers for the NIC, select and configure protocols, and review bindings </li></ul><ul><li>Upon completion, files are copied to the system folder and temporary folder is deleted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Next, you define time zone and display settings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then, the computer restarts, the Administrator logs on, and the Configure Server Wizard starts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows the server to be configured as a domain controller, member server, or standalone server </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If server is to act as a domain controller, Active Directory is installed and configured </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Installing Novell NetWare 6.5 <ul><li>Install NetWare by using one of two methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over the network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From a CD </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The primary install utility is INSTALL.NLM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two phases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Text mode </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create partitions, accept license agreement, copy files, install storage device drivers, and select NIC drivers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GUI mode </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assign server name, set up protocols, and install eDirectory </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Installing Linux
  34. 34. Installing Linux (continued)
  35. 35. Installing Linux (continued)
  36. 36. Configuring Network Services <ul><li>Network services , the basic resources on all networks, are the foundation of network applications </li></ul><ul><li>The two most basic shared network resources (network services) are printers and file folders </li></ul><ul><li>You can add numerous capabilities, resources, and delivery methods to a default NOS installation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Groupware applications, e-mail packages, shared whiteboard applications, Web servers, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Installing, Removing, and Configuring Network Services
  38. 38. Network Bindings <ul><li>Binding : process of linking network components from various levels of the network architecture to enable communication between those components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Associate upper-layer services and protocols to lower-layer network adapter drivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many NOSs enable all valid bindings by default </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often results in some performance degradation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Binding order should enhance the computer’s use of the network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bind the most frequently used protocol, service, or adapter first to speed network connections </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Network Printing <ul><li>It is one of the two essential network services </li></ul><ul><li>Redirector intercepts print requests and forwards them to the right print servers or network printers </li></ul><ul><li>Three components: the print server, the print queue, and the printer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First, installing a printer on a server or as a direct network-connected device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Next, share printer’s logical representation in NOS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Print queue is a storage location that accepts print jobs from network clients and stores the print job until the printer is available to print it </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Network Printing (continued)
  41. 41. Printer Management <ul><li>On most networks, you manage printers from local direct access or through the network printer share </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes you may use a Web browser (e.g., IPP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must have right level of access granted to user </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Printer management covers wide range of activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Granting and restricting user access to printers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring the print queue for proper functioning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limiting access (time frame, department, or priority) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Updating local and remote printer drivers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintaining printers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Managing printers remotely </li></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Sharing Fax Modems <ul><li>This feature is not often a default component in an NOS; many third-party vendors offer add-on products to share a fax modem over a network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With these add-on products, clients can fax documents from the desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You can manage and administer fax shares just like printer shares </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually, additional client-installed software is needed to connect to a fax share </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>After drivers are installed, there’s no major difference between using a printer share and a fax share </li></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 43. File Shares
  44. 44. Network Applications <ul><li>Network applications: designed for multiple simultaneous users on computers on a network </li></ul><ul><li>Three types of essential network applications: messaging, scheduling, and groupware </li></ul><ul><li>Pros </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Much easier to administer (e.g., on large networks) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Save money </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor network performance degrades performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If network is down, application is often unusable </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Network Applications (continued) <ul><li>At least three types of architectures for network applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Centralized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>File-system sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>True client/server </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. E-Mail or Messaging <ul><li>Most popular network application </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail is fast and asynchronous </li></ul><ul><li>Based on a common protocol and standards for communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Post Office Protocol version 3 (POP3) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>X.400 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>X.500 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Message Handling System (MHS) </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Scheduling or Calendaring <ul><li>A network scheduler is an electronic form of an appointment book and to-do lists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most offer private and public calendars, appointment books, task lists, and contact/address books </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They can also notify about upcoming meetings, warn about overlapped schedules, and offer reminders of special events or the need to contact someone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most offer integration into e-mail programs and office-productivity suites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To supplement or replace a paper-based personal information manager, schedules can be printed </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Groupware <ul><li>Groupware enables multiple users to interact with a single file, document, or project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., an entire department can contribute to a document’s production and watch as the groupware combines everyone’s input into a single document </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: multiuser multimedia authoring tools, Lotus Notes, Novell Virtual Office, and HP’s TeamLinks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some make it possible to collaborate across the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The biggest explosion in groupware products is integrating PDAs with corporate networks </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Summary <ul><li>Network operating system (NOS): controls the operations of a computer, including local hardware activity as well as communication over network media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables sharing resources, managing peripherals, maintaining security, and controlling user access </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Client network software on workstations allows users to take advantage of network resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Doesn’t always mean redirectors and designators </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Server network software is designed to host resources so that multiple clients can access them </li></ul>
  50. 50. Summary (continued) <ul><li>Installing an NOS is similar to installing any OS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues you must be aware of include size of the network, job requirements of the server, storage device organization, naming conventions, NIC and protocol selection and configuration, and hardware compatibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The steps for installing Windows Server 2000/2003, Novell NetWare, and Linux are similar </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two fundamental network services: sharing printers and sharing files </li></ul><ul><li>Some standalone applications have been revised to function as cross-network applications </li></ul>