Chapter 4


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Chapter 4

  2. 2. <ul><li>Network topologies </li></ul><ul><li>Network cabling </li></ul><ul><li>Installing and maintaining Network cabling </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting and installing a SOHO Network </li></ul>OVERVIEW
  3. 3. <ul><li>Network topology = Shape of the Network. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the most important step in planning a Network. </li></ul>NETWORK TOPOLOGIES
  4. 4. <ul><li>Bus topology </li></ul><ul><li>Star topology </li></ul><ul><li>Ring topology </li></ul>Types of Network topologies
  5. 5. <ul><li>Common Bus Multipoint Topology. </li></ul><ul><li>1 cable from one end of the Network to the other. </li></ul><ul><li>Devices are connected to the cable at different locations. </li></ul>Bus topology
  6. 6. Bus topology
  7. 7. <ul><li>Specifications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of nodes in a segment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of segments used through repeaters. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proximity of nodes to each other. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Length of a segment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coax cable required. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Termination of bus ends. </li></ul></ul>Bus topology
  8. 8. <ul><li>Networks use: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coaxial cable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BNC T-connectors </li></ul></ul>Bus topology
  9. 9. <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Least expensive. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses less material. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs less installation labor. </li></ul></ul>Bus topology
  10. 10. <ul><li>Drawbacks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure in a part of the segment causes the entire segment to fail. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Troubleshooting can take a long time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tends to be unreliable. </li></ul></ul>Bus topology
  11. 11. <ul><li>10Base-2 Ethernet has: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better performance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum speed of 10Mbps. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RG-58/AU or RG-58/CU coaxial cable and BNC connectors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50-ohm terminating connector. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum of 30 nodes per segment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum segment length of 185 meters (607 feet). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended segments through the use of repeaters. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.5 feet distance between nodes. </li></ul></ul>Bus topology
  12. 12. <ul><li>A central unit, called a hub or concentrator, hosts a set of network cables that radiate out to each node on the Network. </li></ul>Star topology
  13. 13. Star topology
  14. 14. <ul><li>Uses either: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10Base-T Ethernet. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100Base-T Ethernet. </li></ul></ul>Star topology
  15. 15. <ul><li>10Base-T Ethernet: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires four wires (two twisted-pairs in a single sheath). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be run on Cat 3 or Cat 5 cable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is limited to a length of 100 meters. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is unlimited in the number of nodes in a segment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses RJ-45 connectors. </li></ul></ul>Star topology
  16. 16. <ul><li>100Base-T Ethernet: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires eight actual wires (four twisted-pairs in a single sheath). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses Cat 5 cable or better. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is limited to a length of 100 meters. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is unlimited in the number of nodes in a segment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses RJ-45 connectors. </li></ul></ul>Star topology
  17. 17. <ul><li>Star topology Networks cost more. </li></ul><ul><li>In a Star topology, a single Network connection that goes bad affects only that connection. </li></ul>Star topology Vs. Bus topology
  18. 18. <ul><li>Rings are a logical arrangement. </li></ul><ul><li>The cables are wired in a star, with each node connected on its own cable to the MAU. </li></ul><ul><li>Electrically the Network behaves like a ring. </li></ul><ul><li>It is based on Token Ring instead of Ethernet. </li></ul>Ring topology
  19. 19. Ring topology
  20. 20. <ul><li>Ethernet Networks manage signals through CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/with Collision Detection). </li></ul><ul><li>Token Ring Networks manage their bandwidth with “token passing”. </li></ul>Rings Vs. Stars and Bus:
  21. 21. <ul><li>Basic cable types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shielded twisted-pair (STP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coaxial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiber-optic cable </li></ul></ul>NETWORK CABLING
  22. 22. Unshielded twisted-pair
  23. 23. <ul><li>Similar to UTP, but has a braided metal shield surrounding the twisted pairs. </li></ul><ul><li>The metal shield reduces the chance of interference from external electrical sources. </li></ul>Shielded twisted-pair
  24. 24. Coaxial cable
  25. 25. <ul><li>Uses a glass strand and carries data signals as light instead of electricity. </li></ul><ul><li>This cable can easily reach 2 miles at 100Mbps. </li></ul>Fiber-optic cable
  26. 26. Twisted-pair cabling Network
  27. 27. Twisted-pair cabling Network An RJ-45 Connection
  28. 28. <ul><li>The RJ-45 jack on a hub is DCE (data communications equipment). </li></ul><ul><li>The jack on a computer’s NIC is DTE (data terminal equipment). </li></ul>Twisted-pair cabling Network
  29. 29. Twisted-pair cabling Network <ul><li>Communication is not possible between DCE-DCE / DTE-DTE devices using twisted-pair/RJ-45 cable with the following wiring. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Twisted-pair cabling Network <ul><li>A crossover cable with the following wiring compensates for this shortcoming. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Twisted-pair cabling Network <ul><li>Twisted-pair performance designations. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Twisted-pair cabling Network <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Plenum Vs. Non-Plenum cable </li></ul>
  33. 33. Coaxial cable <ul><li>Most of the cable is the thin variety (RG-58), used with Thin Ethernet. </li></ul><ul><li>Some may use the thicker cable (RG-8) for Thick Ethernet. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Coaxial cable <ul><li>Thin Ethernet cabling is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wired in a bus arrangement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses BNC connectors. </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Coaxial cable
  36. 36. INSTALLING AND MAINTAINING NETWORK CABLING <ul><li>Cable plant installation should include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper cable and connectors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete labeling of all parts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As-built drawing of cabling routes and locations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certification report for installed cables. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education for bus-type Network users about the coaxial cable. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Choosing a cabling contractor <ul><li>How will the contractor document the cable plant? </li></ul><ul><li>What are his/her documentation standards? </li></ul><ul><li>Will s/he provide a set of as-built drawings? </li></ul><ul><li>How does the contractor install the cable to avoid electrical interference sources in the ceiling and walls? </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>Does the contractor recommend a wiring solution that combines telecom wiring with data wiring? </li></ul><ul><li>Has the contractor done any local installations that you can view? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the contractor provide speedy post-installation support for new wiring drops? </li></ul>Choosing a cabling contractor
  39. 39. <ul><li>What equipment does the contractor use to certify the cable plant? </li></ul><ul><li>What certification documentation will the contractor provide upon completion? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the contractor also provide post-installation troubleshooting services? </li></ul>Choosing a cabling contractor
  40. 40. <ul><li>Typical problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abnormally slow network performance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sporadic disconnections from the Network. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete loss of Network connectivity. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Troubleshooting coaxial cable systems is more difficult </li></ul><ul><li>because the entire Network is down. </li></ul>Solving cabling problems
  41. 41. <ul><li>To track unobvious problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a coaxial cable scanner. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get an extra terminator for the Network. </li></ul></ul>Solving cabling problems
  42. 42. <ul><li>The following can be shared: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Printers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High-speed Internet connection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backup devices </li></ul></ul>SELECTING AND INSTALLING A SOHO NETWORK
  43. 43. <ul><li>Standard Network hardware: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A central hub </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network Interface Card (NIC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network cable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating System </li></ul></ul>Selecting a SOHO Network
  44. 44. <ul><li>Phone Line Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Power Line Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless Networks </li></ul>Other home Networks
  45. 45. <ul><li>Network topologies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Star </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ring </li></ul></ul>SUMMARY
  46. 46. <ul><li>Network cabling: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shielded twisted-pair (STP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coaxial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiber-optic cable </li></ul></ul>Summary
  47. 47. <ul><li>Installing and maintaining Network cabling: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable plant installation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choosing a cable operator. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solving cabling problems. </li></ul></ul>Summary
  48. 48. <ul><li>Selecting a SOHO Network: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard Network hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other home Networks </li></ul></ul>Summary