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Chapter 14

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    • 1. Chapter 14 Network Management Objectives Part IV: Network Management
    • 2. Topics Addressed in Chapter 14
      • Network management frameworks
      • Network management objectives
      • Measuring network effectiveness
      • Achieving network management objectives
      • Organizing network management functions
      • LAN management
      • WAN management
      • The Internet’s impact on network management
    • 3. What is Network Management?
      • Network management encompasses a wide range of activities related to network infrastructures in today’s organizations
      • Two important network management frameworks exist:
        • The ISO Management Framework (ISO 7498-4)
        • ITU-T’s Telecommunications Management Network (TMN)
      • Network management can also be classified as being strategically, tactically, or operationally oriented
    • 4. ISO 7498-4
      • The ISO Management Framework identifies five major categories of network management activities:
        • Accounting management
        • Configuration management
        • Fault management
        • Performance management
        • Security management
    • 5. TMN Framework
      • The Telecommunications Management Network (TMN) identifies four functional layers of network management:
        • Business management
        • Service management
        • Network management
        • Element management
    • 6. Strategic Network Management
      • Strategic network management addresses the long-term role of networks and networking in an organization’s computing infrastructure
      • Network planning is an important strategic management activity. Network plans should address:
        • The incorporation of emerging technologies and applications in the network infrastructure
        • Data distribution among enterprise network nodes
        • Network security enhancements
        • Proactive mechanisms for addressing network deficiencies
        • Network staffing and staff development
      • Other important strategic network management activities include capacity management, risk management, and contingency planning (including disaster recovery plans)
    • 7. Tactical Network Management
      • Tactical network management includes the translation of strategic network plans to implement plans and timetables. Such plans specify:
        • The process and timetable to be used to identify network components.
        • The process and timetable to be used to select network component vendors
        • The specification of cable runs and network component locations
        • Network component installation and testing timetables
      • Other important tactical network management activities include:
        • Asset management
        • Service level management
        • Change management
    • 8. Operational Network Management
      • Operational network management is focused on managing the day-to-day operations of installed networks
      • Examples of operational network management activities include:
        • Troubleshooting and incident management
        • Managing users
        • Adding/replacing network hardware
        • Installing/upgrading software
        • Performing network backups
        • Monitoring and maintaining network security.
      • Additional operational network management tasks are identified in Table 14-1
    • 9. Table 14-1
    • 10. Network Management Objectives
      • Several requirements must be met for a network to be viewed positively by users:
        • Adequate performance
          • Response times and throughput are especially important
        • Consistency
        • Flexibility
        • Availability
        • Reliability
        • Recovery
        • Security
      • Supporting users also involves keeping them informed, especially about scheduled downtimes, imminent downtime, and other changes that are likely to affect network access and performance
    • 11. Measures of System Effectiveness
      • Key measures of system effectiveness include:
        • Availability : to users, the network is available when the components they need are operable and accessible
        • Reliability : consistent network availability and consistency across time
        • Effectiveness : the degree to which the network serves users’ needs
        • Cost-effectiveness : the extent to which the network contributes positively to the organization’s financial position.
    • 12. Availability
      • Three key factors influence network uptime/availability:
        • Operational considerations (such as scheduled maintenance, upgrades, etc.)
        • Mean time between failures (MTBF): the average period of time a network component can be expected to operate before failing
        • Mean time to repair (MTTR): the average amount of time needed to place a failed component back in service
      • Mathematically: A = MTBF / (MTBF + MTTR) for an individual component
      • Table 14-2 and Figure 14-1 illustrate that availability is affected by both MTBF and MTTR
      • In general, availability is high when MTBF is high and MTTR is low
    • 13. Table 14-2
    • 14. Figure 14-1
    • 15. Reliability
      • Reliability is the probability that a network component will not fail in a given time period. The overall reliability of a network is a function of the reliability of its individual components
      • To users, a network’s reliability is correlated with its availability (see Figure 14-2); user perceptions of reliability are also shaped by consistency in response times and network performance
      • Fault-tolerant systems which minimize network downtime are likely to be viewed as being reliable by network users
    • 16. Figure 14-2
    • 17. Effectiveness
      • Overall network effectiveness is a function of the network’s availability and reliability (see Figure 14-3)
      • Mathematically: E = A * R
      • Because both availability and reliability are related to MTBF and MTTR, network managers should strive to include components with high MTBF and low MTTR
      • Fault tolerant networks are likely to be perceived as being effective (as meeting the needs of users)
    • 18. Figure 14-3
    • 19. Enhancing Availability and Reliability
      • Network managers can enhance network availability and reliability in a number of ways including:
        • Building fault-tolerance into the system
        • Incorporating plug-and-play capabilities wherever possible within the network
        • Having spare (backup) components on hand so that failed components can be replaced quickly
        • Regularly backing up critical files and applications
        • Ensuring that network support staff are well-trained and have ready access to troubleshooting tools
        • Using network monitoring and management tools to alert network managers of impending component failures
    • 20. Cost Effectiveness
      • The provision of cost-effective solutions to the data communication needs of the organization and its users is another key network management objective
        • Network managers are charged with selecting solutions that are feasible and cost-effective
        • Cost reduction and cost avoidance contribute to cost-effectiveness
      • Important aspects of cost-effective network management include:
        • Effective network planning
        • Modular expansion
        • Planned equipment migration (see Figure 14-4)
    • 21. Figure 14-4
    • 22. Achieving Network Management Objectives
      • Several major factors are likely to contribute to the achievement of network management objectives including a competent staff that:
          • Is equipped with the right tools
          • Has well-defined but flexible direction for short- and long-term
          • Is willing to work unusual hours in sometimes difficult or stressful environments
          • Is able to work effectively with people at all levels of capability
          • Is skilled in the use of network design and configuration tools
          • Understands ergonomics
          • Has appropriate diagnostic and troubleshooting skills
          • Utilizes effective planning processes
          • Has access to comprehensive network documentation (see Table 14-3)
          • Appreciates the need for standards and procedures
    • 23. Table 14-3
    • 24. Organizing Network Management Functions
      • Control is a very important aspect of network management
      • Network control centers are the focal point of network monitoring and control activities
        • A network control center is responsible for monitoring the network and taking corrective actions when necessary
          • This may range from a single network application on a network node to a workstation with multiple network monitoring tools, to a “war room” that controls a large enterprise or carrier network
    • 25. Network Control Center Responsibilities
      • Network control center staff are responsible for:
        • Analyzing data collected by network monitors/agents
        • Bringing lines and nodes into and out of service
        • Bringing network applications to an orderly halt and restarting network applications
        • Altering network performance parameters
        • Troubleshooting line outages
        • Running diagnostic routines
        • Maintaining the control center database
        • Maintaining network documentation
        • Overseeing problem-reporting procedures
        • Release control
    • 26. Problem-Reporting Procedures
      • Recording problem incidents and their resolution is an important control center function
      • Relevant information captured for a problem report includes:
        • Date and time of the call
        • Date and time that problem was first observed
        • Other personnel affected by the problem
        • Brief detailed description of problem
        • Is problem reproducible or intermittent?
        • Possible contributing external influences.
      • Help desk and service center software often includes problem-reporting modules
    • 27. LAN vs. WAN Management
      • Managing today’s enterprise networks often requires both WAN and LAN managers (see Figure 14-5). In such networks, WAN managers are responsible for:
        • Keeping WAN nodes operating properly
        • Working with carriers to obtain and maintain links between nodes
        • Maintaining connections between subnetworks
        • Coordinating the efforts of subnet managers
        • Managing LAN/WAN interfaces
        • Administering corporate license agreements
        • Maintaining the network database
        • Managing the network control center
        • Developing network contingency plans
        • Developing budgeting processes for multiple locations and ensuring funding for new enterprise-wide infrastructure upgrades
    • 28. Figure 14-5
    • 29. LAN Management Tasks
      • LAN managers should know data communication fundamentals and how to:
        • Connect and disconnect LAN workstations and servers
        • Diagnose and correct communication medium problems
        • Add and delete LAN users or shared resources, such as servers
        • Manage directory services to ensure user access to LAN resources
        • Implement LAN security (see Table 14-4)
        • Create, modify, and manage the printing environment
        • Install and upgrade LAN applications
        • Perform system backups
        • Recover from system failures
        • Maintain LAN documentation and procedures
        • Assist in setting up LAN interconnections to other networks
        • Detect and remove viruses
    • 30. Table 14-4
    • 31. Managing Network Printing
      • Both dedicated and non-dedicated printers are found in network environments (see Figure 14-6). In LANs, network managers:
        • Map printer ports on workstations to server print queues
        • Map print queues to one or more printers
        • Associate printers with one or more print queues
        • Change print queue and printer port configurations
        • Assign printer priority schemes
        • Monitor print jobs routed to particular printers
        • Start or stop print jobs or printers
        • Add or delete printers
    • 32. Figure 14-6
    • 33. WAN Management Tasks
      • There is considerable overlap between WAN and LAN management responsibilities. Several tasks unique to WAN management include:
        • Interfacing with carriers and WAN service providers
        • Estimating WAN equipment and media costs
        • Configuring WAN components
        • Resolving international telecommunication problems
        • Developing and maintaining WAN application software
        • Coordinating and consolidating network management
        • Ensuring WAN security
    • 34. The Internet’s Impact on Network Management
      • The Internet and the growing importance of e-business applications have created new network management challenges and opportunities including:
        • Ensuring reliable access to business Web sites
        • Managing commerce servers (and server clusters)
        • Managing storage area networks (SANs)
        • Ensuring adequate bandwidth for e-business applications
        • Managing extranets and interorganizational systems links with business partners
        • Maintaining intranets and knowledge management systems
        • Managing Web-based telework
        • Supporting wireless Internet applications and mobile commerce applications
        • Implementing new security architectures that include firewalls, intrusion detection systems, virtual private networks (VPNs), and encryption
        • Ensuring the integrity of Web-based e-commerce transactions
    • 35. Chapter 14 Network Management Objectives Part IV: Network Management