Chapter 14


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  • Chapter 14

    1. 1. Chapter 14 Network Management Objectives Part IV: Network Management
    2. 2. Topics Addressed in Chapter 14 <ul><li>Network management frameworks </li></ul><ul><li>Network management objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring network effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Achieving network management objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing network management functions </li></ul><ul><li>LAN management </li></ul><ul><li>WAN management </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet’s impact on network management </li></ul>
    3. 3. What is Network Management? <ul><li>Network management encompasses a wide range of activities related to network infrastructures in today’s organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Two important network management frameworks exist: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ISO Management Framework (ISO 7498-4) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ITU-T’s Telecommunications Management Network (TMN) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Network management can also be classified as being strategically, tactically, or operationally oriented </li></ul>
    4. 4. ISO 7498-4 <ul><li>The ISO Management Framework identifies five major categories of network management activities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accounting management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Configuration management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fault management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security management </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. TMN Framework <ul><li>The Telecommunications Management Network (TMN) identifies four functional layers of network management: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Element management </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Strategic Network Management <ul><li>Strategic network management addresses the long-term role of networks and networking in an organization’s computing infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Network planning is an important strategic management activity. Network plans should address: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The incorporation of emerging technologies and applications in the network infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data distribution among enterprise network nodes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network security enhancements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proactive mechanisms for addressing network deficiencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network staffing and staff development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other important strategic network management activities include capacity management, risk management, and contingency planning (including disaster recovery plans) </li></ul>
    7. 7. Tactical Network Management <ul><li>Tactical network management includes the translation of strategic network plans to implement plans and timetables. Such plans specify: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process and timetable to be used to identify network components. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The process and timetable to be used to select network component vendors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The specification of cable runs and network component locations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network component installation and testing timetables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other important tactical network management activities include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asset management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service level management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change management </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Operational Network Management <ul><li>Operational network management is focused on managing the day-to-day operations of installed networks </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of operational network management activities include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Troubleshooting and incident management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adding/replacing network hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Installing/upgrading software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performing network backups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring and maintaining network security. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Additional operational network management tasks are identified in Table 14-1 </li></ul>
    9. 9. Table 14-1
    10. 10. Network Management Objectives <ul><li>Several requirements must be met for a network to be viewed positively by users: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Response times and throughput are especially important </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supporting users also involves keeping them informed, especially about scheduled downtimes, imminent downtime, and other changes that are likely to affect network access and performance </li></ul>
    11. 11. Measures of System Effectiveness <ul><li>Key measures of system effectiveness include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability : to users, the network is available when the components they need are operable and accessible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability : consistent network availability and consistency across time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effectiveness : the degree to which the network serves users’ needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost-effectiveness : the extent to which the network contributes positively to the organization’s financial position. </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Availability <ul><li>Three key factors influence network uptime/availability: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operational considerations (such as scheduled maintenance, upgrades, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mean time between failures (MTBF): the average period of time a network component can be expected to operate before failing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mean time to repair (MTTR): the average amount of time needed to place a failed component back in service </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mathematically: A = MTBF / (MTBF + MTTR) for an individual component </li></ul><ul><li>Table 14-2 and Figure 14-1 illustrate that availability is affected by both MTBF and MTTR </li></ul><ul><li>In general, availability is high when MTBF is high and MTTR is low </li></ul>
    13. 13. Table 14-2
    14. 14. Figure 14-1
    15. 15. Reliability <ul><li>Reliability is the probability that a network component will not fail in a given time period. The overall reliability of a network is a function of the reliability of its individual components </li></ul><ul><li>To users, a network’s reliability is correlated with its availability (see Figure 14-2); user perceptions of reliability are also shaped by consistency in response times and network performance </li></ul><ul><li>Fault-tolerant systems which minimize network downtime are likely to be viewed as being reliable by network users </li></ul>
    16. 16. Figure 14-2
    17. 17. Effectiveness <ul><li>Overall network effectiveness is a function of the network’s availability and reliability (see Figure 14-3) </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematically: E = A * R </li></ul><ul><li>Because both availability and reliability are related to MTBF and MTTR, network managers should strive to include components with high MTBF and low MTTR </li></ul><ul><li>Fault tolerant networks are likely to be perceived as being effective (as meeting the needs of users) </li></ul>
    18. 18. Figure 14-3
    19. 19. Enhancing Availability and Reliability <ul><li>Network managers can enhance network availability and reliability in a number of ways including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building fault-tolerance into the system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporating plug-and-play capabilities wherever possible within the network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Having spare (backup) components on hand so that failed components can be replaced quickly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regularly backing up critical files and applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensuring that network support staff are well-trained and have ready access to troubleshooting tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using network monitoring and management tools to alert network managers of impending component failures </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Cost Effectiveness <ul><li>The provision of cost-effective solutions to the data communication needs of the organization and its users is another key network management objective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network managers are charged with selecting solutions that are feasible and cost-effective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost reduction and cost avoidance contribute to cost-effectiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Important aspects of cost-effective network management include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective network planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modular expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planned equipment migration (see Figure 14-4) </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Figure 14-4
    22. 22. Achieving Network Management Objectives <ul><li>Several major factors are likely to contribute to the achievement of network management objectives including a competent staff that: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is equipped with the right tools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has well-defined but flexible direction for short- and long-term </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is willing to work unusual hours in sometimes difficult or stressful environments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is able to work effectively with people at all levels of capability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is skilled in the use of network design and configuration tools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Understands ergonomics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has appropriate diagnostic and troubleshooting skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Utilizes effective planning processes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has access to comprehensive network documentation (see Table 14-3) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appreciates the need for standards and procedures </li></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Table 14-3
    24. 24. Organizing Network Management Functions <ul><li>Control is a very important aspect of network management </li></ul><ul><li>Network control centers are the focal point of network monitoring and control activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A network control center is responsible for monitoring the network and taking corrective actions when necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This may range from a single network application on a network node to a workstation with multiple network monitoring tools, to a “war room” that controls a large enterprise or carrier network </li></ul></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Network Control Center Responsibilities <ul><li>Network control center staff are responsible for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzing data collected by network monitors/agents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bringing lines and nodes into and out of service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bringing network applications to an orderly halt and restarting network applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Altering network performance parameters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Troubleshooting line outages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Running diagnostic routines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintaining the control center database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintaining network documentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overseeing problem-reporting procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Release control </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Problem-Reporting Procedures <ul><li>Recording problem incidents and their resolution is an important control center function </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant information captured for a problem report includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Date and time of the call </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Date and time that problem was first observed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other personnel affected by the problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brief detailed description of problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is problem reproducible or intermittent? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible contributing external influences. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Help desk and service center software often includes problem-reporting modules </li></ul>
    27. 27. LAN vs. WAN Management <ul><li>Managing today’s enterprise networks often requires both WAN and LAN managers (see Figure 14-5). In such networks, WAN managers are responsible for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeping WAN nodes operating properly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working with carriers to obtain and maintain links between nodes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintaining connections between subnetworks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinating the efforts of subnet managers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing LAN/WAN interfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administering corporate license agreements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintaining the network database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing the network control center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing network contingency plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing budgeting processes for multiple locations and ensuring funding for new enterprise-wide infrastructure upgrades </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Figure 14-5
    29. 29. LAN Management Tasks <ul><li>LAN managers should know data communication fundamentals and how to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connect and disconnect LAN workstations and servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnose and correct communication medium problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add and delete LAN users or shared resources, such as servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage directory services to ensure user access to LAN resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implement LAN security (see Table 14-4) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create, modify, and manage the printing environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Install and upgrade LAN applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform system backups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recover from system failures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain LAN documentation and procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assist in setting up LAN interconnections to other networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detect and remove viruses </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Table 14-4
    31. 31. Managing Network Printing <ul><li>Both dedicated and non-dedicated printers are found in network environments (see Figure 14-6). In LANs, network managers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Map printer ports on workstations to server print queues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Map print queues to one or more printers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Associate printers with one or more print queues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change print queue and printer port configurations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assign printer priority schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor print jobs routed to particular printers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Start or stop print jobs or printers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add or delete printers </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Figure 14-6
    33. 33. WAN Management Tasks <ul><li>There is considerable overlap between WAN and LAN management responsibilities. Several tasks unique to WAN management include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interfacing with carriers and WAN service providers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimating WAN equipment and media costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Configuring WAN components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resolving international telecommunication problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing and maintaining WAN application software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinating and consolidating network management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensuring WAN security </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. The Internet’s Impact on Network Management <ul><li>The Internet and the growing importance of e-business applications have created new network management challenges and opportunities including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensuring reliable access to business Web sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing commerce servers (and server clusters) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing storage area networks (SANs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensuring adequate bandwidth for e-business applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing extranets and interorganizational systems links with business partners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintaining intranets and knowledge management systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing Web-based telework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting wireless Internet applications and mobile commerce applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementing new security architectures that include firewalls, intrusion detection systems, virtual private networks (VPNs), and encryption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensuring the integrity of Web-based e-commerce transactions </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Chapter 14 Network Management Objectives Part IV: Network Management