Ch. 3 - Installation


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Ch. 3 - Installation

  1. 1. Web Server Administration Chapter 3 Installing the Server
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Prepare the server for system installation </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the installation process </li></ul><ul><li>Install Windows 2000 Server, Windows Server 2003, and Red Hat Linux 8 </li></ul><ul><li>Examine basic Linux commands </li></ul><ul><li>Configure TCP/IP </li></ul>
  3. 3. Prepare the Server for Installation <ul><li>A typical installation is from CD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For Windows 2000, you can boot from a floppy for network installation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For Linux, you can install from the network or even using FTP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Production systems use a single-boot system meaning only one OS is on a computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You can put all described OSs on a single computer which is a multi-boot </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Checking Hardware Compatibility <ul><li>Typically you have fewer problems if you are using hardware designed for a server from major manufacturers </li></ul><ul><li>IDE drives are always compatible </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure that you have the latest drivers for SCSI and RAID controllers </li></ul><ul><li>With video adapters and NICs, it is best to use ones from major vendors </li></ul>
  5. 5. Checking Hardware Compatibility <ul><li>You can have problems if you </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Put a system together yourself with the latest or off-brand NICs, video adapters, and RAID controllers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Try to upgrade an OS on old servers because they sometimes have specialized hardware that is not supported anymore </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For Windows OSs </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For Red Hat Linux </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. System Documentation <ul><li>Should be detailed enough for inexperienced network administrator </li></ul><ul><li>System documentation is an ongoing process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes occur over the life of the server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These changes need to be documented </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. System Documentation <ul><li>Need compatibility information </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Server manufacturer, including model information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processor type and speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of RAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drive interface – RAID, SCSI, IDE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard disk – size, manufacturer, and model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NIC manufacturer and model </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. System Documentation <ul><li>System information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Partition information – number and sizes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OS version installed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latest software patches </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extra drivers needed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>URLs for latest drivers </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. System Documentation <ul><li>Steps for installation including options chosen </li></ul><ul><li>Keep documentation, CDs, drivers in a binder </li></ul><ul><li>Know support details </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who to call </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contract phone number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of support contract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expiration of contract </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Installation Process <ul><li>The Setup program will ask you about your system </li></ul><ul><li>You need to know the answers to these questions before you start </li></ul><ul><li>Many of the questions are common to all operating systems </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Installation Process- Partitioning the Hard Disk <ul><li>A partition is a logical division of the hard disk </li></ul><ul><li>A system boots from the primary partition </li></ul><ul><li>You can create an extended partition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives you more logical drives in Windows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives you more Linux partitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is best to isolate the operating system from applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If the application partition fills and the operating system is on the same partition, the OS stops </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The Installation Process <ul><li>Six partitions are used for Linux by default </li></ul><ul><ul><li>/ (root partition) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>swap (used for virtual memory) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>/boot (boot files – small) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>/usr (shared files and programs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>/home (user files and programs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>/var (Web site, FTP, log files) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Just / and swap are required </li></ul>
  13. 13. Managing Multiple Operating Systems on a Single Computer <ul><li>Useful for development purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Best to start with unpartitioned hard disk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create one partition for each Windows OS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow Linux to create default partitions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Install Windows first, then Linux </li></ul><ul><li>Linux installation then produces a menu to select Windows </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Installation Process- Naming Computers <ul><li>Identify a computer on the network </li></ul><ul><li>Windows communicates the computer name to other computers on the subnet so it should be unique </li></ul><ul><li>Name of computer is not related to how the computer is recognized on the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>In Linux, the hostname can exist on more than computer, it only uses IP addresses for communication </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Installation Process- Licensing <ul><li>Describes how the software can be used </li></ul><ul><li>For Windows 2000, Microsoft assumes that you have the correct number of client access licenses </li></ul><ul><li>For Windows Server 2003, each installation must be activated by Microsoft </li></ul><ul><li>Linux is basically free but there may be a cost for packaging, support, and extras </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on the GNU general public license </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Red Hat has personal, professional, and Advanced Server options </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Installation Process- Selecting a File System <ul><li>A file system determines how files are stored on a hard disk </li></ul><ul><li>Windows has two file systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FAT is based on the original DOS file system and has no security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NTFS has security which is critical for a server </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The default user file system in Red Hat Linux 8 is ext3, which offers some performance improvements over ext2 </li></ul>
  17. 17. Windows 2000 Server Installation <ul><li>Requires a 25-character product key </li></ul><ul><li>In a production environment where you are connected to the Internet, you will get an IP address from your ISP </li></ul><ul><li>Although a 2 to 3 GB partition is enough, you may want more </li></ul><ul><li>Use NTFS </li></ul><ul><li>As setup installs the networking components, do not wander away otherwise it will accept the default IP settings which you do not want </li></ul>
  18. 18. Windows Server 2003 Installation <ul><li>The procedures for installing Web, Standard, and Enterprise editions are the same </li></ul><ul><li>Installation is simpler than previous versions of Windows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only essential information such as computer name, licensing, password, IP address, and domain membership are requested </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Linux 8 Installation <ul><li>As is true with Windows, you can generally accept the defaults </li></ul><ul><li>Remember to select Server as the Installation Type </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This gives you a list of packages that are appropriate for a server environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remember to select &quot;No firewall&quot; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This makes it easier to configure and test your own firewall (Chapter 10) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Basic Linux Concepts <ul><li>No drive letters </li></ul><ul><li>The root is / </li></ul><ul><li>To use a floppy or CD-ROM, the device must be mounted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mount /mnt/floppy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mount /mnt/cdrom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Now you can copy files between your hard drive and /mnt/floppy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When you double-click the CD-ROM or Floppy icon on the desktop, the device is automatically mounted </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Before you remove the floppy, you have to unmount it to flush the file buffer, if you copied files to it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>umount /mnt/floppy </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Shell Prompt <ul><li>Most work is done at the shell prompt which is the command-line interface </li></ul><ul><li>ls – list files </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ls /mnt/floppy to see contents of floppy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>cd – change directory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cd /mnt/floppy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>mkdir – create a directory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mkdir /mnt/floppy/test </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Shell Prompt <ul><li>rmdir – remove a directory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rmdir /mnt/floppy/test </li></ul></ul><ul><li>mv – move or rename a file </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mv /etc/ftpaccess /var/ftp/ftpaccess </li></ul></ul><ul><li>cp – copy a file </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cp var/ftp/ftpaccess /mnt/floppy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>locate – find a file </li></ul><ul><ul><li>locate ftpaccess </li></ul></ul><ul><li>kedit <filename> - start editing a file </li></ul><ul><ul><li>kedit /var/ftp/ftpaccess </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Kedit Text Editor <ul><li>The Kedit text editor is similar to Windows Notepad </li></ul><ul><li>Note that the positioning of the icons is basically the same as Notepad </li></ul>
  24. 24. Configuring TCP/IP in Windows <ul><li>To determine TCP/IP configuration, type ipconfig at a command prompt </li></ul>
  25. 25. To Change the IP Address in Windows <ul><li>From the Local Area Status dialog box, click Properties </li></ul><ul><li>Select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), then click Properties </li></ul><ul><li>Now you can change the IP address </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Advanced button allows you to add multiple IP addresses for a single NIC </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Configuring TCP/IP in Linux <ul><li>To determine TCP/IP configuration, type ifconfig at a shell prompt </li></ul><ul><li>The IP address is on the third line </li></ul>
  27. 27. To Change the IP Address in Linux <ul><li>In System Settings, click Network </li></ul><ul><li>Click the Edit button </li></ul><ul><li>Now you can change the IP address </li></ul><ul><li>Click OK , then Apply , and Close to save the changes </li></ul>
  28. 28. Summary <ul><li>Windows and Linux installations share the task of creating partitions </li></ul><ul><li>The same computer can have multiple operating systems </li></ul><ul><li>Windows server operating systems are licensed based on the edition and the number of users </li></ul><ul><li>Linux licensing is based on the GNU general public license </li></ul>
  29. 29. Summary <ul><li>Microsoft and Linux have improved their ability to recognize devices </li></ul><ul><li>There are many useful commands when using the Linux shell prompt </li></ul>
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