Ch. 01 - Introduction to Networking
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Ch. 01 - Introduction to Networking






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Ch. 01 - Introduction to Networking Ch. 01 - Introduction to Networking Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter One An Introduction to Networking
  • Objectives
    • List advantages of networked computing relative to standalone computing
    • Identify elements of a network
    • Describe several specific uses of a network
  • Objectives
    • Distinguish between client/server and peer-to-peer networks
    • Identify some of the certifications available to networking professionals
    • Identify kinds of non-technical, or “soft,” skills to help in succeeding as a networking professional
  • Networks and Standalone Computers
    • Network
      • Group of computers and other devices connected by some type of transmission media
      • Networks enable users to share devices and data, collectively called a network’s resources
    • Standalone computer
      • Uses programs and data only from its local disks and is not connected to a network
  • Sneakernet
    • Method of sharing data by copying it to a disk and carrying the disk from computer to computer
    Figure 1-1: Data sharing before the advent of networks
  • Local and Remote Computers
    • Local computer
      • Computer on which user is working
    • Remote computer
      • Computer that user controls or works on via network connection
  • Peer-to-Peer Network
    • Computers communicate on single segment of cable and share each other’s data and devices
    • Simple example of a local area network (LAN)
    Figure 1-2: Simple peer-to-peer network
  • Local Area Network (LAN)
    • Network of computers and other devices confined to relatively small space
    • LANs involving many computers are usually server-based
      • On a server-based network , special computers (known as servers ) process data for and facilitate communication between other computers on the network (known as clients )
  • Networking Basics
    • Workstation
      • Computer that typically runs a desktop operating system and connects to a network
    • Client/server architecture
      • Networking model in which clients use central server to share applications, devices, and data
  • Networking Basics
    • Client/server network
      • Network based on client/server architecture
    • Network operating system
      • Special software designed to manage data and other resources on a server for a number of clients
  • Networking Basics Figure 1-3: LAN with a file server
  • Networking Basics Figure 1-4: An example of a complex network
  • Advantages of Server-Based over Peer-to-Peer Networks
    • User login accounts and passwords can be assigned in one place
    • Access to multiple shared resources can be centrally granted
    • Servers are optimized to handle heavy processing loads and dedicated to handling requests from clients
    • Servers can connect more than a handful of computers
  • MANs and WANs
    • Metropolitan area network (MAN)
      • Network connecting clients and servers in multiple buildings within limited geographic area
    • Wide area network (WAN)
      • Network that spans large distance and connects two or more LANs
      • The Internet is an example of a very intricate and extensive WAN that spans the globe
  • WAN Figure 1-5: A simple WAN
  • Elements Common to All Server-Based Networks
    • Client
      • In addition to referring to a computer on the network, may also refers to human user of client workstation
    • Server
    • Workstation
    • Network interface card (NIC)
      • Enables workstation to connect to the network and communicate with other computers
  • Elements Common to All Server-Based Networks Figure 1-6: A network interface card (NIC)
    • Network operating system (NOS)
    • Host
      • Server that manages shared resources
    • Node
      • Client, server, or other device that can communicate over a network and that is identified by a unique identifying number, known as its network address
    Elements Common to All Server-Based Networks
  • Elements Common to All Server-Based Networks
    • Topology
      • Physical layout of computer network
    Figure 1-7: Commonly used network topologies
  • Elements Common to All Server-Based Networks
    • Protocol
      • Rules network uses to transfer data
    • Data Packets
      • The distinct units of data transmitted from one computer to another on a network
  • Elements Common to All Server-Based Networks
    • Addressing
      • Scheme for assigning unique identifying number to every workstation on network
      • The number that uniquely identifies each workstation and device on a network is its address
  • Elements Common to All Server-Based Networks
    • Transmission media
      • Means through which data are transmitted and received
    Figure 1-8: Examples of network transmission media
  • How Networks Are Used
    • Services
      • Features provided by a network
        • File and print services
        • Communications services
        • Mail services
        • Internet services
        • Management services
  • Network Services
    • File services
      • Refers to capability of a server to share data files, applications, and disk storage space
      • Server that provides file services is called a file server
    • Print services
      • Allows printers to be shared by several users on a network
  • Network Services
    • Communications services
      • Allow remote users to connect to a network
        • Remote user
          • Person working on a computer in a different geographical location from the LAN’s server
      • Communications server
        • Server that runs communications services
        • Also referred to as access servers and remote access servers
  • Network Services
    • Mail services
      • Coordinate storage and transfer of e-mail between users on a network
        • Gateway
          • Combination of software and hardware enabling two different kinds of networks to exchange data
    • Internet services
      • Enable networks to communicate with the Internet
  • Network Services
    • Management services
      • Centrally administer and simplify complicated management tasks on the network
      • Numerous services fall under category of network management
  • Important Management Services
    • Traffic monitoring and control
      • Traffic
        • Data transmission and processing activity taking place on a computer network at any given time
      • Segment
        • Part of LAN that is logically separated from other parts of LAN and that shares fixed amount of traffic capacity
  • Important Management Services
    • Load balancing
      • Distributing process activity evenly across a network so that no single device is overwhelmed
    • Hardware diagnosis and failure alert
      • Determining when a network component fails and automatically notifying network administrators through e-mail or pager
  • Important Management Services
    • Asset management
      • Collecting and storing data on number and types of software and hardware assets in an organization’s network
    • License tracking
      • Determining how many copies of a single application are currently in use on a network
  • Important Management Services
    • Security auditing
      • Evaluating what security measures are currently in force and notifying network administrator if a security breach occurs
    • Software distribution
      • Automatically transferring data file or program from the server to a client on the network
  • Important Management Services
    • Address management
      • Centrally administering a finite number of network addresses for an entire LAN
    • Backup and restoration of data
      • Backing up
        • Copying critical files to a secure storage area
      • Restoring
        • Retrieving data if original files are lost or deleted
  • Becoming a Network Professional
    • Mastering the technical challenges
    • Developing your “soft skills”
    • Pursuing certification
    • Finding a job in networking
    • Joining professional associations
  • Mastering the Technical Challenges
    • Installing, configuring, and troubleshooting network server software
    • Installing, configuring, and troubleshooting network server hardware
    • Installing, configuring, and troubleshooting network client software
    • Installing, configuring, and troubleshooting network client hardware
  • Mastering the Technical Challenges
    • Understanding the characteristics of different transmission media
    • Understanding network design
    • Understanding network protocols
    • Understanding how users interact with the network
  • Mastering the Technical Challenges
    • Specialty areas in high demand for networking professionals:
      • Network security
      • Internet and intranet design
      • Network management
      • Voice/data integration
      • Remote and mobile computing
  • Mastering the Technical Challenges
    • Specialty areas in high demand for networking professionals (cont.):
      • Data integrity and fault tolerance
      • In-depth knowledge of Microsoft networking products
      • In-depth knowledge of NetWare networking products
      • In-depth knowledge of router configuration and management
  • Developing Your “Soft Skills”
    • Skills not easily measured but important to a networking career:
      • Customer relations
      • Oral and written communications
      • Dependability
      • Teamwork
      • Leadership abilities
  • Pursuing Certification
    • Certification
      • Process of mastering material pertaining to a particular hardware system, operating system, programming language, or other software program, then proving your mastery by passing a series of exams
    • Computer Technology Association (CompTIA)
      • An association that sets industry-wide standards for computer professionals
  • Pursuing Certification
    • A+
      • Certification established by CompTIA
      • Verifies knowledge about PC operation, repair, and management
    • Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer (MCSE)
      • Certification established by Microsoft
      • Demonstrates in-depth knowledge about Microsoft’s products
  • Pursuing Certification
    • Certified NetWare Engineer (CNE)
      • Certification established by Novell
      • Demonstrates in-depth understanding of Novell’s networking software
    • Network+ (Net+)
      • Certification established by CompTIA
      • Verifies broad, vendor-independent networking technology skills
  • Pursuing Certification
    • Benefits of becoming certified include:
      • Better salary
      • Greater opportunities
      • Professional respect
      • Access to better support
  • Finding a Job in Networking
    • Search the Web
    • Read the paper
    • Visit a career center
    • Network
    • Attend career fairs
  • Finding a Job in Networking Table 1-1: Web sites with job databases
  • Joining Professional Associations
    • Benefits can include:
      • Connecting with people who have similar interests
      • Providing new opportunities for learning
      • Allowing access to specialized information
      • Giving you tangible assets such as free goods
  • Joining Professional Associations Table 1-2: Web sites of networking organizations
  • Chapter Summary
    • A Network is a group of computers or other devices connected by some type of transmission media
    • Networks may be small or large, connecting computers in one office or across the world
    • All networks offer advantages relative to the use of standalone computers
    • Simplest form of a network still used today connects a handful of computers through one cable and uses peer-to-peer communication
  • Chapter Summary
    • A LAN is a network of computers and other devices confined to a relatively small space
    • A WAN is a network connecting two or more geographically distinct LANs
    • All server-based networks share some common elements
    • The physical layout of a computer network is called a topology
    • Network protocols are rules the network uses to transfer data
  • Chapter Summary
    • File and print services provide foundation for networking
    • Communications services allow remote users to connect to the network
    • Mail services allow networks users to exchange and store e-mail
    • Internet services enable organizations to connect to the Internet
    • Network management services centrally administer and simplify complicated management tasks on network
  • Chapter Summary
    • Networking professionals are in demand
    • Pursuing certification can benefit you in many ways
    • Hone your soft skills
    • Numerous resources are available in searching for networking positions
    • Joining associations can benefit your professional growth