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Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5
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Analyse Hardware and Network Requirements - DS Chap 5

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  • 1. Chapter 5 Analyzing Hardware and Network Requirements
  • 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Analyze: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware systems used in organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local area networks and bandwidth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wide area networks and bandwidth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User access, productivity, and performance issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network and Internet security </li></ul></ul>
  • 3. Analyzing Hardware Systems <ul><li>Workstations </li></ul><ul><li>Host computers </li></ul><ul><li>Network devices </li></ul>
  • 4. Workstations <ul><li>Elements to assess </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thin-clients and terminals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed of workstation network interface cards (NICs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed of the expansion slot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic input/output system (BIOS) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compile data into a table that integrates the information with your list of operating systems </li></ul>
  • 5. Workstations
  • 6. Host Computers <ul><li>Can include any computer to which others connect for information or to run programs </li></ul>
  • 7. Host Computers
  • 8. Network Devices <ul><li>Print servers </li></ul><ul><li>Repeaters </li></ul><ul><li>Active hubs </li></ul><ul><li>Passive hubs </li></ul><ul><li>Bridges </li></ul><ul><li>Routers </li></ul><ul><li>Brouters </li></ul><ul><li>Switches </li></ul><ul><li>Multiplexers </li></ul><ul><li>Channel service units (CSUs) </li></ul><ul><li>Data service units (DSUs) </li></ul><ul><li>Access servers </li></ul><ul><li>RAID or RAID arrays </li></ul><ul><li>CD-ROM arrays </li></ul><ul><li>Packet assembler/ disassemblers (PADs) </li></ul>
  • 9. Network Devices
  • 10. Network Devices
  • 11. Local Area Network Systems and Bandwidth <ul><li>Using network diagrams </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzing LAN transmission methods </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzing protocols </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzing IP addresses, subnets, and subnet masks </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzing DNS and WINS servers </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzing bandwidth </li></ul>
  • 12. Information in a LAN Diagram <ul><li>Network backbone </li></ul><ul><li>Servers, including locations and IP addresses </li></ul><ul><li>Host computers, including locations and IP addresses </li></ul><ul><li>Workstations, including locations and IP addresses, subnet masks, and subnet address information </li></ul><ul><li>Network devices, including locations and IP addresses </li></ul>continued
  • 13. Information in a LAN Diagram <ul><li>Telecommunications links, including copper, fiber-optic, and wireless </li></ul><ul><li>Internet connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Intranets </li></ul><ul><li>Remote links </li></ul><ul><li>Building locations </li></ul><ul><li>Cable types </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless communication links and frequencies </li></ul>
  • 14. A General Network Diagram
  • 15. Using Network Management Software
  • 16. Analyzing LAN Transmission Methods <ul><li>Ethernet </li></ul><ul><li>Token ring </li></ul><ul><li>Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) </li></ul>
  • 17. Ethernet <ul><li>Uses the Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) access method for data transmission on a network </li></ul><ul><li>Can use a bus or physical star layout </li></ul>
  • 18. Token Ring <ul><li>Developed by IBM in the 1970s; remains a primary LAN technology </li></ul><ul><li>Uses a physical star topology along with the logic of a ring topology </li></ul><ul><li>Each node is joined through a multistation access unit (MAU) </li></ul><ul><li>Packet travels from node to node as though there were no starting or ending point </li></ul>
  • 19. FDDI <ul><li>Developed in the mid-1980s to provide higher-speed data communications </li></ul><ul><li>Uses fiber-optic cable as the communications medium </li></ul><ul><li>Uses timed token access method </li></ul><ul><li>Capable of a 100 Mbps transfer rate using a dual-ring topology </li></ul>
  • 20. Analyzing Protocols <ul><li>Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Key protocols, used for network and Internet communications, combined into a suite </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NetBIOS Extended User Interface (NetBEUI) </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Packet Exchange/Sequence Packet Exchange (IPX/SPX) </li></ul><ul><li>AppleTalk </li></ul><ul><li>Systems Network Architecture (SNA) and Data Link Control (DLC) </li></ul>
  • 21. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) <ul><li>Establishes communication sessions between networked software application processes </li></ul><ul><li>Provides for reliable end-to-end delivery of data by controlling data flow </li></ul><ul><li>Essential functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitors for session requests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishes sessions with other TCP nodes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmits and receives data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closes transmission sessions </li></ul></ul>
  • 22. Internet Protocol (IP) <ul><li>Used in combination with TCP or UDP to enable packets to reach a destination on a local or remote network by using dotted decimal addressing </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to provide for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Packet addressing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Packet routing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Packet fragmentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple detection of packet errors </li></ul></ul>
  • 23. NetBEUI <ul><li>Developed by IBM in the mid-1980s </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporates NetBIOS for communications across a network </li></ul><ul><li>Used on early, small Microsoft-based networks </li></ul>
  • 24. IPX/SPX <ul><li>Internet Packet Exchange </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed by Novell for use with its NetWare file server operating system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be routed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A “chatty” protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sequence Packet Exchange </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Novell protocol used for network transport for application software where there is a particular need for data reliability </li></ul></ul>
  • 25. AppleTalk <ul><li>A peer-to-peer protocol used on networks for communication between Macintosh computers </li></ul><ul><li>AppleTalk Phase II </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Handles an increased number of networked computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interoperable with large heterogeneous networks that host multiple protocols </li></ul></ul>
  • 26. SNA and DLC <ul><li>Systems Network Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A layered communications protocol used by IBM for communication between IBM mainframe computers and terminals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data Link Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A protocol designed for communication with an IBM mainframe or minicomputer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set up to use SNA communications </li></ul></ul>
  • 27. Documenting Protocols in a Network Diagram
  • 28. Analyzing IP Addresses, Subnets, and Subnet Masks <ul><li>Version of IP that is used, IPv4 or IPv6 </li></ul><ul><li>Whether IP addresses are assigned dynamically or statically </li></ul><ul><li>IP address ranges that are used (or scopes when DHCP is in use) </li></ul><ul><li>Subnets that are used and their locations </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons why subnets are used </li></ul>
  • 29. New Features of IPv6 <ul><li>128-bit address capability </li></ul><ul><li>A single address can be associated with multiple network interfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Address autoconfiguration and CIDR addressing </li></ul><ul><li>40-byte header instead of IPv4’s 20-byte header (for more services) </li></ul><ul><li>New IP extension headers can be implemented for special needs, including more routing and security options </li></ul>
  • 30. Analyzing DNS and WINS Servers <ul><li>Domain Name System (DNS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resolves IP addresses to computer names </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically two zones of data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forward lookup zone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reverse lookup zone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used with DNS Server to resolve IP addresses and computer names on networks in which NetBIOS applications are still in use </li></ul></ul>
  • 31. Analyzing DNS on a Network <ul><li>Operating system of the DNS server </li></ul><ul><li>Location of DNS servers on the network </li></ul><ul><li>Placement of primary and secondary (backup) DNS servers </li></ul><ul><li>Information in forward and reverse lookup zones </li></ul><ul><li>Whether or not DNS zones are automatically updated when a new device is connected </li></ul>
  • 32. DNS Forward Lookup Zone
  • 33. Analyzing the Use of WINS Servers <ul><li>Reason why WINS is used, such as for pre-Windows 2000 object naming </li></ul><ul><li>NetBIOS naming conventions used on a network </li></ul><ul><li>Location of WINS servers </li></ul>
  • 34. Analyzing Bandwidth <ul><li>Bandwidth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission capacity of a communication medium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically measured in bits per second (bps, for data transmissions) or hertz (Hz, for combined data, voice, and video transmissions in wireless communications) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Related to the capacity of the communication medium and to the transmission method </li></ul></ul>
  • 35. Analyzing Bandwidth
  • 36. Analyzing Bandwidth <ul><li>Obtain or create network diagrams showing information about network layout (topology) </li></ul><ul><li>Determine LAN transmission methods (Ethernet, token ring, FDDI) </li></ul><ul><li>Determine LAN protocols (TCP/IP, IPX/SPX, NetBEUI, AppleTalk, SNA, DLC) </li></ul>continued
  • 37. Analyzing Bandwidth <ul><li>Determine IP addressing convention, including subnet masks </li></ul><ul><li>Determine how IP subnets are used </li></ul><ul><li>Assess the deployment of DNS, WINDS, and DHCP servers </li></ul><ul><li>Determine Ethernet, token ring, FDDI, and wireless bandwidths of specific links </li></ul>
  • 38. Wide Area Network Systems and Bandwidth <ul><li>WAN transmission methods </li></ul><ul><li>WAN technologies transmitted over other WANs </li></ul><ul><li>WAN bandwidth </li></ul>
  • 39. Analyzing WAN Transmission Methods <ul><li>Modem communications over regular phone lines </li></ul><ul><li>X.25 </li></ul><ul><li>Frame relay </li></ul><ul><li>ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) </li></ul><ul><li>SMDS (switched megabit data service) </li></ul><ul><li>DSL (digital subscriber line) </li></ul><ul><li>ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) </li></ul><ul><li>SONET (synchronous optical network) </li></ul>
  • 40. X.25 WAN Architecture
  • 41. Frame Relay WAN Architecture
  • 42. DSL WAN Architecture
  • 43. Analyzing Protocol Support Over WANs <ul><li>Many WAN technologies enable other LAN and WAN technologies to operate through them </li></ul><ul><li>Determine if a WAN technology is being used over another WAN technology </li></ul>
  • 44. Analyzing WAN Bandwidth <ul><li>Determine which WAN technologies are in use, such as modem communications, X.25, frame relay, ISDN, SMDS, DSL, ATM, and SONET </li></ul><ul><li>Determine if one WAN technology is also transporting another WAN technology, such as SONET transporting ATM </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the bandwidth of all WAN links </li></ul>
  • 45. ISDN Primary Rate Interface Architecture
  • 46. DSL Bandwidth
  • 47. SONET Bandwidth
  • 48. Analyzing Network Management <ul><li>Determine if network management protocols are used, such as SNMP or CMIP </li></ul><ul><li>Determine which stations act as network agents and network management stations (NMS) </li></ul><ul><li>Use the NMS and network management software to your advantage for gathering information about how the network is set up </li></ul>continued
  • 49. Analyzing Network Management <ul><li>Find out what network management software is used and determine how it is used to manage a network </li></ul><ul><li>Assess the security in place for SNMP or CMIP </li></ul><ul><li>Determine if RMON is used </li></ul>
  • 50. RMON Architecture
  • 51. Analyzing User Access, Produc-tivity, and Performance Issues <ul><li>Determine if users can be more productive and have better access by upgrading their computers or workstation operating systems </li></ul><ul><li>Assess if most effective protocols are in use and if some protocols can be retired, such as IPX/SPX or NetBEUI </li></ul><ul><li>Assess whether network bandwidth is adequate for the type of work and traffic on specific network segments </li></ul>continued
  • 52. Analyzing User Access, Produc-tivity, and Performance Issues <ul><li>Determine if the network access order can be tuned on some workstations, such as those running Windows NT 4.0 or Windows 2000, when multiple protocols are in use </li></ul><ul><li>Assess whether the network access method is appropriate for anticipated growth in user access </li></ul>
  • 53. Analyzing Network and Internet Security <ul><li>Determine what account security policies are implemented on existing servers </li></ul><ul><li>Determine if Kerberos and certificate security is used or if there are plans to use it </li></ul><ul><li>Assess remote access policies for RAS and VPN servers </li></ul><ul><li>Assess the use of encryption and authentication on all servers and hosts </li></ul>continued
  • 54. Analyzing Network and Internet Security <ul><li>Determine how routers, proxy servers, and firewalls are used for network security, including the location of those devices </li></ul><ul><li>Assess what IP- and account-based restrictions are used for security on the Web, RAS, VPN, and other servers </li></ul>
  • 55. Restricting Access to a Web Site
  • 56.  
  • 57. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Analyzing hardware systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Workstations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Host computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network devices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Local area network systems and bandwidth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzing LAN transmission methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzing protocols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzing IP addresses, subnets, and subnet masks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzing DNS and WINS servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzing bandwidth </li></ul></ul>continued
  • 58. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Wide area network systems and bandwidth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzing WAN transmission methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzing protocol support over WANs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzing WAN bandwidth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analyzing network management </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzing user access, productivity, and performance issues </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzing network and Internet security </li></ul>

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