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A functional TCP/IP Ethernet network is required for FX ...

  1. 1. FX-Max Basic Networking Guide for FX Teleport
  2. 2. Manual written and graphics created by Ric in the FX-Max support department. Thanks to Max at FX-Max without whose research and development this manual would not have been possible. FX-Max would like to thank its many customers and participants on its user forums for their continuing input. Our jobs would be much harder without your continued support. FX Teleport is a registered trademark of FX-Max Certain product names mentioned herein may be trade names and/or registered trademarks of other companies. Information about other products furnished by FX-Max is believed to be accurate. However, no responsibility is assumed by FX-Max for the use of these products, or for an infringement of rights of the other companies that may result from their use. This document is provided on an “as-is” basis. While every attempt has been made to insure that the contents of this document are accurate, FX-Max or its employees are in no way responsible or liable for any damages that may occur from the use of this document. Unauthorized reproduction of any portion of this manual is prohibited. The material in this manual is for informational purposes only. It is subject to change without notice. FX-Max or its employees assumes no responsibility for incorrect information this manual may contain. © 2005 FX-Max All Rights Reserved
  3. 3. Contents 1. Introduction • Scope of this document • Conventions used in this manual 2. Configuring the IP Address of the PC • Static IP vs. DHCP • Assigning a Static IP to a Computer in Windows XP 3. Connecting the PC’s to the Network • Networks and Network Cable • Connecting a Network Using an Ethernet Switch • Connecting a 10/100 Network Using a Crossover Cable • Connecting a Gigabit Network Using a Crossover Cable 4. Commissioning and Testing the Network Connection and Configuration • Using the Link Light • Pinging Another Computer 5. Appendices • Appendix A – Basic Network Diagrams • Appendix B – Alternate Configurations for Broadband Users
  4. 4. A functional TCP/IP Ethernet network is required for FX Teleport to function correctly. This document provides a brief introduction to TCP/IP networking and instructions on how to configure your network for use with FX Teleport. We will cover the three major items that are required to set the network up for use with FX Teleport. • Configuring the IP address of the PC • Connecting the PC’s to the network • Commissioning and testing the connection and configuration It is important to perform these steps in this order and to pay attention to the details as you follow this procedure. If you use a broadband connection to access the Internet, and you must access the Internet from one or more machines in the FX Teleport network; then, it is recommended that you consult with your ISP before making any changes to your network configuration. Making changes to your network configuration may stop you from being able to access the Internet. IF YOU CHOOSE TO MAKE ANY CHANGES, FX-MAX OR ITS EMPLOYEES ARE NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY DAMAGES THAT MAY OCCUR. You may refer to Appendix B for suggestions on broadband configuration options. This manual is not designed to instruct you on the technical aspects of networking; rather, it is simply designed to step you through the necessary steps to connect and configure a network for FX Teleport operation. Many of the concepts are not discussed in-depth. If you are not familiar with networking technology, we recommend obtaining the services of a qualified professional; however, if you feel comfortable with making adjustments to your networking settings, proceed at your own risk. Conventions Used in this Manual We use several text conventions to help distinguish what we are talking about. For instance if you see text that is Bold and Italic, you will see • Bold – Underline: New Section • Bold – Italic: The name of a control, item, or object • Bold: An important term – the bold is used only for the first time the term appears • Italic: A message you should see on your screen. • Italic – Underline: A message you should type into the computer • Numbered list: a step by step procedure • Bulleted list: points to check that are not order sensitive
  5. 5. Configuring the IP Address of the PC
  6. 6. Static IP vs. DHCP A computer needs an IP address to be able to communicate over a TCP/IP network. Just like you need an address to receive a letter in the post, your computer needs an IP address in order to receive data from another computer on the network. There are two methods by which a computer can be assigned an IP address: automatically from a DHCP (Dynamic Host Control Protocol) server or manually by using Static IP. The latter is the method preferred for our purposes. The advantage to using Static IP is that your PC will always have the same IP address. During the boot process, Windows will see that the computer uses Static IP and will load that data each and every time. Before we go any further, let’s discuss IP addresses and subnets. An IP address consists of 4 numbers separated by a period. Each of these numbers is called an octet, and any one octet cannot exceed 255. The format of an IP address is as follows: WWW.XXX.YYY.ZZZ WWW 1st Octet XXX 2nd Octet YYY 3rd Octet ZZZ 4th Octet Here is an example of a legitimate IP address. It is essential that all FX Teleport computers be in the same subnet. For our purposes, a subnet is a collection of IP addresses whose first three octets are the same and the last octet is different. On any subnet, the last octet must be unique to each machine. Using the post example again, if every house on the street was number 10, the postal carrier would not know which house to deliver a letter addressed to Number 10. However, if the houses were numbers 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13; there is only one destination for a letter addressed to Number 10. Applying that example to network communication, if a piece of data (called a packet) is sent to a computer whose last octet is 192, the system would not be able to deliver it if there was more than one ‘192’ on the subnet. The following table provides several examples:
  7. 7. IP Address Examples Description of Condition Computer 1: • In same subnet Computer 2: • Last octet different • Works perfectly for FX Teleport purposes Computer 1: • Not in same subnet (2nd octet Computer 2: different) • Would not work for FX Teleport without expensive routing gear Computer 1: • In same subnet Computer 2: • Last octet same • Would not work at all, Windows would give an error message stating that an address conflict existed. As you can see, the first example is exactly what we want. The last octet can be any number between 1 and 253. The important thing to remember is that it must be different on each computer in the subnet. There are a few other items I want to mention briefly. They are part of our network and need to be addressed, but I will not go into any detail about what they do. • Subnet Mask: Used as part of the networking scheme. For our purposes, it will always be • Default Gateway: For our purposes, we will leave it blank • DNS: For our purposes, we will leave it blank. • WINS: For our purposes, we will leave it blank. Assigning a Static IP Address to a Computer We will now discuss how to assign static IP addresses to a Windows XP machine. While other versions of Windows are similar, you may need to consult the documentation for your version of Windows. This procedure assumes the following: 1. A Network Interface Card (NIC) has been installed and properly configured. 2. The TCP/IP protocol – networking component has been installed. 3. That your PC is booted up, logged in, and that the account logged in has administrative rights to the computer. If any of the above criteria has not been satisfied, it must be addressed prior to attempting this procedure.
  8. 8. 1. Click the Start Button to launch the Start Menu. 2. Select Control Panel from the Start Menu. 3. From Control Panel, choose the Network Connections icon. (Note – if you are using the Classic Start Menu mode under XP, you can select Settings from the Start Menu. Then you can select Network Connections from the Settings menu.) 4. You should have window similar to the one shown above. Right-Click on the Local Area Connection Icon and select Properties from the Right-Click Menu.
  9. 9. 5. The Local Area Connection Properties Window shows the networking components installed on the PC. Make sure there is a check mark next to Internet Protocol TCP/IP. If there is not a check mark next to ‘Show icon in notification area when connected’, go ahead and place one there. This is a good diagnostic tool to have when you are troubleshooting a connection. 6. Click on the entry for Internet Protocol TCP/IP to highlight it and then click the Properties Button.
  10. 10. 7. Using what you learned in the preceding section type in your IP address. Record the IP address you assigned to this computer. 8. Make sure the subnet mask is sent to 9. Click the OK Button on the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties Window 10. Click the OK Button on the Local Area Connection Properties Window 11. In the Network Connections Window, click on the File Menu and choose the Close option. 12. Repeat this procedure as necessary for the other computers on the network. Make sure to keep the machines in the same subnet and that the 4th octet is unique to each machine.
  11. 11. Connecting the PC’s to the Network
  12. 12. Networks and Network Cable In its simplest terms a network is 2 or more PC’s connected together by a transmission medium. For our purposes, that transmission medium is Ethernet cable of the Category 5e or Category 6 classification, and it connects the Network Interface Card (NIC) of the PC to the network. If more than two PC’s are to be connected, then the NIC of each PC is connected to an Ethernet switch with a straight-through Ethernet cable. If only two PC’s are to be connected in the network and you don’t want to use an Ethernet switch, a special Ethernet cable known as a crossover cable may be used to connect the NIC of one PC to the NIC of the other. We will discuss each method of connection. The connector on the end of any network cable (does not matter if it is a crossover or straight-through) is called an RJ-45 plug. Conversely, the receptacle you plug the RJ-45 plug is called the RJ-45 jack. The diagrams below show the pin out of the RJ-45 Plug as well as how to get your orientation with the jack. Being able to pin out the RJ-45 plug is necessary if you need to determine what kind of cable you have. Since the pin out must be taken from an established reference point, refer to the right- most illustration below for orientation. If you hold the plug in your hand exactly as shown in the illustration, you can determine the top, bottom, front, and back of the plug. A couple of quick reference points are (1) that the cable comes into the back of the plug and (2) the clip is on the bottom of the plug. If you are holding the plug as shown in the right-most illustration you can rotate the plug counter-clockwise 90 degrees to view the front of the plug. It should look similar to what you see in the left-most illustration below. Rotating the plug toward you 90 degrees will show you the top of the plug. If you rotate the plug 90 degrees clockwise from this position, you will have the plug oriented as shown in the middle illustration.
  13. 13. Connecting to the Network Using an Ethernet Switch Connecting PC’s to an Ethernet switch is the most common method of networking at the time of this writing. It is fast and easy to connect, and the equipment necessary to do it is relatively inexpensive. You will notice that I use the term Ethernet switch. This is very important, as there is another device similar to an Ethernet switch that is known as an Ethernet hub. While they may look similar, they are very different devices. You should avoid using Ethernet hubs at all costs. They are, for our purposes, inefficient and cause more problems than they solve. It was stated previously that PC’s are connected to an Ethernet switch by using a straight- through Ethernet cable. The cable derives its name from the fact that the conductors are connected in a straight-through configuration. In other words, the conductor connected to pin 1 of the RJ-45 plug on one end is the same conductor that is connected to pin 1 of the RJ-45 on the other end. Straight through cables are the most common cable found in most retail outlets. In the illustration below, you can see that pin 1 of the RJ-45 plug on the left is connected to a conductor whose jacket is white with an orange stripe. If you look at pin 1 of the RJ- 45 on the right, you will see that it too is connected to a conductor whose jacket is white with an orange stripe. If you look at the other pins you will see that their conductors match in the same, “straight-through” fashion.
  14. 14. From the illustrations in this section and from looking at your Ethernet cables, you can see that the RJ-45 plug is a modular type plug that is very similar to the plug that you use to connect your phone to its jack (note – the plug typically used on the phone is an RJ-11 plug). Connecting the PC to an Ethernet switch is done much the same was as connecting your phone. Insert 1 end of the straight-through Ethernet cable into the RJ-45 jack on your PC’s as shown below. Once you have connected the straight-through Ethernet cable to your PC’s NIC, you are ready to connect to your Ethernet switch. Insert the other end of the straight-through Ethernet cable into the RJ-45 jack on your Ethernet switch as shown below. You will need to repeat this connection procedure for each PC you want to place on the network. As you may be able to see, data will pass from the source PC through its Ethernet cable to the switch. Data will leave the switch and travel through the destination PC’s Ethernet cable to the destination PC. This process can occur millions of times per second based on the amount of data. You can refer to Appendix A of this document for network diagrams using an Ethernet switch.
  15. 15. Connecting a 10/100 Network Using a Crossover Cable Connecting 2 PC’s together using a crossover cable is the simplest form of networking. Providing your cable is made correctly, it is simple to hook up, and you do not incur the additional expense of a switch. The downside to this method is that it is limited to 2 PC’s in the network and the cabling is a little tricky. As I am sure you have determined, the PC’s in this configuration are connected together by a cable whose conductors are ‘crossed-over’. Specifically, the conductors that are connected to the transmit pins on one end are connected to the receive pins on the other end and the receive pins on the first end are connected to transmit pins on the second end. This is similar to a phone call, when you speak into the microphone in your handset; your voice is transmitted to the speaker in the handset of the phone of the person with whom you are talking. Conversely, when they speak into their microphone, you hear it in your speaker. In 10/100 Ethernet, only 4 of the conductors are used. They are connected to pins 1, 2, 3, and 6 of the RJ-45 plug. The standard I prefer uses the orange pair and the green pair to communicate. As you can see from the diagram above, on the left RJ-45 plug, pin 1 is connected to the conductor that is white with an orange stripe. If you look at the right RJ- 45 plug you will see that the white with an orange strip conductor is connected to Pin 3. If you look at pin 3 on the left RJ-45 plug you will see that the conductor connected to it is white with a green stripe, which is connected to pin 1 of the RJ-45 plug on the right. In other words, they have ‘crossed over’. Notice that the blue and brown pairs are not crossed over. This is what changes between Gigabit Ethernet crossover cables and 10/100 Ethernet crossover cables.
  16. 16. Connecting a Gigabit Network Using a Crossover Cable The diagram above shows a Gigabit Ethernet crossover cable. Nothing has changed with respect to the orange and green pairs. However, notice that pin 4 on the left RJ-45 plug is connected to a conductor that is blue with a white stripe; while, pin 4 on the right RJ-45 plug is connected to a conductor that is white with a brown stripe. This is necessary because the Gigabit standard uses all 8 conductors. As with a 10/100 crossover, the transmit pins on each end must connect to their corresponding receive pins. The difference is that there are more transmit and receive pins in Gigabit than 10/100. The diagram below gives you a side-by-side comparison of each type of crossover cable. Depending on your location, crossover cables of any variety may not available on the shelf in your local retailer. There are several online venues that sell them, and, if you are familiar with the tools for crimping the ends to Ethernet cable, the diagrams in this document are designed to make it very easy to make your own. Connecting two PC’s with a crossover cable is very simple. You simply plug one end of your crossover into the NIC on one PC, and then you plug the other end of the crossover into the NIC on the other PC.
  17. 17. Commissioning and Testing the Network Connection and Configuration
  18. 18. Using the Link Light We took a lot of time and covered a lot of details in the previous sections. If we take the time to connect and configure our network right the first time, our testing goes quick. If our testing fails, then we have to troubleshoot, and that is not any fun. The most obvious test to run is to see if we have a link light on the NIC and the switch (if one is being used). The link light is usually a green LED on Ethernet devices that indicate that the device detects the network. If the link light is not on, then there is a problem somewhere in the network. While the above diagram offers a general idea of what a link light looks like, you need to refer to the documentation that came with your NIC and Ethernet switch for specific details.
  19. 19. Pinging Another Computer Once you have a link light on all of your devices, we need to make sure that we can pass data between the machines. The way that we are going to do this is by using a built in test called a ping. A ping is the network equivalent of one PC saying, “Do you hear me?” and the other PC replying, “Why yes I do.” or giving no response at all. The ping command works from the Windows Command Prompt. For those of you who remember DOS, the command prompt environment is almost identical. The syntax is fairly simple as well. You type the word ping, a space, and the IP address of the unit that you want to ping. Note, the IP address you type is not the IP of the computer you are using; it is the IP address of the remote computer. If you ping a computer from itself, you will get a response, but that response is pretty much meaningless. 1. Click on the Start Button 2. From the Start Menu, select Run 3. In the Open Field, type cmd 4. Press the Enter key on the keyboard or click the OK Button. 5. When the Command Prompt Window appears, type ping, a space, and the IP address of the computer you wish to ping. Refer to the diagram below for an example.
  20. 20. After you have finished typing the ping command press the Enter key. If your ping was successful, you should get 4 replies followed by some statistics as shown below. If you received a reply, then your PC’s are communicating properly. If you did not receive a reply, the ping command should have returned an error message. The next section delves into the two common error messages.
  21. 21. Troubleshooting Ping Error Messages There are 2 common error messages that a failed ping will return, Request timed out and Destination Host Unreachable. Of these two, Request timed out is the most common error message you will see. When you receive a Request timed out error message, it means that your computer found the network, sent a ping to the address you specified, but did not receive a reply. When you receive this message you should check the following: • Are you sure you typed the correct IP address? • Is the remote computer connected to the network? • Is the connection the remote computer has to the network a good connection?
  22. 22. When you receive a Destination host unreachable error message, it means that your computer did not find the network and was unable to send a ping. When you receive this message you should check the following: • Are you sure the Ethernet cable is properly connected to the NIC and switch? • Is your NIC installed and configured correctly? • Is the Ethernet switch powered up?
  23. 23. Appendix A – Basic Network Diagrams
  24. 24. 2 Computer Network using an Ethernet Switch In this scenario, a straight through Ethernet cable connects each PC to the Ethernet Switch.
  25. 25. Multiple Computer Network using an Ethernet Switch In this scenario, a straight through Ethernet cable connects each PC to the Ethernet Switch.
  26. 26. Two PC’s connected using a crossover cable In this scenario, a crossover Ethernet cable connects two PC’s together.
  27. 27. Appendix B - Alternate Configuration for Broadband Users
  28. 28. This diagram shows a network connected using an Ethernet switch. The network itself is static IP. The broadband router supports static IP on the LAN side. However, on the side that interfaces with the Cable / DSL Modem (called the WAN side) is DHCP. A simplified explanation of the way this works is that the Broadband Router leases an IP from your ISP’s DHCP server. It, in turn, ‘routes’ the computers on the LAN side when they want to connect to the Internet. The broadband router does add some additional expense to the network, but it also allows you to keep a static IP network on the LAN side and still be able to use the Internet. Note – not all broadband routers will support static IP on the LAN side. You should check this before making a purchase.