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Technology for Emerging Markets
Technology for Emerging Markets
Technology for Emerging Markets
Technology for Emerging Markets
Technology for Emerging Markets
Technology for Emerging Markets
Technology for Emerging Markets
Technology for Emerging Markets
Technology for Emerging Markets
Technology for Emerging Markets
Technology for Emerging Markets
Technology for Emerging Markets
Technology for Emerging Markets
Technology for Emerging Markets
Technology for Emerging Markets
Technology for Emerging Markets
Technology for Emerging Markets
Technology for Emerging Markets
Technology for Emerging Markets
Technology for Emerging Markets
Technology for Emerging Markets
Technology for Emerging Markets
Technology for Emerging Markets
Technology for Emerging Markets
Technology for Emerging Markets
Technology for Emerging Markets
Technology for Emerging Markets
Technology for Emerging Markets
Technology for Emerging Markets
Technology for Emerging Markets
Technology for Emerging Markets
Technology for Emerging Markets
Technology for Emerging Markets
Technology for Emerging Markets
Technology for Emerging Markets
Technology for Emerging Markets
Technology for Emerging Markets
Technology for Emerging Markets
Technology for Emerging Markets
Technology for Emerging Markets
Technology for Emerging Markets
Technology for Emerging Markets
Technology for Emerging Markets
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Technology for Emerging Markets

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  • Our friends at Microsoft: Windows Client: new OS products and business models for emerging markets Community Affairs (LCA): charitable giving, support for development, relationships with non-profits, NGOs, and IGOs Emerging Markets: new cross-country initiatives and incubations in emerging markets MS India subsidiary MSR ER&P, MSR Cambridge, MSR Asia MSN: Points; Hotmail is widely used in some emerging markets Other possibilities in Education, MED, IW, …
  • After only one year of operation, MSR India has firmly established its place in research in “technology for development”. We’re able to attract the best people in this area – Indian and otherwise. Students from the best US schools are willing to come to MSR India for internships, even on India-scale stipends, because… We’re in India and close to the communities where the research needs to take place. We’re one of the few industry labs with an active research program in this area. Our approach is critical and analytical, but optimistic. We have a strong, interdisciplinary research team.
  • Warana is a sugarcane cooperative which has a command area of about 70 villages. The cooperative’s primary job is to crush sugarcane and to produce sugar.   It turns out this was Asia’s first ICT project to bring computing to rural masses. I ended up spending a month living there. My work here started off as trying to understand how these computer kiosks are been used by the various stake holders. Unlike most other ICTD projects that come and go, warana was an exception because the project was still running after 8 years.  
  • 04/13/10 12:50 © 2004 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary. There is an SMS server that we wrote is running in the Phone which receives the SMS message and converts it into bunch of database calls and returns the result as an SMS and the farmer gets back the message.   The client phone is used for both accessing and updating their accounts. While mobile phones and SMS-based systems are very attractive platforms, one thing that makes them different from PC-based systems is that they are closed Platforms, in the sense that the applications and services are entirely controlled by carriers, and it is difficult for a small-time third party service provider to get in the act. We have shown through this work that it is possible (and indeed, easy) for anyone to start an SMS server.
  • The original goals of the project were to give   Internet access to farmers, Check market price information Agricultural expert system where they expected farmers to ask questions to a terminal and experts sitting at the other end answering these questions. Automate Land Records.
  • The application that is lasting for the last 8 years is a sugarcane accounting application. Farmers get access to their own accounts through the kiosk, register their land with the cooperative, and buy fertilizer. They also use this to issue harvesting permits/dates on when the farmer’s plot is ripe for harvesting. This application was developed by the local cooperative personnel with the help of government of India’s official software unit (NIC). This application made sense as the farmers without these kiosks had to walk about 40 kms to get these transactions done and often used to result in lost income and huge lines in the cooperative
  • The application that is lasting for the last 8 years is a sugarcane accounting application. Farmers get access to their own accounts through the kiosk, register their land with the cooperative, and buy fertilizer. They also use this to issue harvesting permits/dates on when the farmer’s plot is ripe for harvesting. This application was developed by the local cooperative personnel with the help of government of India’s official software unit (NIC). This application made sense as the farmers without these kiosks had to walk about 40 kms to get these transactions done and often used to result in lost income and huge lines in the cooperative
  • The application that is lasting for the last 8 years is a sugarcane accounting application. Farmers get access to their own accounts through the kiosk, register their land with the cooperative, and buy fertilizer. They also use this to issue harvesting permits/dates on when the farmer’s plot is ripe for harvesting. This application was developed by the local cooperative personnel with the help of government of India’s official software unit (NIC). This application made sense as the farmers without these kiosks had to walk about 40 kms to get these transactions done and often used to result in lost income and huge lines in the cooperative
  • We have replaced an existing PC-based information-distribution system for a sugarcane cooperative with a much less expensive system based on mobile phones. Our hope is that we can apply similar systems to address other needs for information distribution in rural communities everywhere.
  • 04/13/10 12:50 © 2004 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary. There is an SMS server that we wrote is running in the Phone which receives the SMS message and converts it into bunch of database calls and returns the result as an SMS and the farmer gets back the message.   The client phone is used for both accessing and updating their accounts. While mobile phones and SMS-based systems are very attractive platforms, one thing that makes them different from PC-based systems is that they are closed Platforms, in the sense that the applications and services are entirely controlled by carriers, and it is difficult for a small-time third party service provider to get in the act. We have shown through this work that it is possible (and indeed, easy) for anyone to start an SMS server.
  • 04/13/10 12:50 © 2004 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary. There is an SMS server that we wrote is running in the Phone which receives the SMS message and converts it into bunch of database calls and returns the result as an SMS and the farmer gets back the message.   The client phone is used for both accessing and updating their accounts. While mobile phones and SMS-based systems are very attractive platforms, one thing that makes them different from PC-based systems is that they are closed Platforms, in the sense that the applications and services are entirely controlled by carriers, and it is difficult for a small-time third party service provider to get in the act. We have shown through this work that it is possible (and indeed, easy) for anyone to start an SMS server.
  • The farmers are now able to access it anytime and even in the night times by looking at our log data; it was unheard of in the previous situation to expect a kiosk to be open. We found the use truly mobile; they were using the system at odd places like the Tea stalls at the farmers fields. Number of accesses for data same as expected (10/village)   Telcos interest has perked up and this is a huge win for them as the number of SMS messages have significantly increased.
  • The application that is lasting for the last 8 years is a sugarcane accounting application. Farmers get access to their own accounts through the kiosk, register their land with the cooperative, and buy fertilizer. They also use this to issue harvesting permits/dates on when the farmer’s plot is ripe for harvesting. This application was developed by the local cooperative personnel with the help of government of India’s official software unit (NIC). This application made sense as the farmers without these kiosks had to walk about 40 kms to get these transactions done and often used to result in lost income and huge lines in the cooperative
  • The farmers are now able to access it anytime and even in the night times by looking at our log data; it was unheard of in the previous situation to expect a kiosk to be open. We found the use truly mobile; they were using the system at odd places like the Tea stalls at the farmers fields. Number of accesses for data same as expected (10/village)   Telcos interest has perked up and this is a huge win for them as the number of SMS messages have significantly increased.
  • The farmers are now able to access it anytime and even in the night times by looking at our log data; it was unheard of in the previous situation to expect a kiosk to be open. We found the use truly mobile; they were using the system at odd places like the Tea stalls at the farmers fields. Number of accesses for data same as expected (10/village)   Telcos interest has perked up and this is a huge win for them as the number of SMS messages have significantly increased.
  • Udai Singh Pawar, assistant researcher, leads the technical development, and is now conducting user tests. In Windows, if multiple mice are plugged in, they all vie to control the same mouse. ID of each mouse is preserved through Win32 event calls. There is no theoretical limit to the number of mice that can be plugged in, with USB. Have tried up to 15 mice with only minor performance issues; however, desk space becomes a problem.
  • Udai Singh Pawar, assistant researcher, leads the technical development, and is now conducting user tests. In Windows, if multiple mice are plugged in, they all vie to control the same mouse. ID of each mouse is preserved through Win32 event calls. There is no theoretical limit to the number of mice that can be plugged in, with USB. Have tried up to 15 mice with only minor performance issues; however, desk space becomes a problem.
  • Preliminary user tests included three groups of children. Each group was first asked to play a flash-card game for 20 minutes, single mouse; then, multiple mice were added, for at least another 20 minutes, longer if the children wanted. Single mouse scenario: Even with a dominant child, all children engage . Engagement decreases with time for students without a mouse . Sharing patterns differ between boys and girls (girls share more) . Everyone wants to interact with the mouse. Multiple mouse scenario: Children immediately understand the idea of multiple mice and cursors . Children are not confused by multiple cursors on screen . Children with mice remain engaged throughout . Overall engagement increases, even for children without a mouse! (There is more opportunity to grab one.) Other observations: In interviews, student reactions were very much in favour of multiple mice . One child did not like multiple mice because of its competitiveness . There can be considerable difference in game-playing competence, especially with large variance in age . Children rapidly pick up finer points of UI and game control.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Technology for Emerging Markets Kentaro Toyama, PhD Assistant Managing Director Microsoft Research India
    • 2. Outline <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Three Projects from MSR India </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microfinance and Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warana Unwired </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simultaneous Shared Access </li></ul></ul>
    • 3. Outline <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Three Projects from MSR India </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microfinance and Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warana Unwired </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simultaneous Shared Access </li></ul></ul>
    • 4. MSR India <ul><li>Established January, 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World-class academic research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributions to Microsoft products and businesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support growth of research programs in India and elsewhere </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Six research areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cryptography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Geographics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware, Communications, and Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multilingual Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rigorous Software Engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology for Emerging Markets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Currently ~50 full-time staff, growing </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborations with government, academia, industry, and NGOs </li></ul>Microsoft Research India Sadashivnagar, Bangalore http://research.microsoft.com/india
    • 5. Technology for Emerging Markets <ul><li>Understand potential technology users in economically poor communities </li></ul><ul><li>Adapt, invent, or design applications that contribute to socio-economic development of poor communities worldwide </li></ul>Computer-skills camp in Nakalabande, Bangalore (MSR India, Stree Jagruti Samiti, St. Joseph’s College) Research Goals
    • 6. Interdisciplinary Research Aishwarya Lakshmi Ratan – Public Administration and International Development Jonathan Donner – Communications Nimmi Rangaswamy – Social Anthropology Rajesh Veeraraghavan – Computer Science and Economics Archana Prasad – Animation and Design Kentaro Toyama – Computer Science Randy Wang Udai Singh Pawar – – Computer Science Physics Society Group Technology Individual Society Group Technology Individual Innovation Understanding Impact Innovation Understanding Impact Rikin Gandhi – Astrophysics Indrani Medhi Design –
    • 7. Warana Unwired Rural Microfinance and IT Rural Kiosk Entrepreneurs Simultaneous Shared Access Digital Study Hall IT and Microentrepreneurs Government and Kiosks Udai Singh Pawar Associate Researcher Randy Wang Researcher Jonathan Donner Researcher Aishwarya Lakshmi Ratan Associate Researcher Nimmi Rangaswamy Associate Researcher Rajesh Veeraraghavan Associate Researcher Renee Kuriyan Research Intern Information ecology of small businesses in developing markets Multiplying the value of PCs by allowing many users to access. DVD exchange over postal service and TVs as display for rural education Study on the challenges and uniqueness of rural kiosk entrepreneurs Experiments with computing and communication systems in agriculture The state’s role in rural kiosk projects, with a focus on Kerala and Andhra Text-Free UI Indrani Medhi Assistant Researcher UIs without text for users who are illliterate and may never have seen a computer before Can computers help existing structures for rural microfinance? Sample Projects MSR India: TEM
    • 8. Outline <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Three Projects from MSR India </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microfinance and Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warana Unwired </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simultaneous Shared Access </li></ul></ul>
    • 9. Microfinance and Technology Aishwarya Ratan
    • 10. Exploratory Studies <ul><li>Site visits: </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews with… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Institution heads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MFI agents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clients </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Participant observation </li></ul><ul><li>Accounts and records </li></ul><ul><li>Microfinance Institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Pradan </li></ul><ul><li>Ujjivan </li></ul><ul><li>Sanghamitra </li></ul><ul><li>CCD Mahakalasam </li></ul><ul><li>BASIX </li></ul>
    • 11. Uses of Microfinance <ul><li>Sustenance (40%) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fulfil basic consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect against shocks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access lumpsums for lifecycle needs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Growth (60%) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enterprise (30%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buildup assets: education, home (30%) </li></ul></ul>
    • 12. 5 members 12-20 members 24-36% APR NGO facilitator Cooperative RS. @ 9-12% APR The group is the MFI Interest accrues to member-borrowers ~33 mn outreach in India Less profitable More welfare focused – flexible payments Most common model in India Commercial RS. RS. @ 9-12% APR @ 24-36% APR External provider is the MFI Interest accrues to 3 rd party intermediary ~8 mn outreach in India More profitable More commercially focused – EMI payments Most common model worldwide MFI Models of Microfinance
    • 13. Case: PRADAN’s Computer Munshi experiment <ul><li>Problem area </li></ul><ul><li>Poor quality of financial data </li></ul><ul><li>No aggregate record </li></ul><ul><li>Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Costs associated with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time spent on accounting each week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mistakes discovered at annual audit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve SHG data quality &amp; aggregate data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outsource weekly accounting function – create sustainable business model </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have an Accountant with a PC serve a Federation of SHGs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charge nominal fee for data processing service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use manual transport to ferry data back and forth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weekly meeting time cut by half </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instant evaluation of financial performance of large group of SHGs possible </li></ul></ul>Original workflow Improved workflow (90,000 rural clients, EAST/CENTRAL India) Weekly collections Book-keeping done locally Annual auditing by NGO Weekly collections Copy of transaction record put in drop-box CM updates records &amp; prints balances &amp; dues Annual auditing by NGO
    • 14. Can technology assist microfinance? <ul><li>Front-end IS </li></ul><ul><li>Account creation (loan, savings &amp; insurance) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collecting client data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Screening/ verification </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transaction data </li></ul><ul><li>Processing claims (savings, transfers &amp; insurance) </li></ul><ul><li>Back-end IS </li></ul><ul><li>Aggregation of client data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actuarial analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Target offerings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>E-payments </li></ul><ul><li>Enabling e-cash transactions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disbursal of amount (loan) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collection of dues/ payments (loan, savings &amp; insurance) </li></ul></ul></ul>YES! MAYBE! TOUGH!
    • 15. Outline <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Three Projects from MSR India </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microfinance and Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warana Unwired </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simultaneous Shared Access </li></ul></ul>
    • 16. Warana Unwired Rajesh Veeraraghavan
    • 17. <ul><li>Over 60% of population in agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly small and marginal farmers with 1-3 acres of land </li></ul><ul><li>Average income of $1-2 per day </li></ul>Agriculture in India
    • 18. Sugarcane  Sugar 70 villages, 70000 farmers Asia’s first “Bridging Digital Divide” pilot ! (1998) Started with ethnographic studies… “ Warana Wired Village Project”
    • 19. Factory FTP FTP FTP PC Warana Farmer DB Standard PC network Weigh stations Landline phone PC enabled Kiosks 54 kiosks in 54 villages Cost: Rs.2.5 crores (US$500,000) “ Warana Wired Village Project”
    • 20. <ul><li>Internet access to farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Check market price information </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural expert system </li></ul><ul><li>Automate land records </li></ul><ul><li>Other crazy dreams! </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Original Goals
    • 21. <ul><li>Internal account MIS: </li></ul><ul><li>Register land </li></ul><ul><li>Issues harvesting permit </li></ul><ul><li>Buy fertilizer through credit </li></ul><ul><li>Get paystub </li></ul><ul><li>Query quantity of sugarcane </li></ul><ul><li>harvested </li></ul>Actual Use
    • 22. <ul><li>High maintenance cost </li></ul><ul><li>Intermittent power </li></ul><ul><li>Network flaky </li></ul><ul><li>PC not optimally used! </li></ul>Mounting Challenges
    • 23. <ul><li>Can we preserve the functionality of the existing PC based system while making the entire system cheaper and more effective? </li></ul>The Problem
    • 24. The Solution: Warana Unwired! SMS-enabled mobile phones PC-based kiosks
    • 25. Factory FTP FTP FTP PC Warana Farmer DB Standard PC network Weigh stations Landline phone PC-enabled kiosks Original PC-Based Set-Up
    • 26. Factory PC Warana Farmer DB Standard PC network Weigh stations SMS-enabled phones New Mobile-Based Set-Up Windows Mobile Remote APIs SMS SMS SMS GSM/CDMA SMS network
    • 27. <ul><li>24-hour access to services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6000 SMS processed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>80% of requests for getting sugarcane </li></ul><ul><li>output </li></ul><ul><li>1238 unique farmer requests </li></ul><ul><li>Response time on harvesting data. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Original: 15 days  PC: 2 days  Mobile: immediate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Telcos’ interest has perked up. </li></ul><ul><li>Neighboring cooperatives have expressed interest. </li></ul>Warana Unwired – Results
    • 28. Units: Rs Savings over PCs 1 million Rupees /54 villages/1 year ($22,000) Costs System Cost/Farmer/Year New PC System 394 Existing PC System 177 SMS Mobile (kiosks) 159 GPRS(kiosks) 139 SMS Mobile(without kiosks) 111 GPRS ( no kiosks) 91
    • 29. &nbsp;
    • 30. <ul><li>Disbelief to Joy: </li></ul><ul><li>Farmer from Satve village: Initial Disbelief ! </li></ul><ul><li>Once he sees it on the phone! he gets excited and says: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Barabar hai, eh tho bahuth accha hai.” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ The information is exact and it is very good.” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Demands from other nearby villages:   </li></ul><ul><li>Farmer from Angali village: Demands access ! </li></ul><ul><li>We were trying to tell them we need to really test to see whether this works successfully, the farmer replied: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  “ I saw messages are coming on the mobile phone. There is no problem. So where is the question of success? ” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Farmer Response
    • 31. <ul><li>So far: </li></ul><ul><li>Successful replacement of kiosks in seven villages. System in operation since October 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion to other villages in cooperative </li></ul><ul><li>To do: </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of feedback and surveys for concrete impact </li></ul><ul><li>Pilots with other cooperatives </li></ul>Status
    • 32. Outline <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Three Projects from MSR India </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microfinance and Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warana Unwired </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simultaneous Shared Access </li></ul></ul>
    • 33. Simultaneous Shared Access PCs Udai Singh Pawar Kentaro Toyama
    • 34. At school after school… One PC, many children.
    • 35. Solution: MultiPoint <ul><li>Provide a mouse for every student </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One cursor for each mouse, with different colours or shapes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USB mice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have tried up to 20 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content modified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Game-like environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Early research work by Bier (1991), Inkpen (1995), and others. </li></ul>
    • 36. MultiPoint
    • 37. MultiPoint: Status <ul><li>Experimental results: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children understand and enjoy multiple mice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On rote memorization tasks, games can be designed to allow as much learning as with one-PC-per-child </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong gender differences w.r.t. sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Publications in ICTD2006, CHI2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft SDK shipped June 2007! </li></ul><ul><li>“ Mouse on Each Desk” project in Education Technologies group </li></ul><ul><li>Ongoing work with Azim Premji Foundation </li></ul>Before After
    • 38. Split Screen
    • 39. Multi-Monitor
    • 40. Continuum of Sharing Shared PC Nothing personal Personal mouse (MultiPoint) Shared processor, monitor &amp; keyboard Shared processor &amp; monitor Shared processor Nothing shared Personal mouse &amp; keyboard (Split Screen) Personal mouse, keyboard &amp; monitor (Thin client/ Multi-Monitor) True personal computer
    • 41. Summary <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Three Projects from MSR India </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microfinance and Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warana Unwired </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simultaneous Shared Access </li></ul></ul>Increasing use of technology Technology’s relevance not always clear
    • 42. ICTD Conference <ul><li>Co-organized by MSR India, UC Berkeley, IIIT-Bangalore, MIT, CMU </li></ul><ul><li>First: May 25-26, 2006, Berkeley, CA </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on rigorous academic work, with all papers double-blind peer-reviewed </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing a community of academic researchers in technology for development </li></ul><ul><li>Next one in December 15-16, 2007 Bangalore, India </li></ul>UC Berkeley, site of ICTD 2006 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies and Development
    • 43. Thank you! <ul><li>http://research.microsoft.com/research/tem </li></ul>

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