Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Networks Alex Burns Senior Researcher, Smart Internet Technology CRC
Overview <ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>What are Peer-to-Peer (p2p) networks? </li></ul><ul><li>Social Implications (Sp...
Part 1: P2P Technology
History <ul><li>Internet infrastructure was a precursor to Peer-to-Peer (P2P) and distributed computing principles </li></...
P2P Networks <ul><li>Replaced the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) and Gopher </li></ul><ul><li>Differs from centralised Clien...
Vaidhyanathan’s P2P Criteria <ul><li>Siva Vaidhyanathan defines ‘distributed’ P2P systems as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ End-...
Part 2: Legal and Social Implications
Implications 1: Debora Spar <ul><li>Harvard Business School professor </li></ul><ul><li>Author of  Riding The Waves  (2003...
Phase 1: Innovation <ul><li>‘ The sexiest phase along the technological frontier’ </li></ul><ul><li>Tinkerers, inventors, ...
Phase 2: Commercialisation <ul><li>‘ The defining moment of the frontier economy’ </li></ul><ul><li>Libertarian politics a...
Phase 3: Creative Anarchy <ul><li>‘ Creative anarchy is the most frustrating stage’ </li></ul><ul><li>Chaos Rules school e...
Phase 4: Rules <ul><li>‘ Rules get created because private firms want them’ </li></ul><ul><li>Initiative may come from com...
<ul><li>Associate Professor at New York University </li></ul><ul><li>Author of  The Anarchist In The Library  (2004) </li>...
Vaidhyanathan’s P2P Critique <ul><li>Tension between hypercapitalism and knowledge creation </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges ‘...
Napster <ul><li>Created by Shawn Fanning in 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>Touted as ‘disruptive’ technology (Clayton M. Christens...
<ul><li>‘ Napsterisation’ touted as business model by press </li></ul><ul><li>Scrutiny of music industry ‘standard operati...
BitTorrent <ul><li>Created by programmer Bram Cohen in 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>A P2P distribution protocol and client appli...
Hyperdistribution <ul><li>Coined by VRML creator Mark Pesce </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant to Negroponte’s ‘atoms’ versus ‘bit...
Recent P2P Rulings <ul><li>MGM v Grokster and Streamcast Technologies  (27 June 2005) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involved 28 en...
Michael Geist’s P2P Myths <ul><li>University of Ottawa’s Michael Geist offers P2P Myths: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Music indus...
P2P and Internet Futures <ul><li>‘ P2P Civilization’ meme (Integral theorist Michel Bauwens) </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced ...
Part 3: Case Studies
P2P and Digital Homes <ul><li>Rich Media school of thought </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Hollywood’s preferred vision </li></u...
Digital Television Content <ul><li>SciFi Network’s  Battlestar Galactica  mini-series (2003) was distributed by U.K. fans ...
Outfoxed  (2004) <ul><li>Robert Greenwald’s  Outfoxed  (2004) critiques Fox Networks’ news bias.  Outfoxed  book released ...
P2P Collaborative Research <ul><li>Center For Cooperative Research (www.cooperativeresearch.org) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Colla...
The Power Of Nightmares  (2004) <ul><li>Controversial  9/11  historiography documentary by BBC producer Adam Curtis </li><...
Nine Inch Nails: ‘Only’ (2005) <ul><li>Single (2005) by industrial band Nine Inch Nails </li></ul><ul><li>Trent Reznor rel...
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Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Networks

  1. 1. Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Networks Alex Burns Senior Researcher, Smart Internet Technology CRC
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>What are Peer-to-Peer (p2p) networks? </li></ul><ul><li>Social Implications (Spar and Vaidhyanathan) </li></ul><ul><li>Napster, BitTorrent, and Hyperdistribution </li></ul><ul><li>Case Studies </li></ul>
  3. 3. Part 1: P2P Technology
  4. 4. History <ul><li>Internet infrastructure was a precursor to Peer-to-Peer (P2P) and distributed computing principles </li></ul><ul><li>P2P applied in industry applications (e-health and science) </li></ul><ul><li>Became prominent in late 1990s across college campuses </li></ul><ul><li>Illegal file-sharing as ‘killer app’ (Napster, Grokster, Kazaa) </li></ul><ul><li>Has relationship with multimedia file formats </li></ul><ul><li>Has coevolved with Digital Culture </li></ul>
  5. 5. P2P Networks <ul><li>Replaced the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) and Gopher </li></ul><ul><li>Differs from centralised Client-Server architecture </li></ul><ul><li>With P2P, each computer is both a server for remote users and a client to download files (Jason Whittaker) </li></ul><ul><li>Allows users to run programs that turn their computers into servers on a distributed network </li></ul><ul><li>SETI@Home introduced many netizens to pseudo-P2P ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Taps into Metcalfe’s Law and Reed’s Law (exponential value of more users and the power of distributed groups) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Vaidhyanathan’s P2P Criteria <ul><li>Siva Vaidhyanathan defines ‘distributed’ P2P systems as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ End-to-end’ design: involves a PC or person as end-point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Decentralised’: Resources spread out, can flow through system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Anti-authoritarian’: Not subject to ‘command-and-control’ structures, developed by hackers, mavens, and pioneers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Difficult to manage’: Removing content and users is impossible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Extensible’: Open access to many, node structure, work via protocols, comparable to diaspora population </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Part 2: Legal and Social Implications
  8. 8. Implications 1: Debora Spar <ul><li>Harvard Business School professor </li></ul><ul><li>Author of Riding The Waves (2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Neo-Marxist model of technological diffusion into society </li></ul><ul><li>Suggests the ‘Technological Frontier’ has political battles </li></ul><ul><li>How commerce and politics ‘cross-impact’ on innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Case studies on radio, digital television, the Microsoft antitrust suit, and Internet file-sharing services </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Why rules get established along the technological frontier, and who plays the greatest role in their creation’ </li></ul>
  9. 9. Phase 1: Innovation <ul><li>‘ The sexiest phase along the technological frontier’ </li></ul><ul><li>Tinkerers, inventors, and discoverers </li></ul><ul><li>Visionaries and Early Adopters (Geoffrey Moore) </li></ul><ul><li>Small and specialised groups, non-commercial use </li></ul><ul><li>Research labs and technology consortiums </li></ul><ul><li>‘ No rules because none is needed’ </li></ul><ul><li>Government regulation still possible at early phase </li></ul><ul><li>‘ In many ways the most peaceful . . . Often ends abruptly’ </li></ul>
  10. 10. Phase 2: Commercialisation <ul><li>‘ The defining moment of the frontier economy’ </li></ul><ul><li>Libertarian politics as the norm </li></ul><ul><li>Pioneers, Pirates, Marshals, Outlaws, Dotcom Entrepreneurs </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on Venture Capitalists and prototype-to-market </li></ul><ul><li>Depicted in Jehane Noujaim’s film Startup.com (2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Shift to early mainstream in pursuit of profits (Geoffrey Moore) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ During these times of technological flux, the rules are just too flimsy’ </li></ul><ul><li>Cryptography and hacker debate in ‘arms race’ with regulators (Kevin Mitnick, Philip Zimmerman, Bruce Schneier) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Phase 3: Creative Anarchy <ul><li>‘ Creative anarchy is the most frustrating stage’ </li></ul><ul><li>Chaos Rules school emerges as significant barrier </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Tragedy of the Commons’ scenario </li></ul><ul><li>Shift from libertarian politics to laissez-faire markets </li></ul><ul><li>Standards coordination and ‘hypercompetition’ as problems </li></ul><ul><li>Legal battles over Intellectual Property rights and ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Early pioneers are outwitted by entrepreneurs </li></ul><ul><li>Technology maturity: diffusion pressure for mainstream </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Digital Natives’ create enclaves to survive </li></ul>
  12. 12. Phase 4: Rules <ul><li>‘ Rules get created because private firms want them’ </li></ul><ul><li>Initiative may come from companies, nation-state, groups </li></ul><ul><li>Embed politics in markets: access, power, social norms </li></ul><ul><li>Shift from firms to self-regulation or government intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Government involvement necessary to enforce rules </li></ul><ul><li>Professional groups for codifying international standards </li></ul><ul><li>Firms ‘use the state to preserve its own commercial empire’ </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. DoJ v Microsoft antitrust suit </li></ul><ul><li>Napster, Grokster, and Kazaa court rulings </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Associate Professor at New York University </li></ul><ul><li>Author of The Anarchist In The Library (2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by political philosopher Robert Nozick </li></ul><ul><li>Coevolutionary model of technology and users </li></ul><ul><li>Interested in ‘the ideology of P2P’ (Jack M. Balkin) </li></ul><ul><li>P2P as ‘alternative future’ to Dotcom-era visions </li></ul><ul><li>Posits an ‘access versus ownership’ debate </li></ul><ul><li>Warns of ‘bleed-through’ when online debates have serious ‘offline’ implications (legal precedents, social norms) </li></ul>Implications 2: Siva Vaidhyanathan
  14. 14. Vaidhyanathan’s P2P Critique <ul><li>Tension between hypercapitalism and knowledge creation </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges ‘artificial scarcity’ </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages ‘inconspicuous consumption’ and ‘conspicuous production’ </li></ul><ul><li>Distinction between P2P use and real piracy </li></ul><ul><li>Transborder networks may harness creativity and global flows </li></ul><ul><li>P2P like any other technology alters our online environment </li></ul><ul><li>Is contract law obsolete or misplaced? </li></ul><ul><li>What do the industry debates reveal about P2P ethics? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Napster <ul><li>Created by Shawn Fanning in 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>Touted as ‘disruptive’ technology (Clayton M. Christensen) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Jukebox in the Sky’ fears for music industry </li></ul><ul><li>Counter-attack spearheaded by Metallica’s Lars Ulrich </li></ul><ul><li>26.4 million users in February 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Ninth Court Circuit injunction on 5 March 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Acquired by Roxio Inc. and used to rebrand PressPlay service as Napster 2.0 subscription service </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>‘ Napsterisation’ touted as business model by press </li></ul><ul><li>Scrutiny of music industry ‘standard operating procedures’ </li></ul><ul><li>Second generation services: Grokster, Kazaa </li></ul><ul><li>Led to BitTorrent as a true P2P alternative </li></ul><ul><li>Established MP3 as a major audio file format (standards) </li></ul><ul><li>Helped to create market for Apple iPod player </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on digital and mobile phone cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Wired Magazine promotes ‘remix cultures’ (2005) </li></ul>Napster Outcomes
  17. 17. BitTorrent <ul><li>Created by programmer Bram Cohen in 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>A P2P distribution protocol and client application </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Seeds’ files into distributed ‘packets’ over many computers </li></ul><ul><li>Additional ‘seeds’ creates more bandwidth </li></ul><ul><li>Client software such as Azureus </li></ul><ul><li>Accounts for 20-30% of total broadband traffic (estimates) </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts to shutdown major ‘Torrent’ sites </li></ul><ul><li>Popularised anime and manga in West </li></ul>
  18. 18. Hyperdistribution <ul><li>Coined by VRML creator Mark Pesce </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant to Negroponte’s ‘atoms’ versus ‘bits’ </li></ul><ul><li>BitTorrent-enabled content distribution </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Disruptive’ to traditional media distribution practices </li></ul><ul><li>Battlestar Galactica and Doctor Who cases </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities for ‘indie’ distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Avoids institutional bottlenecks and gridlock </li></ul><ul><li>‘ The Napsterization of Everything’ (Mary Hodder) </li></ul><ul><li>Blogs + P2P Democracy (Howard Dean’s PR maven Joe Trippi) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Recent P2P Rulings <ul><li>MGM v Grokster and Streamcast Technologies (27 June 2005) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involved 28 entertainment companies as litigants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic Freedom Foundation defended Grokster and Streamcast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P2P software manufacturers liable for infringing users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarification on 1984 Sony Betamax case </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inducement theory of copyright liability (new precedent) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk that manufacturers have to modify technologies for Hollywood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Universal Music v Sharman Networks (5 September 2005) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orders Kazaa to implement software provisions immediately </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kazaa must use filters to prevent searches for illegal software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoided the Trade Practices Act statutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kazaa likely to appeal to High Court of Australia </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Michael Geist’s P2P Myths <ul><li>University of Ottawa’s Michael Geist offers P2P Myths: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Music industry is suffering financial losses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is directly attributable to illegal file-sharing using P2P </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Losses have impacted on commercial artists and musicians </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accurate downloading figures are difficult to determine </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge to over-priced CD format and Wal Mart retail </li></ul><ul><li>Decline may reflect broader economic concessions </li></ul><ul><li>Music industry fails to deal with artist contracts and royalties </li></ul><ul><li>P2P presents an opportunity for independent companies </li></ul>
  21. 21. P2P and Internet Futures <ul><li>‘ P2P Civilization’ meme (Integral theorist Michel Bauwens) </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by Catholic theologian Pierre Teilhard de Chardin and his writings on the ‘noosphere’: The Phenomenon of Man (1956) and The Future of Man (1959) </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Futures: ‘P2P Civilization’ meme (Michel Bauwens) and the ‘noosphere’ (Pierre Teilhard de Chardin) </li></ul><ul><li>Teilhard de Chardin later interpreted by techno-futurists as ‘mystical McLuhan’ </li></ul><ul><li>P2P as technological infrastructure for Global Brain consciousness (Peter Russell, Willis Harman, Howard Bloom, Robert Wright) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Part 3: Case Studies
  23. 23. P2P and Digital Homes <ul><li>Rich Media school of thought </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Hollywood’s preferred vision </li></ul><ul><li>P2P integrated with new Broadband-enabled entertainment console (Microsoft Xbox 360 and Sony PlayStation 3) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Always connected, always personalized, and always in high-definition’ (Microsoft, GDCA, 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Broader gamer demographics than ‘youthful’ stereotype </li></ul>
  24. 24. Digital Television Content <ul><li>SciFi Network’s Battlestar Galactica mini-series (2003) was distributed by U.K. fans on BitTorrent before its U.S. screening </li></ul><ul><li>SciFi Network developed ancillary content for digital television viewers </li></ul><ul><li>Visionaries/Early Adopters used ‘viral marketing’ to promote the program </li></ul><ul><li>Synergies between P2P use and Digital Culture fandom </li></ul><ul><li>Producers forced to release first episodes of Battlestar Galactica series online </li></ul>
  25. 25. Outfoxed (2004) <ul><li>Robert Greenwald’s Outfoxed (2004) critiques Fox Networks’ news bias. Outfoxed book released in 2005 by Alexandra Kitty. </li></ul><ul><li>Used web communities to tape and analyse one month of Fox’s broadcasts (P2P and social networks) </li></ul><ul><li>DVD and theatrical distribution avoided distribution problems: inspired by P2P strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Greenwald has released his interview footage under a Creative Commons license for remixing/sampling (Open Source) </li></ul><ul><li>New documentary Wal Mart: The High Cost Of Low Price (November 2005) leverages P2P during production and post-production </li></ul>
  26. 26. P2P Collaborative Research <ul><li>Center For Cooperative Research (www.cooperativeresearch.org) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Collaborative investigations at grassroots level’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Open-content model for public historical record’ </li></ul><ul><li>Critiques the 9/11 Commission Report using official documents + agenda-setting news sources </li></ul><ul><li>Paul Thompson’s Terror Timeline (2004) </li></ul><ul><li>New projects: Iraq and Iran Timelines </li></ul><ul><li>Public collaboration model inspired by ‘P2P Ideology’: critique of elite media strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on information acquisition and production </li></ul>
  27. 27. The Power Of Nightmares (2004) <ul><li>Controversial 9/11 historiography documentary by BBC producer Adam Curtis </li></ul><ul><li>Refused distribution in United States and other major territories </li></ul><ul><li>Australian television broadcast by SBS delayed due to London bombings on 7 July 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Low-resolution ‘bootleg’ copy released online by InformationClearinghouse.info </li></ul><ul><li>BitTorrent and Archive.org distribute copies obtained from BBC digital television broadcasts </li></ul><ul><li>Grand Prix competition at 2005 Cannes Film Festival </li></ul><ul><li>Pathe negotiates theatrical release for 2 ½ hour cut </li></ul>
  28. 28. Nine Inch Nails: ‘Only’ (2005) <ul><li>Single (2005) by industrial band Nine Inch Nails </li></ul><ul><li>Trent Reznor released master multitrack sessions in 4 formats (incl. ProTools, GarageBand, and Acid) programs </li></ul><ul><li>Enables fans to remix single into different versions: ‘conspicuous production’ (Vaidhyanathan) </li></ul><ul><li>Example of using pseudo-P2P for ‘User-led Innovation’ (Eric von Hippel) </li></ul><ul><li>Pseudo-P2P used as ‘Sustaining’ technology to thwart illegal downloads and engage with fans </li></ul>
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