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Transcript

  • 1. Network Troubleshooting/NMS
  • 2. Client Networking  MAC  IP Settings • IP • Netmask/Subnet Mask • Gateway • DNS  Tools • ipconfig • Winipcfg • nslookup • telnet • ping • tracert
  • 3. Client Networking - MAC  MAC Address • Media Access Control • 48 bits • Represented as 12 hexadecimal characters or 6 delimited octets (in hex)
  • 4. Client Networking – IP Settings  IP Address • 32 bits • Represented as 4 octets separated by periods  Subnet Mask • Bit mask to determine network, broadcast and local addresses
  • 5. Client Networking – IP Settings  Gateway – Default Route • If the address is not within the local network it is sent to the default route address • UI network standards use the first usable network IP address as the gateway  DNS – Domain Name System • Resolves human readable name to IP address
  • 6. Client Networking - Tools  ipconfig
  • 7. Client Networking - Tools  ipconfig /all | more
  • 8. Client Networking - Tools  winipcfg
  • 9. Client Networking - Tools  winipcfg – More Info
  • 10. Client Networking - Tools  Nslookup • Windows NT/2000/XP • Displays DNS information – Includes CNAME/Aliases – Can be used for alternate DNS attribute lookup • No arguments enters interactive mode
  • 11. Client Networking - Tools  Nslookup
  • 12. Client Networking - Tools  Nslookup
  • 13. Client Networking - Tools  telnet • Useful for connecting to tcp service ports • telnet <hostname> <port or service name> • Uses local services file to resolve port • Some common service names and ports – smtp = 25 – pop = 110 – imap = 143  telnet smtp.uidaho.edu smtp
  • 14. Client Networking - Tools  ping • Packet INternet Groper • Sends ICMP echo requests to remote host • Not always reliable, use telnet if possible • ping <hostname or ip address> • ping –t <host> (continuous ping)
  • 15. Client Networking - Tools  ping
  • 16. Client Networking - Tools  ping • Using ping for troubleshooting – ping 127.0.0.1  Tests local tcp/ip stack – ping <local ip>  Tests hardware/network device driver – ping <gateway>  Tests local subnet communication – ping <remote ip>  Tests complete trip to destination • Warning: using a host name relies on name resolution
  • 17. Client Networking - Tools  tracert (traceroute) • Uses ICMP • Displays hops/routes in path to host
  • 18. NMS  Navigation • Physical Layer • Network Layer • Looking Up Information – Wallplate – Network – MAC • Entering Information  Troubleshooting • MAC Record on Proper Network • View Port Counters
  • 19. NMS - Navigation  Physical Layer (physical assets) • Buildings, closets, hubs, hub ports, wallplates  Network Layer (logical assets) • Networks, MAC records, Domains
  • 20. NMS - Navigation  Wallplate • Format: <building><closet><room><wallplate><port> • Example: – 001a132-01b – Building = 001 – Closet = A – Room = 132 (pad to 4 characters with hyphen) – Wallplate = 01 – Port = B (most ports are A = top, B = middle, C = bottom)  UI standards are to populate A with phone, B with data and leave C available. Phones or data can be used in ANY port
  • 21. NMS - Navigation  Wallplate • Searching for a wallplate will return its hub/switch port or phone association. • “No reference to wiring code” means there is either no association/patch or the wallplate does not exist. Leave off the port to see if the wallplate is valid (ex. 001a132-01) • A hub/switch port is the location on the hub/switch device where the wallplate terminates. • Hub Port Format: <building><closet><stack><stack unit><port> – Example: 001a1106 – Building = 001 – Closet = A – Stack = 1 – Stack Unit = 1 (switches cannot be stacked so they are always 1) – Port = 06
  • 22. NMS - Navigation  VLAN • Virtual LAN – The ability to connect multiple devices together as though they were on the same physical network, regardless of the true underlying network • All NMS “networks” are part of defined VLANs • NMS currently lacks the ability to lookup VLANs and the networks contained within a VLAN • The gateway for a network will show the VLAN the network is a member of
  • 23. NMS - Navigation  Network • 129.101 is a B class IP network • UI subnets 129.101 into 4 subnet classes – A = 1024 addresses (255.255.240.0) – B = 256 addresses (255.255.255.0) – C = 64 addresses (255.255.255.192) – D = 16 addresses (255.255.255.240) • Currently each MAC record resides in a single network • Each hub/switch port is on a single “network” • Networks can have multiple alternate/secondary networks – part of the same “VLAN”
  • 24. NMS - Navigation  Network • Determine the network by clicking “Up to Hub” when viewing a hub/switch port. The default network for the device is displayed. – Warning: switches can be in multiple networks. The default network is not necessarily the same as the port. View port counters will display the vlan for the switch port.
  • 25. NMS - Navigation  MAC • MAC records can be found through mac address, ip or dns name. • Records are associated with a single network. • Network history is determined by an active process running every few minutes scanning network devices. – Warning: network history may not be correct due to a number of issues (if the remote system was on at the time of polling, if the hub/switch is capable of being polled). Use “View Port Counters” to view real-time usage.
  • 26. NMS - Navigation  MAC • Creating MAC Records – Determine proper network based on wallplate – Select “Create a new MAC record” on main network layer menu or select “Create a MAC record on this network” after select “Up to Hub”. – MAC record information is propagated to all services in ~10 minutes.
  • 27. NMS - Navigation  Troubleshooting • MAC record is not on the proper network – View wallplate and hub default network to determine proper network (or secondary network) • View Port Counters – Link signal can be used to determine proper wallpate to port association – Current known MAC address – Number of errors
  • 28. NMS - Navigation  Troubleshooting • NRG Graphs under “Port number” – When viewing a port/wallplate id, the “Port number” is linked to NRG graph data for network activity on the port

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