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Madhuri Velugotla-ZigBee_Final.ppt Madhuri Velugotla-ZigBee_Final.ppt Presentation Transcript

  • ZIGBEE-An 1EEE 802.15.4 STANDARD MADHURI VELUGOTLA Masters in ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING [email_address]
  • OUTLINE
    • INTRODUCTION
    • MOTIVATION AND ORIGIN
    • PREDECESSORS AND CONTENDERS
    • ZIGBEE FEATURES
    • IEEE 802.15.4 STANDARD IN ZIGBEE
    • ZIGBEE WIRELESS NETWORKING IMPLEMENTATION
    • COMPARISON OF ZIGBEE WITH EXISTING STANDARDS
    • ZIGBEE COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
  • INTRODUCTION
    • ZigBee is an open global standard providing wireless networking based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard and taking full advantage of a powerful physical radio this standard specifies. ZigBee is the result of collaborative efforts by a global consortium of companies known as the ZigBee Alliance.
    • The ZigBee 1.0 specification-December 14, 2004,called Zigbee 2004 (obsolete).
    • ZigBee 2007 specification-October 30, 2007, called Zigbee 2007 (currently in use).
            • 2 stack profiles-Zigbee, Zigbee pro.
            • Zigbee- smaller footprint in RAM and flash-home and light commercial use.
            • Zigbee pro- higher end features with higher security (with SKKE)
    • First ZigBee Application Profile, Home Automation, was announced November 2, 2007.
  • MOTIVATION
    • Requirement of
            • Low cost
            • Less power consumption
            • Wireless network
            • Transmit smaller packets over large networks; mostly static networks with many, infrequently used devices.
            • Ability to handle a large number of devices.
    • ORIGIN:
        • ZigBee is the set of specs built around the IEEE 802.15.4 wireless protocol.
        • The name "ZigBee" is derived from the erratic zigzag patterns many bees make between flowers when collecting pollen. This is evocative of the invisible webs of connections existing in a fully wireless environment.
        • The standard itself is regulated by a group known as the ZigBee Alliance, with over 150 members worldwide.
  • PREDECESSORS and CONTENDERS:
    • Wired Sensors:
    • X-10:
    • Introduced in 1978.
    • Uses power line wiring to send and receive commands.
    • Power line carrier transmission.
    • Data rate-60bps(too slow), high redundancy, unreliable, poor security.
    • Wi-Fi:
    • Higher bandwidth support
    • Power thirsty features
    • Bluetooth:
    • Effort to cover more applications and QoS-deviated from design goal of simplicity.
    • Expensive, higher power consumption -inappropriate for simple applications.
    • 2.4GHz ISM band, range-(10-100)m at 720 Kbps-needs power boost.
    • 8 devices-scalability problems.
    • Infrared:
    • Most common since a decade for automating home appliances.
    • Typical household uses ~ (5-10) remote commanders.
    • Not Interchangeable, cannot support more than one device.
    • Z-wave:
    • Wireless RF-based communications technology-proposed in early 2005 by Zensys Inc.
    • Does not interfere as Zigbee does with Wi-Fi..
  • ZIGBEE FEATURES
    • RELIABILITY:
    • Channel access mechanism is CSMA-CA
    • Industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands
    • 27 channels- 3 separate frequency bands
    • No license required for any of the channels .
    • BATTERY LIFE:
    • Very low duty cycle.
    • Few months to many years-transmitter output power is -3dBm (0.5mW)
    • Power saving modes
    • Battery optimized network parameters
            • Selection of beacon intervals
            • Guaranteed time slots
            • Enablement/Disablement options
    O-QPSK (11-26) 250KBPS (2.405-2.48)MHz (industrial) BAND WORLDWIDE B/QPSK (1-10) 40KBPS (908-928)MHz (scientific) BAND USA B/QPSK 0 20KBPS 868 MHz (Medical) band EUROPE MODULATION USED CHANNEL NUMBER(S) DATA RATE frequency band GEOGRAPHIC REGION
  • ZIGBEE FEATURES (Contd.)
    • COST:
    • Flexibility
    • Assortment of tradeoffs to optimize cost with respect to system performance
    • Ex: Battery life at the expense of service interval
    • Node cost and complexity at the cost of network complexity
    • System simplicity and flexibility make Zigbee more cost affective.
    • Zigbee-compliant transceiver-$1 and radio, processor, and memory package is about $3
    • TRANSMISSION RANGE:
    • Short range wireless standard.
    • At -3dBm transmitter output power- Single hop ranges from (10-100)m.
    • Factors-Environment, antenna and operating frequency.
    • Multi-hop and flexible routing-greater transmission ranges than single hop.
    • DATA RATE AND LATENCY:
    • Greater battery life needs higher data rate.
    • Higher data rate allows system to shut down more quickly- saves significant power.
    • Higher data rate implies less energy per transmitted bit which implies reduced range.
    • Latency for simple star networks is ~16ms.
    • Tradeoff-Data latency affects battery life, increases interference.
  • ZIGBEE FEATURES (Contd.)
    • SIZE OF A ZIGBEE NETWORK:
    • 264 devices
    • 64 bit IEEE address
    • 65,000 nodes could be configured with reduced address overhead.
    • DATA SECURITY:
    • Security suite lets you choose the security necessary for application.
    • Security is provided through
          • Access control lists.
          • 32-bit to 128-bit AES encryption.
    • Benefits
          • Access control
          • Data encryption
          • Frame integrity
          • Sequential Freshness .
    • Tradeoffs- data volume, battery life, system processing power requirements.
    • Zigbee security toolbox
  • IEEE 802.15.4 (Contd.) From: Tim Cutler, “Implementing ZigBee wireless mesh networking”, Industrial Automation
  • IEEE 802.15.4
    • LR-WPAN:KEY FEATURES IEEE 802.15.4 Architecture
    • Over the air data rates in 27 channels of 3 bands.
    • Star/Peer to peer operation
    • 16 bit short/ 64 bits extended addressing.
    • Guaranteed time slots.
    • CSMA-CA
    • Low power consumption
    • Energy Detection and Link Quality Indication
    • Architecture:
    • Defines only PHY and MAC layers.
    From: ZigBee Tutorial, http://www.ifn.et.tu-dresden.de/~marandin/ZigBee/ZigBeeTutorial.html
  • IEEE 802.15.4 (Contd.)
    • SERVICE PRIMITIVES (SP):
    • Conveys the required information by providing a particular service.
    • Each Service Primitive has 0 or more parameters.
    • GENERIC TYPES:
    • Request
    • Indication
    • Response
    • Confirm
    • IEEE 802.15.4 defines
    • 14 PHY primitives
    • 35 MAC primitives
  • IEEE 802.15.4 (Contd.)
    • PHYSICAL LAYER Functions and SP:
    • Activation and Deactivation of the radio transceiver
            • PLME-SET-TRX-STATE. request
            • PLME-SET-TRX-STATE. confirm
    • Energy Detection
            • PLME-ED. request
            • PLME-ED. confirm
    • Link Quality Indication Measurement
            • PLME-GET. Request
            • PLME-GET. confirm
            • PLME-SET. Request
            • PLME-SET. confirm
    • Clear Channel Assessment
            • PLME-CCA. request
            • PLME-CCA. confirm
    • Data Transmission and Reception
            • PD-DATA. request
            • PD-DATA. confirm
            • PD-DATA. indication
  • IEEE 802.15.4 (Contd.)
    • MAC Layer Functions (set of 35 SP):
    • Beacon Transmissions (for a coordinator)
            • MCPS-DATA.request
            • MCPS-DATA.confirm
            • MCPS-DATA.indication
    • Synchronization to the Beacons
    • PAN Association/ Disassociation
            • MLME-ASSOCIATE.request, MLME-DISASSOCIATE.request
            • MLME-ASSOCIATE.indication, MLME-DISASSOCIATE.indication
            • MLME-ASSOCIATE.response, MLME-DISASSOCIATE.response
            • MLME-ASSOCIATE.confirm, MLME-DISASSOCIATE.confirm
    • CSMA-CA for channel access:
    • GTS Transmissions
    • Reliable Link between two peer MAC entities
            • MLME-GET.request MLME-SCAN.request
            • MLME-GET.confirm MLME-SCAN.confirm
            • MLME-SET.request
            • MLME-SET.confirm
            • MLME-ORPHAN.indication
            • MLME-ORPHAN.response
            • MLME-RX-ENABLE.request
            • MLME-RX-ENABLE.confirm
  • MAC Overview :General Frame Structure
    • 4 Types of MAC Frames:
      • Data Frame : Used for all transfers of data
      • Beacon Frame : Used by the coordinator to transmit beacons
      • Acknowledgment Frame: Used for confirming successful frame reception
      • MAC Command Frame: Used for handling all MAC peer entity control transfers.
    From IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs), Jose Gutierrez, 2003
  • IEEE 802.15.4 (Contd.)
    • Traffic types
    • Periodic data:
            • Defined by wireless sensor/meter
            • Sensor checks for a beacon, exchanges data, goes to sleep.
    • Intermittent data:
            • Application /external stimulus defined.
            • Handle in a beaconless system/disconnected operation.
    • Repetitive low latency data:
            • Uses time slot allocation such as security system.
            • May use G uaranteed T ime S lot capability .
      • Divided into 16 equally sized slots.
      • May turn off the beacon transmissions if the coordinator does not wish to use the frame structure.
      • Any device wishing to communicate during the contention access period (CAP) between two beacons shall compete with other devices using a slotted CSMA-CA mechanism.
      • The PAN coordinator may dedicate portions of the active super frame to that application (low latency / require specific bandwidth). These portions are called guaranteed time slots (GTSs).
    From: ZigBee IEEE 802.15.4, Yuan Yuxiang
  • IEEE 802.15.4 (Contd.) Coordinator and Data Transfer: Beacon Network Non-Beacon Network Data Transfer to a coordinator Data Transfer from a coordinator From: ZigBee IEEE 802.15.4, Yuan Yuxiang
  • SUPER FRAME
    • The format of the super frame is defined by the
    • coordinator.
    • The super frame is bounded by network beacons, is sent by the coordinator and is divided into 16
    • equally sized slots.
    • If a coordinator does not wish to use a super frame structure it may turn off the beacon transmissions.
    • Any device wishing to communicate during the contention access period (CAP) between two
    • beacons shall compete with other devices using a slotted CSMA-CA mechanism.
    From: ZigBee Tutorial, http://www.ifn.et.tu-dresden.de/~marandin/ZigBee/ZigBeeTutorial.html
  • ZIGBEE WIRELESS NETWORKING IMPLEMENTATION
    • Zigbee Network Topologies:
    • Star:
        • Common
        • Very long battery life operation
    • Mesh
        • High reliability, scalability
    • Cluster tree
        • Hybrid.
    • COORDINATOR:
    • Initializes a network
    • Organizes network nodes and maintains routing tables.
    • Full function device (FFD)
      • Any topology
      • PAN coordinator capable
      • Talks to any other device
      • Implements complete protocol set
    • Reduced function device (RFD)
      • Limited to star topology or end-device in a peer-to-peer network.
      • Cannot become a PAN coordinator
      • Very simple implementation
      • Reduced protocol set
    From: Implementing zigbee wireless mesh networking, Tim Cutler, July 2005
  • ZIGBEE WIRELESS NETWORKING IMPLEMENTATION (Contd.)
    • Zigbee networks are primarily for
    • low duty cycle sensor networks (<1%).
    • New network nodes are recognized in 30 ms.
    • Waking a sleeping node/ accessing a
    • channel/ transmitting data takes 15ms.
    • Ability to quickly attach information, detach,
    • go to deep sleep results in low power consumption
    • and hence extended battery life.
    From: NetworkConnections-www.jennic.comproductsabout_zigbee.php
  • ZIGBEE WIRELESS NETWORKING IMPLEMENTATION (Contd.)
    • Algorithms:
    • Scalable Broadcast Algorithm [SBA]
    • Ad Hoc Broadcast Protocol [AHBP]
    • On-Tree Self-Pruning Rebroadcast [OSR]
    • Zigbee On-Tree Selection Algorithm [ZOS]
    • Zigbee Broadcast Algorithm
    • Global Algorithm
    • Algorithm in Use for Zigbee:
    • Zigbee Broadcast Algorithm
    • Only tree neighbors rebroadcast
    • Flooding based (Every node rebroadcasts)
  • ZIGBEE WIRELESS NETWORKING IMPLEMENTATION (Contd.)
    • Recommended/Proposed Algorithm:
    • Zigbee On-Tree Selection Algorithm [ZOS]
    • Every forward node selects its own forward nodes and rebroadcasts once.
    • Every non-forward node drops the packet and never rebroadcasts
    • (even if it is selected as forward node later).
    • Broadcast process stops when all nodes are marked (as either forward node or
    • non-forward node).
    • Whole network is guaranteed to be covered.
  • COMPARISON OF ZIGBEE WITH EXISTING STANDARDS (Contd.) From: A comparative study of wireless protocols: Bluetooth, UWB, ZigBee and Wi-Fi, Jin-Shyan Lee, Yu-Wei Su, Chung-Chou Shen, IEEE 2007
  • ZIGBEE-COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
    • Application Categories/Scenarios:
    • Monitoring
            • Safety
            • Surveillance systems
            • Fire alarms etc.
    • Automation and Control
    • Situation awareness and precision asset location
    • Entertainment
    • Computer peripherals
    • Application areas:
    • Home/industrial automation
    • Utility meter Reading and control
  • ZIGBEE-COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Contd.)
    • Home Automation and control:
    • Comfort and convenience
            • Lighting control
            • Audio/video control
        • Home heartbeat System
            • Monitor’s the presence of the Owner via occupancy sensor.
            • Water leaks via water presence sensor
            • Open/ Close sensor for door, windows etc.
            • Alerts could be set via keychain/mobile Interface.
    • Building automation and control:
            • HVAC control
            • Lighting Control
            • Security Systems
        • WiSuite Automation System
            • Interfaces in hotel reservation systems for occupancy information.
            • Auto-setting of the temperature based on occupancy.
    • Utility Meter Communication:
            • Allocate utility costs equitably based on actual consumption.
    • Example:
            • Refrigerator shopping for items!
  • References:
    • [1] Zigbee Alliance. [Online]. Available at www.xbow.com
    • [2] Building a Remote Supervisory Control Network System for Smart Home Applications , Yu-Ping Tsou, Jun-Wei Hsieh, Cheng-Ting Lin, Chun-Yu Chen, 2006 IEEE. [Online]. Available at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/4273787/4274116/04274130.pdf?tp=& isnumber =& arnumber =4274130
    • [3] Gang Ding, Zafer Sahinoglu, Philip Orlik, Jinyun Zhang and Bharat Bhargava, “ Tree-Based Data Broadcast in IEEE 802.15.4 and ZigBee Networks ” IEEE transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 5, no. 11, November 2006.
    • http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/7755/35972/01704820.pdf
    • [4] Andrew Wheeler , “Commercial Applications of Wireless Sensor Networks Using ZigBee”, TOPICS IN AD HOC AND SENSOR NETWORKS, Ember Corporation
    • http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/35/4149645/04149662.pdf?tp=&arnumber=4149662 &isnumber=4149645
    • [5] David Geer, “ Users Make a Beeline for ZigBee Sensor Technology ”, University Trends. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/2/33102/01556477.pdf
    • [6] Tim Cutler, “ Implementing ZigBee wireless mesh networking ”, Industrial Automation.
    • http://rfdesign.com/mag/507RFDF1.pdf
    • [7] Cheolhee park and Theodore S. Rappaport, “ Short-range Wireless Communications for Next-Generation Networks: UWB, 60 GHz millimeter-wave WPAN, and Zigbee ” IEEE Wireless Communications, August 2007 77, 04300986
    • http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/7742/4300972/04300986.pdf?tp=& arnumber =4300986&isnumber=4300972
    • [8] Sinem Coleri Ergen, “ ZigBee/IEEE 802.15.4 Summary ”, September 10, 2004
    • http://pages.cs.wisc.edu/~suman/courses/838/papers/zigbee.pdf
    • [9] T. Ryan Burchfield, S. Venkatesan, Douglas Weiner, “ Maximizing Throughput in ZigBee Wireless Networks through Analysis, Simulations and Implementations ”, Supported by a contract from Wireless Monitoring Solutions, Signal Technology, a Crane Co. http://www.utdallas.edu/~rxb023100/pubs/ZigBee_Throughput.pdf
    • [10] Mikhail Galeev, “ Home Networking with Zigbee ”, Embedded.com, http://www.embedded.com/columns/technicalinsights/18902431?_ requestid =1064642
    • [11] “ ZigBee ”, Wikipedia.org, http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zigbee
    • [12] “ What is ZigBee? ”, wisegeek.com, http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-zigbee.htm