ZIGBEE-An 1EEE 802.15.4 STANDARD MADHURI VELUGOTLA Masters in ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING [email_address]
MOTIVATION AND ORIGIN
PREDECESSORS AND CONTENDERS
IEEE 802.15.4 STANDARD IN ZIGBEE
ZIGBEE WIRELESS NETWORKING IMPLEMENTATION
COMPARISON OF ZIGBEE WITH EXISTING STANDARDS
ZIGBEE COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
ZigBee is an open global standard providing wireless networking based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard and taking full advantage of a powerful physical radio this standard specifies. ZigBee is the result of collaborative efforts by a global consortium of companies known as the ZigBee Alliance.
The ZigBee 1.0 specification-December 14, 2004,called Zigbee 2004 (obsolete).
ZigBee 2007 specification-October 30, 2007, called Zigbee 2007 (currently in use).
2 stack profiles-Zigbee, Zigbee pro.
Zigbee- smaller footprint in RAM and flash-home and light commercial use.
Zigbee pro- higher end features with higher security (with SKKE)
First ZigBee Application Profile, Home Automation, was announced November 2, 2007.
Less power consumption
Transmit smaller packets over large networks; mostly static networks with many, infrequently used devices.
Ability to handle a large number of devices.
ZigBee is the set of specs built around the IEEE 802.15.4 wireless protocol.
The name "ZigBee" is derived from the erratic zigzag patterns many bees make between flowers when collecting pollen. This is evocative of the invisible webs of connections existing in a fully wireless environment.
The standard itself is regulated by a group known as the ZigBee Alliance, with over 150 members worldwide.
PREDECESSORS and CONTENDERS:
Introduced in 1978.
Uses power line wiring to send and receive commands.
Power line carrier transmission.
Data rate-60bps(too slow), high redundancy, unreliable, poor security.
Higher bandwidth support
Power thirsty features
Effort to cover more applications and QoS-deviated from design goal of simplicity.
Expensive, higher power consumption -inappropriate for simple applications.
2.4GHz ISM band, range-(10-100)m at 720 Kbps-needs power boost.
8 devices-scalability problems.
Most common since a decade for automating home appliances.
Not Interchangeable, cannot support more than one device.
Wireless RF-based communications technology-proposed in early 2005 by Zensys Inc.
Does not interfere as Zigbee does with Wi-Fi..
Channel access mechanism is CSMA-CA
Industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands
27 channels- 3 separate frequency bands
No license required for any of the channels .
Very low duty cycle.
Few months to many years-transmitter output power is -3dBm (0.5mW)
Power saving modes
Battery optimized network parameters
Selection of beacon intervals
Guaranteed time slots
O-QPSK (11-26) 250KBPS (2.405-2.48)MHz (industrial) BAND WORLDWIDE B/QPSK (1-10) 40KBPS (908-928)MHz (scientific) BAND USA B/QPSK 0 20KBPS 868 MHz (Medical) band EUROPE MODULATION USED CHANNEL NUMBER(S) DATA RATE frequency band GEOGRAPHIC REGION
ZIGBEE FEATURES (Contd.)
Assortment of tradeoffs to optimize cost with respect to system performance
Ex: Battery life at the expense of service interval
Node cost and complexity at the cost of network complexity
System simplicity and flexibility make Zigbee more cost affective.
Zigbee-compliant transceiver-$1 and radio, processor, and memory package is about $3
Short range wireless standard.
At -3dBm transmitter output power- Single hop ranges from (10-100)m.
Factors-Environment, antenna and operating frequency.
Multi-hop and flexible routing-greater transmission ranges than single hop.
DATA RATE AND LATENCY:
Greater battery life needs higher data rate.
Higher data rate allows system to shut down more quickly- saves significant power.
Higher data rate implies less energy per transmitted bit which implies reduced range.
Every forward node selects its own forward nodes and rebroadcasts once.
Every non-forward node drops the packet and never rebroadcasts
(even if it is selected as forward node later).
Broadcast process stops when all nodes are marked (as either forward node or
Whole network is guaranteed to be covered.
COMPARISON OF ZIGBEE WITH EXISTING STANDARDS (Contd.) From: A comparative study of wireless protocols: Bluetooth, UWB, ZigBee and Wi-Fi, Jin-Shyan Lee, Yu-Wei Su, Chung-Chou Shen, IEEE 2007
Fire alarms etc.
Automation and Control
Situation awareness and precision asset location
Utility meter Reading and control
ZIGBEE-COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Contd.)
Home Automation and control:
Comfort and convenience
Home heartbeat System
Monitor’s the presence of the Owner via occupancy sensor.
Water leaks via water presence sensor
Open/ Close sensor for door, windows etc.
Alerts could be set via keychain/mobile Interface.
Building automation and control:
WiSuite Automation System
Interfaces in hotel reservation systems for occupancy information.
Auto-setting of the temperature based on occupancy.
Utility Meter Communication:
Allocate utility costs equitably based on actual consumption.
Refrigerator shopping for items!
 Zigbee Alliance. [Online]. Available at www.xbow.com
 Building a Remote Supervisory Control Network System for Smart Home Applications , Yu-Ping Tsou, Jun-Wei Hsieh, Cheng-Ting Lin, Chun-Yu Chen, 2006 IEEE. [Online]. Available at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/4273787/4274116/04274130.pdf?tp=& isnumber =& arnumber =4274130
 Gang Ding, Zafer Sahinoglu, Philip Orlik, Jinyun Zhang and Bharat Bhargava, “ Tree-Based Data Broadcast in IEEE 802.15.4 and ZigBee Networks ” IEEE transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 5, no. 11, November 2006.
 Cheolhee park and Theodore S. Rappaport, “ Short-range Wireless Communications for Next-Generation Networks: UWB, 60 GHz millimeter-wave WPAN, and Zigbee ” IEEE Wireless Communications, August 2007 77, 04300986
 T. Ryan Burchfield, S. Venkatesan, Douglas Weiner, “ Maximizing Throughput in ZigBee Wireless Networks through Analysis, Simulations and Implementations ”, Supported by a contract from Wireless Monitoring Solutions, Signal Technology, a Crane Co. http://www.utdallas.edu/~rxb023100/pubs/ZigBee_Throughput.pdf
 Mikhail Galeev, “ Home Networking with Zigbee ”, Embedded.com, http://www.embedded.com/columns/technicalinsights/18902431?_ requestid =1064642