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    Madhuri Velugotla-ZigBee_Final.ppt Madhuri Velugotla-ZigBee_Final.ppt Presentation Transcript

    • ZIGBEE-An 1EEE 802.15.4 STANDARD MADHURI VELUGOTLA Masters in ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING [email_address]
    • OUTLINE
      • INTRODUCTION
      • MOTIVATION AND ORIGIN
      • PREDECESSORS AND CONTENDERS
      • ZIGBEE FEATURES
      • IEEE 802.15.4 STANDARD IN ZIGBEE
      • ZIGBEE WIRELESS NETWORKING IMPLEMENTATION
      • COMPARISON OF ZIGBEE WITH EXISTING STANDARDS
      • ZIGBEE COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
    • INTRODUCTION
      • ZigBee is an open global standard providing wireless networking based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard and taking full advantage of a powerful physical radio this standard specifies. ZigBee is the result of collaborative efforts by a global consortium of companies known as the ZigBee Alliance.
      • The ZigBee 1.0 specification-December 14, 2004,called Zigbee 2004 (obsolete).
      • ZigBee 2007 specification-October 30, 2007, called Zigbee 2007 (currently in use).
              • 2 stack profiles-Zigbee, Zigbee pro.
              • Zigbee- smaller footprint in RAM and flash-home and light commercial use.
              • Zigbee pro- higher end features with higher security (with SKKE)
      • First ZigBee Application Profile, Home Automation, was announced November 2, 2007.
    • MOTIVATION
      • Requirement of
              • Low cost
              • Less power consumption
              • Wireless network
              • Transmit smaller packets over large networks; mostly static networks with many, infrequently used devices.
              • Ability to handle a large number of devices.
      • ORIGIN:
          • ZigBee is the set of specs built around the IEEE 802.15.4 wireless protocol.
          • The name "ZigBee" is derived from the erratic zigzag patterns many bees make between flowers when collecting pollen. This is evocative of the invisible webs of connections existing in a fully wireless environment.
          • The standard itself is regulated by a group known as the ZigBee Alliance, with over 150 members worldwide.
    • PREDECESSORS and CONTENDERS:
      • Wired Sensors:
      • X-10:
      • Introduced in 1978.
      • Uses power line wiring to send and receive commands.
      • Power line carrier transmission.
      • Data rate-60bps(too slow), high redundancy, unreliable, poor security.
      • Wi-Fi:
      • Higher bandwidth support
      • Power thirsty features
      • Bluetooth:
      • Effort to cover more applications and QoS-deviated from design goal of simplicity.
      • Expensive, higher power consumption -inappropriate for simple applications.
      • 2.4GHz ISM band, range-(10-100)m at 720 Kbps-needs power boost.
      • 8 devices-scalability problems.
      • Infrared:
      • Most common since a decade for automating home appliances.
      • Typical household uses ~ (5-10) remote commanders.
      • Not Interchangeable, cannot support more than one device.
      • Z-wave:
      • Wireless RF-based communications technology-proposed in early 2005 by Zensys Inc.
      • Does not interfere as Zigbee does with Wi-Fi..
    • ZIGBEE FEATURES
      • RELIABILITY:
      • Channel access mechanism is CSMA-CA
      • Industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands
      • 27 channels- 3 separate frequency bands
      • No license required for any of the channels .
      • BATTERY LIFE:
      • Very low duty cycle.
      • Few months to many years-transmitter output power is -3dBm (0.5mW)
      • Power saving modes
      • Battery optimized network parameters
              • Selection of beacon intervals
              • Guaranteed time slots
              • Enablement/Disablement options
      O-QPSK (11-26) 250KBPS (2.405-2.48)MHz (industrial) BAND WORLDWIDE B/QPSK (1-10) 40KBPS (908-928)MHz (scientific) BAND USA B/QPSK 0 20KBPS 868 MHz (Medical) band EUROPE MODULATION USED CHANNEL NUMBER(S) DATA RATE frequency band GEOGRAPHIC REGION
    • ZIGBEE FEATURES (Contd.)
      • COST:
      • Flexibility
      • Assortment of tradeoffs to optimize cost with respect to system performance
      • Ex: Battery life at the expense of service interval
      • Node cost and complexity at the cost of network complexity
      • System simplicity and flexibility make Zigbee more cost affective.
      • Zigbee-compliant transceiver-$1 and radio, processor, and memory package is about $3
      • TRANSMISSION RANGE:
      • Short range wireless standard.
      • At -3dBm transmitter output power- Single hop ranges from (10-100)m.
      • Factors-Environment, antenna and operating frequency.
      • Multi-hop and flexible routing-greater transmission ranges than single hop.
      • DATA RATE AND LATENCY:
      • Greater battery life needs higher data rate.
      • Higher data rate allows system to shut down more quickly- saves significant power.
      • Higher data rate implies less energy per transmitted bit which implies reduced range.
      • Latency for simple star networks is ~16ms.
      • Tradeoff-Data latency affects battery life, increases interference.
    • ZIGBEE FEATURES (Contd.)
      • SIZE OF A ZIGBEE NETWORK:
      • 264 devices
      • 64 bit IEEE address
      • 65,000 nodes could be configured with reduced address overhead.
      • DATA SECURITY:
      • Security suite lets you choose the security necessary for application.
      • Security is provided through
            • Access control lists.
            • 32-bit to 128-bit AES encryption.
      • Benefits
            • Access control
            • Data encryption
            • Frame integrity
            • Sequential Freshness .
      • Tradeoffs- data volume, battery life, system processing power requirements.
      • Zigbee security toolbox
    • IEEE 802.15.4 (Contd.) From: Tim Cutler, “Implementing ZigBee wireless mesh networking”, Industrial Automation
    • IEEE 802.15.4
      • LR-WPAN:KEY FEATURES IEEE 802.15.4 Architecture
      • Over the air data rates in 27 channels of 3 bands.
      • Star/Peer to peer operation
      • 16 bit short/ 64 bits extended addressing.
      • Guaranteed time slots.
      • CSMA-CA
      • Low power consumption
      • Energy Detection and Link Quality Indication
      • Architecture:
      • Defines only PHY and MAC layers.
      From: ZigBee Tutorial, http://www.ifn.et.tu-dresden.de/~marandin/ZigBee/ZigBeeTutorial.html
    • IEEE 802.15.4 (Contd.)
      • SERVICE PRIMITIVES (SP):
      • Conveys the required information by providing a particular service.
      • Each Service Primitive has 0 or more parameters.
      • GENERIC TYPES:
      • Request
      • Indication
      • Response
      • Confirm
      • IEEE 802.15.4 defines
      • 14 PHY primitives
      • 35 MAC primitives
    • IEEE 802.15.4 (Contd.)
      • PHYSICAL LAYER Functions and SP:
      • Activation and Deactivation of the radio transceiver
              • PLME-SET-TRX-STATE. request
              • PLME-SET-TRX-STATE. confirm
      • Energy Detection
              • PLME-ED. request
              • PLME-ED. confirm
      • Link Quality Indication Measurement
              • PLME-GET. Request
              • PLME-GET. confirm
              • PLME-SET. Request
              • PLME-SET. confirm
      • Clear Channel Assessment
              • PLME-CCA. request
              • PLME-CCA. confirm
      • Data Transmission and Reception
              • PD-DATA. request
              • PD-DATA. confirm
              • PD-DATA. indication
    • IEEE 802.15.4 (Contd.)
      • MAC Layer Functions (set of 35 SP):
      • Beacon Transmissions (for a coordinator)
              • MCPS-DATA.request
              • MCPS-DATA.confirm
              • MCPS-DATA.indication
      • Synchronization to the Beacons
      • PAN Association/ Disassociation
              • MLME-ASSOCIATE.request, MLME-DISASSOCIATE.request
              • MLME-ASSOCIATE.indication, MLME-DISASSOCIATE.indication
              • MLME-ASSOCIATE.response, MLME-DISASSOCIATE.response
              • MLME-ASSOCIATE.confirm, MLME-DISASSOCIATE.confirm
      • CSMA-CA for channel access:
      • GTS Transmissions
      • Reliable Link between two peer MAC entities
              • MLME-GET.request MLME-SCAN.request
              • MLME-GET.confirm MLME-SCAN.confirm
              • MLME-SET.request
              • MLME-SET.confirm
              • MLME-ORPHAN.indication
              • MLME-ORPHAN.response
              • MLME-RX-ENABLE.request
              • MLME-RX-ENABLE.confirm
    • MAC Overview :General Frame Structure
      • 4 Types of MAC Frames:
        • Data Frame : Used for all transfers of data
        • Beacon Frame : Used by the coordinator to transmit beacons
        • Acknowledgment Frame: Used for confirming successful frame reception
        • MAC Command Frame: Used for handling all MAC peer entity control transfers.
      From IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs), Jose Gutierrez, 2003
    • IEEE 802.15.4 (Contd.)
      • Traffic types
      • Periodic data:
              • Defined by wireless sensor/meter
              • Sensor checks for a beacon, exchanges data, goes to sleep.
      • Intermittent data:
              • Application /external stimulus defined.
              • Handle in a beaconless system/disconnected operation.
      • Repetitive low latency data:
              • Uses time slot allocation such as security system.
              • May use G uaranteed T ime S lot capability .
        • Divided into 16 equally sized slots.
        • May turn off the beacon transmissions if the coordinator does not wish to use the frame structure.
        • Any device wishing to communicate during the contention access period (CAP) between two beacons shall compete with other devices using a slotted CSMA-CA mechanism.
        • The PAN coordinator may dedicate portions of the active super frame to that application (low latency / require specific bandwidth). These portions are called guaranteed time slots (GTSs).
      From: ZigBee IEEE 802.15.4, Yuan Yuxiang
    • IEEE 802.15.4 (Contd.) Coordinator and Data Transfer: Beacon Network Non-Beacon Network Data Transfer to a coordinator Data Transfer from a coordinator From: ZigBee IEEE 802.15.4, Yuan Yuxiang
    • SUPER FRAME
      • The format of the super frame is defined by the
      • coordinator.
      • The super frame is bounded by network beacons, is sent by the coordinator and is divided into 16
      • equally sized slots.
      • If a coordinator does not wish to use a super frame structure it may turn off the beacon transmissions.
      • Any device wishing to communicate during the contention access period (CAP) between two
      • beacons shall compete with other devices using a slotted CSMA-CA mechanism.
      From: ZigBee Tutorial, http://www.ifn.et.tu-dresden.de/~marandin/ZigBee/ZigBeeTutorial.html
    • ZIGBEE WIRELESS NETWORKING IMPLEMENTATION
      • Zigbee Network Topologies:
      • Star:
          • Common
          • Very long battery life operation
      • Mesh
          • High reliability, scalability
      • Cluster tree
          • Hybrid.
      • COORDINATOR:
      • Initializes a network
      • Organizes network nodes and maintains routing tables.
      • Full function device (FFD)
        • Any topology
        • PAN coordinator capable
        • Talks to any other device
        • Implements complete protocol set
      • Reduced function device (RFD)
        • Limited to star topology or end-device in a peer-to-peer network.
        • Cannot become a PAN coordinator
        • Very simple implementation
        • Reduced protocol set
      From: Implementing zigbee wireless mesh networking, Tim Cutler, July 2005
    • ZIGBEE WIRELESS NETWORKING IMPLEMENTATION (Contd.)
      • Zigbee networks are primarily for
      • low duty cycle sensor networks (<1%).
      • New network nodes are recognized in 30 ms.
      • Waking a sleeping node/ accessing a
      • channel/ transmitting data takes 15ms.
      • Ability to quickly attach information, detach,
      • go to deep sleep results in low power consumption
      • and hence extended battery life.
      From: NetworkConnections-www.jennic.comproductsabout_zigbee.php
    • ZIGBEE WIRELESS NETWORKING IMPLEMENTATION (Contd.)
      • Algorithms:
      • Scalable Broadcast Algorithm [SBA]
      • Ad Hoc Broadcast Protocol [AHBP]
      • On-Tree Self-Pruning Rebroadcast [OSR]
      • Zigbee On-Tree Selection Algorithm [ZOS]
      • Zigbee Broadcast Algorithm
      • Global Algorithm
      • Algorithm in Use for Zigbee:
      • Zigbee Broadcast Algorithm
      • Only tree neighbors rebroadcast
      • Flooding based (Every node rebroadcasts)
    • ZIGBEE WIRELESS NETWORKING IMPLEMENTATION (Contd.)
      • Recommended/Proposed Algorithm:
      • Zigbee On-Tree Selection Algorithm [ZOS]
      • Every forward node selects its own forward nodes and rebroadcasts once.
      • Every non-forward node drops the packet and never rebroadcasts
      • (even if it is selected as forward node later).
      • Broadcast process stops when all nodes are marked (as either forward node or
      • non-forward node).
      • Whole network is guaranteed to be covered.
    • COMPARISON OF ZIGBEE WITH EXISTING STANDARDS (Contd.) From: A comparative study of wireless protocols: Bluetooth, UWB, ZigBee and Wi-Fi, Jin-Shyan Lee, Yu-Wei Su, Chung-Chou Shen, IEEE 2007
    • ZIGBEE-COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
      • Application Categories/Scenarios:
      • Monitoring
              • Safety
              • Surveillance systems
              • Fire alarms etc.
      • Automation and Control
      • Situation awareness and precision asset location
      • Entertainment
      • Computer peripherals
      • Application areas:
      • Home/industrial automation
      • Utility meter Reading and control
    • ZIGBEE-COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (Contd.)
      • Home Automation and control:
      • Comfort and convenience
              • Lighting control
              • Audio/video control
          • Home heartbeat System
              • Monitor’s the presence of the Owner via occupancy sensor.
              • Water leaks via water presence sensor
              • Open/ Close sensor for door, windows etc.
              • Alerts could be set via keychain/mobile Interface.
      • Building automation and control:
              • HVAC control
              • Lighting Control
              • Security Systems
          • WiSuite Automation System
              • Interfaces in hotel reservation systems for occupancy information.
              • Auto-setting of the temperature based on occupancy.
      • Utility Meter Communication:
              • Allocate utility costs equitably based on actual consumption.
      • Example:
              • Refrigerator shopping for items!
    • References:
      • [1] Zigbee Alliance. [Online]. Available at www.xbow.com
      • [2] Building a Remote Supervisory Control Network System for Smart Home Applications , Yu-Ping Tsou, Jun-Wei Hsieh, Cheng-Ting Lin, Chun-Yu Chen, 2006 IEEE. [Online]. Available at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/4273787/4274116/04274130.pdf?tp=& isnumber =& arnumber =4274130
      • [3] Gang Ding, Zafer Sahinoglu, Philip Orlik, Jinyun Zhang and Bharat Bhargava, “ Tree-Based Data Broadcast in IEEE 802.15.4 and ZigBee Networks ” IEEE transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 5, no. 11, November 2006.
      • http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/7755/35972/01704820.pdf
      • [4] Andrew Wheeler , “Commercial Applications of Wireless Sensor Networks Using ZigBee”, TOPICS IN AD HOC AND SENSOR NETWORKS, Ember Corporation
      • http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/35/4149645/04149662.pdf?tp=&arnumber=4149662 &isnumber=4149645
      • [5] David Geer, “ Users Make a Beeline for ZigBee Sensor Technology ”, University Trends. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/2/33102/01556477.pdf
      • [6] Tim Cutler, “ Implementing ZigBee wireless mesh networking ”, Industrial Automation.
      • http://rfdesign.com/mag/507RFDF1.pdf
      • [7] Cheolhee park and Theodore S. Rappaport, “ Short-range Wireless Communications for Next-Generation Networks: UWB, 60 GHz millimeter-wave WPAN, and Zigbee ” IEEE Wireless Communications, August 2007 77, 04300986
      • http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/7742/4300972/04300986.pdf?tp=& arnumber =4300986&isnumber=4300972
      • [8] Sinem Coleri Ergen, “ ZigBee/IEEE 802.15.4 Summary ”, September 10, 2004
      • http://pages.cs.wisc.edu/~suman/courses/838/papers/zigbee.pdf
      • [9] T. Ryan Burchfield, S. Venkatesan, Douglas Weiner, “ Maximizing Throughput in ZigBee Wireless Networks through Analysis, Simulations and Implementations ”, Supported by a contract from Wireless Monitoring Solutions, Signal Technology, a Crane Co. http://www.utdallas.edu/~rxb023100/pubs/ZigBee_Throughput.pdf
      • [10] Mikhail Galeev, “ Home Networking with Zigbee ”, Embedded.com, http://www.embedded.com/columns/technicalinsights/18902431?_ requestid =1064642
      • [11] “ ZigBee ”, Wikipedia.org, http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zigbee
      • [12] “ What is ZigBee? ”, wisegeek.com, http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-zigbee.htm