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Lecture 1

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    • 1. TCOM 555 Network Management and Design George Mason University SCHOOL OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING
    • 2. First Meeting Agenda
      • 1. INTRODUCTION
      • 2. E-MAIL ADDRESSES (james.a.mazzei@aero.org)
      • 3. SYLLABUS REVIEW
      • A. GRADING STANDARDS
      • B. GROUP PROJECT
          • System analysis & protocol specification
      • (2) Proposed system design and management plan
      • (3) Presentations
      • D. SUPPLEMENTAL READING
      • 4. QUIZES & HOMEWORK
      • 5. FOCUS OF COURSE
      • 6. THE BOOK’S RELATIONSHIP TO THE COURSE
      • 7. BACKGROUND & CHAPTER 1
    • 3. Telecom-Data-Network Management
      • Homework:
      • Send me an e-mail to [email_address]
      • Revise the flowchart on page 42
      • of the text to conform to your idea of how it
      • would be more efficient or effective.
    • 4. Background-Concepts & Chapter 1 1. BASIC BASICS 2. X.25 3. FRAME RELAY 4. ATM 5. GIGABIT ETHERNET 6. COMPARISONS 7. dBs & S/N 8. NYQUIST 9. SHANNON 10. NETWORK OPERATION & MANAGEMENT
    • 5. Protocol
      • A set of Rules Used to Enable Data Communications
      • Procedures for Adding Order to the Exchange of Data
      • Rules Relating to the Timing and Format of Data Transmissions
      • Standard Procedures that Devices Must Accept and Use
    • 6. Standards
      • Agreed Principles
        • De Jure
        • EIA (RS232)
        • ANSI (X.25)
        • ITU-T (CCITT) - (X & V Series “Recommendations”)
      • De Facto
        • IBM, Bell System, et.al.
    • 7. Do It Yourself
    • 8. WHO
      • Naming - Addresses
        • Format
        • Aliases
    • 9. Addressing Curly Larry Mo Jim
    • 10. HOW
      • Connections
        • Type
        • Linkage
        • Bandwidth
      • More Names
    • 11. Connectivity Curly Larry Mo Jim A B C D E F
    • 12. WHEN
      • Timing & Synchronization
      • Channel Availability
      • Device Availability
      • Batch vs. Real Time
    • 13. Connectivity X Curly Larry Mo Jim A B C D E F 1 2
    • 14. WHEN 2
      • Routing
      • Quality Assurance
        • Data Integrity
        • Error Handling
    • 15. Routing Curly Larry Mo Jim A B C D E F 1 2 3 4
    • 16. WHAT
      • Payload
        • Character
        • Block
        • Packet/Frame
        • Assemble/Disassembly
    • 17. Background Chapter 1 1. Data & Telecom Networks 2. X.25 3. FRAME RELAY 4. ATM 5. GIGABIT ETHERNET
    • 18. Packets TO FROM data…... # of #
    • 19. Layers In The OSI Stack Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Network Management uses some of these levels to manage others But how do they relate to each other?
    • 20. Services Service Example Reliable message stream Sequence of pages Reliable byte stream Remote login Unreliable connection Digitized voice Unreliable datagram Electronic junk mail Acknowledged datagram Registered mail Request-reply Database query
    • 21. Services & Interfaces ICI SDU IDU SAP ICI SDU Layer N+1 Interface Layer N SDU Header N-PDU Interface Data Unit Interface Control Info Service Data Unit Service Access Point Protocol Data Unit Note: It is very important to appreciate this.
    • 22. Service Primitives Primitive Meaning Request An entity wants the service to do some work Indication An entity is to be informed about an event Response An entity wants to respond to an event Confirm The response to an earlier request has come back
    • 23. Accasionally On Line PC N+1 PC N Svr N+1 Svr N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 min
    • 24. Layers In The OSI Stack Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical
    • 25. The Market Dropped! Sell! 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 A Pr S T N DL Ph Process 1 Computer 1 P (1) OS-SQ P (2,3,4,5) Add $, Compress P (1) OS-SQ P (n) C (1) P (1) OS-SQ C (n) P (n) C (1) P (1) OS C (n) P (n) C (1) P (1) SQ C (n) P (n) HHC (1) P (1) OS C (n) P (n) HHC (1) P (1) SQ C (n) P (n) GW 3 2 1 Router 2 1 Bridge P 2 on C 2 P 3 on C 3 P 4 on C 4 P 5 on C 5 1
    • 26. Standards & Protocols Concepts Review 1. Interface: 2. Entities: 3. Peer Entities: 4. Primitives:
    • 27. X.25
      • Packet Based
      • Mesh/Partial Mesh/Star Topologies
      • Layers 1 & 2 of the Protocol Stack
      • First successful WAN protocol
      • Connection oriented communications
    • 28. X.25 DTE DCE DCE DTE Call Request Incoming Call Call Accepted Call Connected Full Duplex Data Clear Request Clear Indication Clear Confirm Clear Confirmed Call Setup Call Clear
    • 29. Frame Relay
      • Packet Based
      • Mesh/Partial Mesh/Star Topologies
      • Layer 11/2 Protocol of the Stack
      • X.25 on Steroids
      • Lobotomized X.25
    • 30. X.25 vs. Frame Relay
      • X.25
        • 9.6Kbps - T1
        • High Overhead
        • Each Hop
      • Frame Relay
        • 56Kbps - T3
        • Low Overhead
        • CRC at End Nodes Only
        • Limited QoS
    • 31. Frame Relay Characteristics
      • WAN Application
      • CIR/CDR
      • VCs & PVCs
      • Variable Packet Length
      • Multicast Capabilities
      • Service Provider Based
    • 32. X.25 & Frame Relay Structures Flag Address Data FCS Flag Flag Address Data FCS Flag Control X.25 Frame Relay
    • 33. Frame Relay Structure Flag Address Data FCS Flag DLCI 6 CR 1* EA 1 DLCI 4 FECN 1 BECN 1 DE 1 EA 1
    • 34. Frame Relay Address DLCI 6 CR 1 EA 1 DLCI 4 FECN 1 BECN 1 DE 1 EA 1 DLCI - Data Link Connection Identifier: Identifies logical connection (within multiplexed channel) with which the frame is associated CR - Command Response: Not used in DL-CORE protocols EA - Address Field Extension Bit: 0 indicates another octet coming FECN - Forward Explicit Congestion Notification: Notifies to initiate congestion avoidance (e.g., We got a lot of stuff coming.) BECN - Backward Explicit Congestion Notification: Notifies to initiate congestion avoidance in the opposite direction of frame (e.g., We see congestion on our receive side.) DE - Discard Eligibility Indicator
    • 35. Frame Relay Structure Flag Address Data FCS Flag DLCI 6 CR 1 EA 1 DLCI 4 FECN 1 BECN 1 DE 1 EA 1 01111110 Frame Check Sequence (16 bit CRC)
    • 36. ATM
      • Fixed Frame Based
      • Mesh/Switched Topologies
      • Layers 1 - 3 Protocol Stacks
      • SVCs & PVCs
    • 37. ATM
      • WAN/MAN/LAN Application
      • Multicast Capabilities
      • Enterprise and/or Service Provider Based
      • QoS
    • 38. Frame Relay vs. ATM
      • ATM
        • 25Mbps - OC12+
        • Low Overhead
        • CRC at End Nodes
        • High QoS
        • Fixed Payload
      • Frame Relay
        • 56Kbps - T3
        • Low Overhead
        • CRC at End Nodes Only
        • Limited QoS
        • Variable Packet
    • 39. Gigabit Ethernet
      • Supports Shared & Switched Configurations
      • Switching Accomplished by:
        • MAC Addressing (Layer 2 Switching)
        • Network Layer Addressing (Layer 3 Switching)
        • ATM
    • 40. Speed Comparisons (Mbps) Megabits
    • 41. Cost Comparisons
    • 42. Decibells & Logarithms Converting watts to dB (or milliwatts to dBm): 10 log 10 1000 watts = 30 dBw Converting dB to watts (or dBm to milliwatts): 30 dBw = log -1 , or log -1 (3) or 10 raised to the 3rd power = 10 3 = 1000 watts 35 dBw = 10 3.5 = 3162.3 watts Note: There’s a point between the 3 & 5.
    • 43. Decibells & Logarithms dBW Watts -3 .5 0 1 3 2 6 4 9 8 10 10 20 100 30 1000 40 10000 Note: The same relationship holds with dBm and miliwatts
    • 44. Nyquist Nyquist Nyquist Nyquist: The maximum practical data rate (samples) per channel. Max R = 2 H log 2 V Logarithmic function to the base 2: For each # V, log V = the exponent to which 2 must be raised to produce V. Then if V = 16, the log 2 of V = 4. If V = 2, the log 2 of V = 1. Then what is the maximum practical data rate for BPSK signal on a line with a bandwidth of 3000 Hz? What is the maximum practical data rate for a QPSK signal on a line with a bandwidth of 3000 Hz?
    • 45. Shannon Shannon Shannon Shannon: The maximum theoretical data rate per channel. Max R = CBW x log 2 (1 + S/N) [CBW = H in Nyquist Theorem] Then what is the maximum practical data rate for signal with a 30 dB S/N on a line with a bandwidth of 3000 Hz?
    • 46. Telecom-Data-Network Management Telecom from where & using what? Data from where & using what? Networks from where & using what?
    • 47. Telecom-Data-Network Management User Apl Present Svcs Flow Control Xmt Control Path Control Data Link Physical Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Apl Protocol Transport TCP UDP Network SNA OSI Internet
    • 48. Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical SNICP SNDCP SNDAP Subnet Independent Convergence Subnet Dependent Convergence Subnet Dependent Access Protocol Telecom-Data-Network Management
    • 49. Telecom-Data-Network Management Network Management Network Maintenance Network Operations Network Provisioning
    • 50. Telecom-Data-Network Management Network Maintenance Network Operations Network Provisioning Planning Fault Management Fault Management Design Configuration Mgt Trouble Ticket Admin Performance Mgt Network Installation Security Management Network Repairs Accounting Mgt Install & Maintenance Reports Management Routine Net Tests Inventory Management Data Gathering Data Analysis
    • 51. DSN - Global Voice Network