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Internet and Computer Network-Basics

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Transcript

  • 1. Internet and LAN Technology
  • 2. Chapter Contents
    • Section A: Network Building Blocks
    • Section B: Local Area Networks
    • Section C: Internet Technology
    • Section D: Internet Access
  • 3. Section A: Network Building Blocks
    • Network Advantages and Challenges
    • Network Classifications
    • Geographic Scope: PANs, NANs, LANs, MANs, and WANs
    • Organizational Structure: Client/Server and Peer-to-Peer
    • Physical Topology
  • 4. Section A: Network Building Blocks
    • Network Links
    • Analog and Digital Signals
    • Bandwidth
    • Communications Protocols
  • 5. Network Advantages and Challenges
    • Sharing networked hardware can reduce costs
    • Sharing networked hardware can provide access to a wide range of services and specialized peripheral devices
    • Sharing networked software can reduce costs
    • Sharing data on a network is easy
    • Networks enable people to work together regardless of time and place
  • 6. Network Advantages and Challenges
    • Networks may be vulnerable to unauthorized access from many sources and locations
      • More vulnerable than standalone computers
    • Wireless networks can be tapped from a “snooping” computer
    • Networked computers are susceptible to an increasing number of worms, Trojan horses, and blended threats
  • 7. Network Classifications
  • 8. Geographical Scope: PANs, NANs, LANs, MANs, and WANs
    • Personal Area Network (PAN) – interconnection of personal digital devices
    • Neighborhood Area Network (NAN) – connectivity spread over several buildings
    • Local Area Network (LAN) – usually connects computers in a single building
    • Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) – public high-speed network with range of about 50 miles
    • Wide Area Network (WAN) – consists of several smaller networks
  • 9. Organizational Structure: Client/Server and Peer-to-Peer
  • 10. Physical Topology
    • Arrangement of devices in a network
    • Each connection point on a network is referred to as a node
    • A bridge can connect two similar networks
    • A gateway joins two dissimilar networks
      • Router
  • 11. Physical Topology
  • 12. Physical Topology
  • 13. Network Links
    • Wired network
      • Twisted-pair cable
      • Coaxial cable
      • Fiber-optic cable
    • Wireless network
      • RF signals
      • Microwaves
      • Infrared light
  • 14. Analog and Digital Signals
  • 15. Bandwidth
    • The transmission capacity of a communications channel
      • High-bandwidth channel (broadband)
        • Cable TV
        • DSL
      • Low-bandwidth channel (narrowband)
        • Telephone system
  • 16. Communications Protocols
    • Rules for efficiently transmitting data from one network node to another
      • Dividing messages into packets
      • Affixing addresses to packets
      • Initiating transmission
      • Regulating the flow of data
      • Checking for transmission errors
      • Acknowledging receipt of transmitted data
  • 17. Communications Protocols
    • A packet is a “parcel” of data that is sent across a computer network
      • Circuit-switching technology vs. packet switching technology
        • Voice over IP (VoIP)
  • 18. Section B: Local Area Networks
    • LAN Standards
    • Ethernet
    • Wi-Fi
    • HomePNA and HomePLC Networks
    • Installing a LAN
    • Using a LAN
  • 19. LAN Standards
    • LAN Technologies are standardized by the IEEE
      • ARCnet
      • Token Ring technology
      • FDDI
      • Ethernet
      • Wi-Fi
  • 20. Ethernet
    • Simultaneously broadcasts data packets to all network devices
      • IEEE 802.3
      • CSMA/CD protocol
  • 21. Ethernet On an Ethernet, data travels on a “first come, first served” basis. If two workstations attempt to send data at the same time, a collision occurs. That data must be resent. CLICK TO START
  • 22. Ethernet
    • Varies in speed from 10 Mbps to 10 Gbps
    • An Ethernet card is designed to support the Ethernet protocols
    • Ethernet hubs link workstations via cables
      • Uplink port
  • 23. Wi-Fi
    • Wireless networking technologies that are compatible with Ethernet
  • 24. Wi-Fi
    • WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) encrypts data traveling over wireless networks
    • Equipment required for a wireless network
      • Wi-Fi card
      • Wireless access point
    • Bluetooth is a short-range wireless network technology
  • 25. HomePNA and HomePLC Networks
    • HomePNA networks utilize existing telephone wiring to connect network devices
      • Special NICs and cables are required
    • HomePLC networks transmit data over power lines as low-frequency radio waves
  • 26. Installing a LAN CLICK TO START
  • 27. Using a LAN In this drive mapping example, a server’s drive C is mapped as drive F by a workstation. After the mapping is complete, the server’s hard disk appears in the workstation’s directory as drive F and can be used just as though it were a drive connected directly to the workstation. CLICK TO START
  • 28. Using a LAN
    • You can allow other network users to view and edit files in the folders you’ve designated as shared
  • 29. Using a LAN
    • The Network Connection tool helps you troubleshoot connection problems
  • 30. Section C: Internet Technology
    • Background
    • Internet Structure
    • ISP Infrastructure
    • Internet Protocols
    • IP Addresses
    • Domain Names
  • 31. Background
    • The Advanced Research Projects Agency designed ARPANET
    • The Internet has an estimated 200 million nodes and 500 million users today
  • 32. Internet Structure
  • 33. Internet Structure
    • Ping is used to find out whether a site is up and running
    • The Traceroute utility records a packet’s path
  • 34. ISP Infrastructure
  • 35. Internet Protocols
    • TCP and IP serve as the primary protocols responsible for message transmission on the Internet
  • 36. IP Addresses
    • IP addresses are addresses that identify computers on the Internet
      • Static IP address
      • Dynamic IP address
  • 37. Domain Names
    • Easy-to-remember names for Internet servers
      • Ends with an extension that indicates its top-level domain
    • Every domain name corresponds to a unique IP address
      • Domain Name System
    • ICANN coordinates technical management of the Internet’s Domain Name System
  • 38. Domain Names
  • 39. Domain Names The first step in registering a domain name is to find out whether the name is currently in use or reserved for future use. If a domain name is not available, consider using a different top-level domain, such as biz instead of com. After you’ve found an available domain name you like, you can continue the registration process by filling out a simple online form. CLICK TO START
  • 40. Section D: Internet Access
    • Dial-up Connections
    • Cable Internet Service
    • DSL, ISDN, and Dedicated Lines
    • Wireless Internet Services
    • LAN Internet Access
    • Mobile Internet Access
    • Internet Connection Roundup
  • 41. Dial-up Connections
    • Uses POTS to transport data between your computer and your ISP
    • A modem converts digital signals from your computer into analog signals that can travel over telephone lines, and vice versa
      • Modulation / Demodulation
  • 42. Dial-up Connections
    • Modems are still required, despite digital telephone technology
    • Modem speed is measured as baud rate
    • Many Internet connection methods provide faster downstream transmission rates than upstream rates
  • 43. Cable Internet Service
  • 44. Cable Internet Service
    • Cable modems convert your computer’s signal into one that can travel over the CATV network
    • Always-on connection
    • Neighborhood network
  • 45. DSL, ISDN, and Dedicated Lines
    • DSL is a high-speed, digital, always-on Internet access technology that runs over standard telephone lines
      • DSLAM
      • Most DSL installations require service technicians
        • DSL modem
  • 46. DSL, ISDN, and Dedicated Lines
    • ISDN connections are slower than DSL and cable Internet service, but faster than dial-up
      • ISDN terminal adapter connects a computer to a telephone wall jack and converts signals to travel over ISDN connection
    • T1, T3, and T4 lines are leased from the telephone company, and offer fast, high-capacity data transmission
  • 47. Wireless Internet Service
    • Direct satellite service (DSS)
  • 48. Wireless Internet Service
    • Fixed wireless Internet service broadcasts RF signals in order to offer Internet access to large areas
      • WiMAX
      • Wireless service providers are usually local or regional businesses
  • 49. LAN Internet Access
    • Cost-effective way to share one Internet connection among several computers
    • To establish LAN Internet access, you need:
      • An operational wired or wireless LAN
      • A router or a hub with router capabilities
      • A high-speed Internet connection, such as DSL, ISDN, or cable Internet
      • A modem that corresponds to your Internet connection type
  • 50. Mobile Internet Access
    • A Wi-Fi hotspot is a wireless broadband Internet service offered in a public location
      • WISP
    • WAP is a communications protocol that provides Internet access from handheld devices
  • 51. Mobile Internet Access
    • Handheld device services include:
      • Short message service (SMS)
      • Multimedia messaging (MMS)
      • Music fingerprinting
      • Games
      • City guides
      • E-mail
      • News, sports, stocks, and weather
  • 52. Mobile Internet Access
    • Cellular service options
  • 53. Internet Connection Roundup
  • 54. C HAPTER 5 C OMPLETE Internet and LAN Technology