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  • Networks and the Internet 70-270: MCSE Guide to Microsoft Windows XP Professional
  • Windows XP Network Overview (Page 1)
    • Supports local area network (LAN) connections
    • Supports emerging wireless technologies
    • Improvement in remote access support from previous versions
  • Windows XP Network Overview (Page 2)
    • Can function as:
      • Client
      • Server (limited)
      • Both
    • Networking components can be added and removed as necessary
  • Network Protocols Supported by Windows XP
    • Major protocols:
      • TCP/IP
      • NWLink
  • TCP/IP
    • An all-embracing suite of standardized protocols (more than 50) that cover wide range of capabilities
    • Work began in developing technology in 1969 continuing through 1970’s
      • Became broadly available in 1981-1982
    • Most common networking protocols:
      • Used by Internet for newsgroups, e-mail, file transfer, remote printing, remote booting, the World Wide Web, etc.
  • TCP/IP Advantages
    • Supports networking services better than the other Windows XP protocols
    • Multiple routing protocols
    • Good error detection and handling
    • Works with most kinds of computers
  • TCP/IP Disadvantages
    • Not fast nor easy to use
      • Mass of information and detail work
    • Configuring and managing requires:
      • Fair degree of expertise
      • Careful planning
      • Constant maintenance and attention
  • NWLink (IPX/SPX)
    • Microsoft implementation of Novell’s Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange (IPX/SPX) protocol stack
    • Provides backwards compatibility with NetWare versions 4 and earlier
      • TCP/IP became the default protocol in version 5
  • Networking Under Windows XP
    • Controlled by single multifaceted interface that combines networking access for:
      • Local Area Network (LAN)
      • Internet
      • Modem
    • Configured by running the "Network Setup Wizard"
  • Checking Local Area Connection Properties
    • Launch “Network Connections” applet from Control Panel
    • Double-click “Local Area Connection” or other object
      • Or select object and then F ile  Stat u s from menu bar
      • Reveals Connection Status, Duration, Speed, Packets
    • Click < Properties > button
      • Reveals NIC, all services and protocols
  • Wireless Networking
    • Supports IEEE 802.11 wireless standards
    • Also known as Wi-Fi networks
    • A single base station supports one or more clients
    • Client must have a wireless NIC
  • Network Setup Wizard
    • Step-by-step, walk-through tool used to configure nondomain networks
    • Used for small offices and home networks
    • Can be executed from:
      • Network Connections applet: F ile  Network Setup W izard –or –
      • Start menu  Programs  Accessories  Communications
    • Wizard on the system to be the ICS host first
  • Managing Bindings
    • Binding is the order in which Windows XP networking components are linked
    • Affects how the system behaves and system performance
    • Accessed in &quot;Network Connections&quot; applet of Control Panel by selecting Adva n ced  Advanced S ettings from menu bar
  • Advanced Settings Dialog Box—&quot;Adapters and Bindings&quot; Tab
  • TCP/IP Architecture
    • I nternet P rotocol (IP)
      • Provides both addressing and routing information for source and destination systems
      • Addresses are 4 bytes (32 bits) long
        • Each octet between 0 and 255
      • Fast (although unreliable) connectionless datagram protocol which assumes that other protocols are available to assure reliable delivery
  • IP Addresses
    • Designates network and host (any device that is assigned an IP address)
    • Subnet mask blocks network element:
      • An octet value of 255 is used to block the network component of the address
      • A value of zero does not block
    • Class A
      • Network ID's: 126
      • Host ID's: 16,777, 214
      • Usable network ID's: 1. x . y . z —126. a . b . c
    • Class B
      • Network ID's: 16,328
      • Host ID's: 65,534
      • Usable network ID's: 128.1. y . z —191.255. b . c
    • Class C
      • Network ID's: 2,097,150
      • Host ID's: 254
      • Usable network ID's: 192.0.1. z —223.255.254. c
  • TCP/IP Protocols (Page 1)
    • Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
      • Sends control messages including:
        • Error messages, quality of server information, confirmations, etc.
        • The “Ping” utility which can request response from a remote host
  • TCP/IP Protocols (Page 2)
    • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
      • When system begins a conversation with host, requests a physical address which can be associated with the logical address
    • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
      • Manages a defined block of IP addresses
      • Assigns IP addresses dynamically to computers upon request
  • TCP/IP Protocols (Page 3)
    • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
      • Primary Internet transport protocol
      • Connection oriented, so it provides more reliable delivery than connectionless
      • Uses a port number to identify which process is to receive a particular packet
      • Its sequencing function ensures that packets are reassembled in correct order
      • Able to acknowledge successful delivery and request retransmission of lost or damaged packets
  • TCP/IP Protocols (Page 4)
    • Protocols within:
      • File Transfer Protocol (FTP)—directory and file manipulation
      • Telnet—remote terminal emulation
      • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)—the basis for Internet e-mail
      • Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)—reports management data
      • Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)—the World Wide Web
  • Some TCP/IP Utilities and Services (Page 1)
    • Packet Internet Groper (PING)
      • Uses ICMP protocol to see if a designated host is reachable on the network
      • Can permit you to see if your own machine is attached properly
      • At command line type:
        • ping machineName
        • ping IP_address
        • ping 127.0.0.1 (to view your own machine)
  • Some TCP/IP Utilities and Services (Page 2)
    • IPCONFIG
      • Displays the IP address, subnet mask and default gateway for all network interfaces on local machine
      • At command line type: ipconfig [/all]
    • NETSTAT
      • Lists
  • TCP/IP Configuration (Page 1)
    • Configuration is performed through the “Network Connections” tool
    • By default seeks out D ynamic H ost C onfiguration P rotocol (DHCP) server provides an IP address upon request
      • Server assigns IP addresses on demand
  • TCP/IP Configuration (Page 2)
    • Alternately each machine may be assigned a specific IP address manually:
      • Unique IP address for each machine
      • Subnet mask for the network to which the machine belongs
      • A gateway address—the node (router) on network that serves as an access point to another network
        • In homes, the gateway is the ISP
        • In enterprises, the gateway routes traffic from workstation to outside network
  • TCP/IP Configuration (Page 3)
    • Alternately each machine may be assigned a specific IP address manually (con.)
      • Address of one or more domain name system (DNS) servers
        • Stores and associates information with domain names providing a worldwide keyword-based redirection service
        • Translates domain names (computer hostnames) to IP addresses
        • Lists mail exchange servers accepting e-mail for each domain
  • Windows XP Remote Tools
    • Remote Assistance
      • Allows a distant user to view your desktop
      • Have control over the mouse and keyboard activities
    • Remote Desktop
      • Enables you to access your client’s logon environment from a remote system
  • Remote Assistance
    • Designed to simplify task of training users
    • Requires an e-mail invitation for another machine to take over the invitee
      • Invitation expires
    • Both machines must be XP
    • Windows Messenger or MAPI-compliant e-mail utility required
    • Uses Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP)
  • Remote Desktop
    • Similar to a single client version of Terminal Services
    • Workers access work machine from home
    • Enabled through a component of I nternet I nformation S ervices (IIS)
  • Network Setup Wizard
    • Step-by-step, walk-through tool used to configure nondomain networks
    • Used for small offices and home networks
    • Can be opened from the network tasks list
    • Wizard on the system to be the ICS host first
  • Network Connections Window
  • Network Connection Wizard
  • Installing Remote Access Hardware
    • Hardware must be installed before remote connection established
    • Windows XP inspects hardware and attempts to identify any new devices
    • Windows XP attempts to locate and install drivers for new device
  • Phone and Modem Applet
    • Primary Control Panel applet for managing remote access devices and operations
    • Used to control:
      • Dialing rules
      • Configure remote access devices
      • Configure telephony driver properties
  • Connecting to the Internet
    • Connect to the Internet Wizard:
      • Choose from a list of Internet service providers (ISPs)
      • Set up my connection manually
      • Use the CD that I got from an ISP
  • Connection Status Dialog Box
  • Internet Connection Sharing
    • Used to share single network connection with small group of networked computers
    • Enabled on Advanced tab of connection object’s Properties dialog box
    • Incorporates:
      • Network Address Translation (NAT) function
      • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) address allocator
      • Domain Name System (DNS) proxy
  • Internet Connection Firewall
    • Security measure for protecting network connections from unwanted traffic
    • Can set restrictions on traffic in and out of network to an external network or the Internet
    • Much-needed feature for systems that employ shared broadband connections
    • Stateful firewall
    • Blocks most incoming traffic by default
  • Connecting to the Network at My Workplace
    • Virtual Private Networking (VPN)
      • Trend in mobile computing
      • Employs Internet as long-distance carrier to enable distant, secure LAN connections
    • Windows XP VPN:
      • Encrypts all traffic
      • Setup with New Connection Wizard
  • Setting Up an Advanced Connection
    • Used to:
      • Establish direct connection between two systems
        • Transfer large amount of data with no network connection
        • Use serial or parallel cable
      • Configure system to answer inbound dial-up calls
        • Can act as remote access server for single incoming connection
        • Only for special-purpose applications
  • Alternate IP Configuration
    • Available whenever networking connection object uses DHCP
    • Preconfigure an alternate default IP configuration if DHCP fails
    • Found on second tab in &quot;Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties&quot; dialog window for a Network Connection
  • Remote Access Security
    • Built on Windows XP local and network security
    • Dial-up connection objects
      • Authentication and encryption security options
    • VPN
      • Used to secure remote access
  • Certificates (Page 1)
    • Provide proof of identity for network and Internet communications
    • Allow systems to trust unknown online parties for the purposes of:
      • Exchanging information
      • Exchanging Data
      • Performing e-commerce
    • Product of cryptographic mechanism known as public key infrastructure (PKI)
  • Certificates (Page 2)
    • Certificate Authority (CA):
      • Responsible for:
        • Creating
        • Issuing
        • Managing
        • Revoking certificates
      • Can be server computer system within organization’s network or service offered by independent third-party organization
  • Certificates (Page 3)
    • Found by clicking the < Certificates > button on &quot;Content&quot; tab of the Internet Options applet
  • Internet Options Applet (Page 1)
    • Used to define settings for MS Internet Explorer and general Internet access
    • General tab to:
      • Set the default home page
      • Managing temporary Internet files
      • Managing the URL history
      • Modifying default fonts, colors, language and accessibility options
  • Internet Options Applet (Page 2)
    • Security tab to set security levels:
      • The four Web zones are:
        • Internet (not in any other zone)
        • Local intranet (on your organization's intranet)
        • Trusted sites (will not harm your computer)
        • Restricted sites (may harm your computer)
      • The < Custom Level… > options are quite complex with multiple individual settings
      • The < Default Level > uses a slider to set security for each zone to low, medium-low, medium or high
  • Internet Options Applet (Page 3)
    • Privacy tab to set security levels:
      • Sets the level personal information is or is not shared when communicating with other web sites
      • Settings relate to how cookies are handled
        • Either totally blocked or allowed
        • Or accepted on some limited basis
  • Internet Options Applet (Page 4)
    • Content tab to configure:
      • Content Advisor—site blocker based on levels of content
      • Certificates—identify trusted sites
      • AutoComplete—lists possible matches from entries the user has keyed previously into the Address bar
      • My Profile…--your online identity
  • Internet Options Applet (Page 5)
    • Connections tab to:
      • Manage your &quot;Network Connections&quot;
    • Programs tab to set the default applications for:
      • HTML editing
      • E-mail
      • Newsgroups
      • Internet calling
      • Calendar
      • Contact list
  • Internet Options Applet (Page 6)
    • Advanced tab to set features such as:
      • Accessibility
      • Browsing functions
      • Multimedia behaviors
      • Printing background colors and images
      • Searching behaviors on the Address bar
      • Security settings
  • Windows XP and the Internet
    • Tools to help access the Internet:
      • Internet Explorer
      • Outlook Express
      • FTP client
      • Telnet client
      • Internet Information Server (IIS)
  • Internet Explorer
    • Version 6.0 is included with XP
    • State-of-the-art Web browser
    • Tightly integrated with other Windows applications
    • Wide range of security related configuration options
    • Can be used as FTP client
  • Outlook Express
    • Popular e-mail client utility
    • Part of Microsoft Office
    • Outlook Express included in Windows XP
    • Used to read and write e-mail
    • Used to file and sort messages
    • Contact management tool
  • FTP Client
    • Command-line implementation of FTP client included in Windows XP
      • Used for uploading and downloading files to and from remote servers
      • Directory services on the server (copy, rename, delete, etc.) also available
    • Numerous freeware and shareware GUI implementations:
      • More user-friendly
      • I.e. WS_FTP
  • Telnet Client
    • Simple tool provided in Windows XP
    • Attempts to establish Telnet session with remote system based on domain name or IP address ( terminal emulation )
  • Internet Information Server
    • Reduced functionality version of Internet Information Server (IIS) included with Windows XP
    • Allows system to host Web and FTP services
      • Not designed or intended for public Web/FTP site hosting
      • Can be used for testing server-based dynamic Web applications
    • Limited to 10 simultaneous connections
  • Order Prints Online
    • Feature of the My Pictures folder
    • Starts the Online Print Ordering Wizard
    • Requires that Internet access be available
  • Client Vs. Server-based Remote Access
    • Select a Windows server (or another server-based system such as Unix or other server) for serious Internet hosting
    • Windows XP client is limited as follows:
      • Limited to a single incoming dial-up connection
      • Can support only 10 simultaneous network connections
      • Can share an Internet link with a workgroup
  • Remote Access Troubleshooting (Page 1)
    • Problems can be fairly elusive; check:
      • Physical connections (phone lines, serial cables, etc.)
      • Power to external devices
      • Properly installed and updated drivers
      • Properly configured settings
      • Correct authentication credentials
      • Similar encryption or security requirements
      • Proper protocol requirements and settings
  • Remote Access Troubleshooting (Page 2)
    • Log files:
      • File containing all communications made between OS and modem device during connection establishment
        • Found on Diagnostics tab in Properties window of the &quot;Modem&quot; tab for the Phone and Modem Options applet
      • PPP.LOG
      • System log
        • Found in &quot;Event Viewer&quot; dialog of the Administrative Tools applet
  • Case Projects 7-1 & 8-1 (No. 1), pp. 364 & 419
  •