Chapter 5 Data Communication and Internet Technology
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Chapter 5 Data Communication and Internet Technology






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Chapter 5 Data Communication and Internet Technology Chapter 5 Data Communication and Internet Technology Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 5 Data Communication And Internet Technology
  • Purpose
    • Understand the fundamental networking concepts
  • Agenda
    • Network Concepts
    • Communication Protocol
    • TCP/IP-OSI Architecture
    • Network Types
      • LAN
      • WAN
      • Public Switched Data Network
      • Virtual Private Network
    • Network Comparison
    • Internet
    • Domain Name System
    • IP Addressing Schemes
    • Security
    • Discussion and Case Study
  • Network Concepts
    • A collection of computers that communicate with one another over transmission lines
    • Types
      • Local area networks (LANs): connects computers in a single geographic location
      • Wide area networks (WANs): connects computers at different geographic sites
      • Internet: a network of networks
  • Communication Protocol
    • Protocol: a standard means for coordinating an activity between two or more entities
    • Communications protocol: a means for coordinating activity between two or more communicating computers
      • The communication protocol is broken into levels of layers
      • Two machines must agree upon and follow the protocol for exchanging the message
  • TCP/IP-ISO Architecture - I
    • International Organization for Standardization (ISO): Reference Model for Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)
    • Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF): Transmission Control Program/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
    • TCP/IP-ISO architecture: five layers
  • TCP/IP-ISO Architecture - II
    • Layer 5 (Application): communication rules between two applications
      • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) for email
      • Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) for processing Web page (sites and users)
      • File Transfer Protocol (FTP) for copying file between computers
  • TCP/IP-ISO Architecture - III
    • Layer 4 (Transport): communication rules between two host computers
      • Transmission Control Program (TCP)
      • Sending functions: break data into segments, add To and From address, and
      • Receiving functions: provide reliability by sending acknowledgement, and translate the format, assemble segments into data
  • TCP/IP-ISO Architecture - IV
    • Layer 3 (Internet): communication rules of routing packets across the Internet
      • Internet Protocol (IP)
      • Functions: package each segment into a packet, place IP data in in the packet, add To/From data
  • TCP/IP-ISO Architecture - V
    • Layer 2 (Data Link): communication rule for transmitting data within a single network
      • Functions: package packets into frames
    • Layer 1 (Physical): communication rule between adjacent device connected by a transmission medium
  • Terminology
    • Architecture: an arrangement of protocol layers with their associated tasks
    • Protocol: set of rule to accomplish the tasks
    • Program: software implementing the protocol
    • Web: sub set of Internet with users and sites to process protocol
    • Internet: communication structure
    • Browser: a program implementing the HTTP of the TCP/IP-OSI architecture (Netscape and Microsoft Internet Explorer)
  • TCP/IP-OSI Application Example
  • Network Types
    • LAN: local area network
    • WAN: wide area network
  • LAN - I
    • A group of computers connected together on a single company site and operated by the company
    • Equipments
      • Network interface card (NIC) or onboard NIC: an unique identifier named MAC (media access control) address
      • Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cable with RJ-45 connecter
      • Optical fiber cable with ST and SC connectors
  • LAN - II
    • IEEE (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers)
    • Protocol: IEEE 802.3 or Ethernet
      • Hardware characteristics (which wire carries which signals)
      • Package and process message over LAN
      • Operate on Layer 1 and 2
    • 10/100/1000 Ethernet (Mbps)
    • Bits for communications speeds and bytes for memory sizes
  • Local Area Network
  • NIC Interface Card
  • Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable
  • Optical Fiber Cable
  • LAN - III
    • Wireless LAN
      • Wireless NIC (WNIC)
      • IEEE 802.11g protocol to connect to an access point (AP) and IEEE 802.3
  • Wireless Access Standards
  • Wireless LAN
  • WAN
    • Connects computers located at physically separated sites
    • Internet service provider (ISP)
      • Provide customer a legitimate Internet address.
      • Serve as the gateway to the Internet
      • Communicate between sending computer and Internet
    • Connecting computer and ISP
      • Telephone line
      • DSL (digital subscriber line)
      • Cable TV line
  • WAN - Equipment
    • Modem
      • Convert data between digital and analog
      • Narrowband with speed less than 56 kbps and Broadband with speed over 256 kbps
    • Modem types
      • Dial-Up modem
        • Narrowband
        • Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
      • DSL modem
        • Permanent connection and one more line for telephone conversation
        • Asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) for home and small business with slow upload speed with 256 kbps and faster download speed ranging from 256 to 768 kbps
        • Symmetric digital subscriber line (SDSL) for advanced users and larger business with 1.544 Mbps performance level guarantees
      • Cable modem
        • Permanent connection and one more line for TV
        • 10 Mbps download speed and 256 kbps upload speed
  • Analog vs. Digital Signals
  • Personal Computer (PC) Internet Access
  • WAN - Equipment
    • Access devices
      • Switch (Layer 2)
      • Router (Layer 3)
    • Lease lines from telecommunication company
      • T1 line with 1.544 Mbps speed
      • T3 line with 44.763 Mbps speed
      • Optical fiber cable-768 with 40 Gbps
      • Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
  • Transmission Line Types, Uses, and Speeds
  • WAN – Public Switched Data Network
    • Public switched data network (PSDN)
    • Developed and maintained by a vendor for selling time to other company
    • Shown as a cloud in the map or diagram
    • User must have a leased line connecting to PSDN as point of presence (POP)
    • PSDN types
      • Frame Relay with 56 kbps to 40 Mbps: slower and cost less but simple and easy to support
      • Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) with 1 to 156 Mbps: faster and cost more but transmitting data and voice
      • Ethernet with 10 to 40 Gpbs
  • Wide Area Network Using PSDN
  • WAN – Virtual Private Network
    • Virtual private network (VPN): a private internet as a private point-to-point connection
    • Tunnel: a virtual, private pathway over a public or shared network from the VPN client to the VPN server
    • Encrypted message
    • Remote access
  • Remote Access Using VPN
  • Wide Area Network Using VPN
  • Network Comparison
    • Setup costs
      • Equipment: lines, switches, routers, and access devices
      • Labor
    • Operational costs
      • Lease fees for line and equipment
      • ISP charges
      • Training
      • Maintenance: problem diagnosis, repair, and updating
    • Performance
      • Speed: line and equipment
      • Latency: transmission delay due to congestion
      • Availability: service outages
      • Loss rate: transmission problem
      • Transparency
      • Performance guarantee: availability, error rate, speed, etc.
    • Growth potential
    • Contract commitment period
    • Management time
    • Financial risk
    • Technical risk
  • Summary of LAN and WAN Networks
  • Internet
    • Network address
      • Physical or MAC address in Layer 2 program: permanent and unique
      • Logical or IP address in Layers 3, 4, and 5: not permanent, such as
      • Public IP address used on the Internet to major institutions in blocks assigned by Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)
      • Private IP address used within private networks and internets
    • DHCP server has Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) to assign a temporary IP address for accessing the Internet
    • Network Address Translation (NAT): The process of changing public IP addresses into private IP addresses, and the reverse
  • Domain Name System
    • Convert user-friendly name into their IP address
    • domain name: any registered, valid name with ICANN
    • resolving the domain name: the process of changing a name into its IP address
      • ICANN has 13 computer as root servers for maintaining a list of IP addresses of servers to resolve each type of TLD in the world
    • Top-level domain (TLD)
      • Non-U.S. is the two letter abbreviation for the country
      • U.S. is the type of organization
    • Uniform resource locator (URL): document’s address on the Web
    • Domain name resolvers store the correspondence of domain names and IP address
  • IP Addressing Schemes
    • IPv4 and
    • IPv4
      • 32 bits divided into four groups of 8 bits, and a decimal number represents each group
      • The largest decimal number between the period is 255 (0 – 255)
    • IPv6
      • 128 bits due to the growth of the Internet
      • Currently both IPv4 and IPv6 are used on the Internet
  • Security
    • Encryption algorithms: DES, 3DES, AES
    • Key
      • Symmetric encryption
      • Asymmetric encryption: public key and private key
    • HTTPS
      • Secure Socket Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS)
      • Public key, private key and symmetric encryption
  • Summary
    • TCP/IP-OSI five layers
      • Application layer
      • Transport layer
      • Internet layer
      • Data link layer
      • Physical layer
    • Public switched data network (PSDN)
    • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) to assign a temporary IP address for accessing the Internet
    • Domain name
  • Discussion
    • Problem solving (121a-b)
      • What are the new opportunities for the business generated by the Internet?
      • What are the new threats for the business generated by the Internet?
    • Opposing forces (129a-b)
      • State your opinions related to the negative impact on the society when everyone is connect through the Internet.
    • Security (133a-b)
      • State the impacts on the society and business from the government having an decryption method to decode everything over the Internet.
    • Ethics (141a-b)
      • State the impacts from the employee’s private usage of company’s computer facility.
    • Reflections (143a-b)
      • How should you react properly from not getting lost from this Internet age?
  • Case Study
    • Case 5-1 (148-149) Network Services: questions 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, and 10
  • Points to Remember
    • Network Concepts
    • Communication Protocol
    • TCP/IP-OSI Architecture
    • Network Types
      • LAN
      • WAN
      • Public Switched Data Network
      • Virtual Private Network
    • Network Comparison
    • Internet
    • Domain Name System
    • IP Addressing Schemes
    • Security
    • Discussion and Case Study