Chapter 5 Data Communication and Internet Technology


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Chapter 5 Data Communication and Internet Technology

  1. 1. Chapter 5 Data Communication And Internet Technology
  2. 2. Purpose <ul><li>Understand the fundamental networking concepts </li></ul>
  3. 3. Agenda <ul><li>Network Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Communication Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>TCP/IP-OSI Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Network Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LAN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WAN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Switched Data Network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual Private Network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Network Comparison </li></ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Domain Name System </li></ul><ul><li>IP Addressing Schemes </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion and Case Study </li></ul>
  4. 4. Network Concepts <ul><li>A collection of computers that communicate with one another over transmission lines </li></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local area networks (LANs): connects computers in a single geographic location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wide area networks (WANs): connects computers at different geographic sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet: a network of networks </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Communication Protocol <ul><li>Protocol: a standard means for coordinating an activity between two or more entities </li></ul><ul><li>Communications protocol: a means for coordinating activity between two or more communicating computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The communication protocol is broken into levels of layers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two machines must agree upon and follow the protocol for exchanging the message </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. TCP/IP-ISO Architecture - I <ul><li>International Organization for Standardization (ISO): Reference Model for Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF): Transmission Control Program/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) </li></ul><ul><li>TCP/IP-ISO architecture: five layers </li></ul>
  7. 7. TCP/IP-ISO Architecture - II <ul><li>Layer 5 (Application): communication rules between two applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) for email </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) for processing Web page (sites and users) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>File Transfer Protocol (FTP) for copying file between computers </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. TCP/IP-ISO Architecture - III <ul><li>Layer 4 (Transport): communication rules between two host computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission Control Program (TCP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sending functions: break data into segments, add To and From address, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receiving functions: provide reliability by sending acknowledgement, and translate the format, assemble segments into data </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. TCP/IP-ISO Architecture - IV <ul><li>Layer 3 (Internet): communication rules of routing packets across the Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Protocol (IP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functions: package each segment into a packet, place IP data in in the packet, add To/From data </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. TCP/IP-ISO Architecture - V <ul><li>Layer 2 (Data Link): communication rule for transmitting data within a single network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functions: package packets into frames </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Layer 1 (Physical): communication rule between adjacent device connected by a transmission medium </li></ul>
  11. 11. Terminology <ul><li>Architecture: an arrangement of protocol layers with their associated tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Protocol: set of rule to accomplish the tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Program: software implementing the protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Web: sub set of Internet with users and sites to process protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Internet: communication structure </li></ul><ul><li>Browser: a program implementing the HTTP of the TCP/IP-OSI architecture (Netscape and Microsoft Internet Explorer) </li></ul>
  12. 12. TCP/IP-OSI Application Example
  13. 13. Network Types <ul><li>LAN: local area network </li></ul><ul><li>WAN: wide area network </li></ul>
  14. 14. LAN - I <ul><li>A group of computers connected together on a single company site and operated by the company </li></ul><ul><li>Equipments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network interface card (NIC) or onboard NIC: an unique identifier named MAC (media access control) address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cable with RJ-45 connecter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optical fiber cable with ST and SC connectors </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. LAN - II <ul><li>IEEE (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers) </li></ul><ul><li>Protocol: IEEE 802.3 or Ethernet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware characteristics (which wire carries which signals) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Package and process message over LAN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operate on Layer 1 and 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>10/100/1000 Ethernet (Mbps) </li></ul><ul><li>Bits for communications speeds and bytes for memory sizes </li></ul>
  16. 16. Local Area Network
  17. 17. NIC Interface Card
  18. 18. Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable
  19. 19. Optical Fiber Cable
  20. 20. LAN - III <ul><li>Wireless LAN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless NIC (WNIC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE 802.11g protocol to connect to an access point (AP) and IEEE 802.3 </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Wireless Access Standards
  22. 22. Wireless LAN
  23. 23. WAN <ul><li>Connects computers located at physically separated sites </li></ul><ul><li>Internet service provider (ISP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide customer a legitimate Internet address. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serve as the gateway to the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate between sending computer and Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Connecting computer and ISP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DSL (digital subscriber line) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable TV line </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. WAN - Equipment <ul><li>Modem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convert data between digital and analog </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrowband with speed less than 56 kbps and Broadband with speed over 256 kbps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Modem types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dial-Up modem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Narrowband </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DSL modem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Permanent connection and one more line for telephone conversation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) for home and small business with slow upload speed with 256 kbps and faster download speed ranging from 256 to 768 kbps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Symmetric digital subscriber line (SDSL) for advanced users and larger business with 1.544 Mbps performance level guarantees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable modem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Permanent connection and one more line for TV </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10 Mbps download speed and 256 kbps upload speed </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Analog vs. Digital Signals
  26. 26. Personal Computer (PC) Internet Access
  27. 27. WAN - Equipment <ul><li>Access devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Switch (Layer 2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Router (Layer 3) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lease lines from telecommunication company </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T1 line with 1.544 Mbps speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T3 line with 44.763 Mbps speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optical fiber cable-768 with 40 Gbps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Transmission Line Types, Uses, and Speeds
  29. 29. WAN – Public Switched Data Network <ul><li>Public switched data network (PSDN) </li></ul><ul><li>Developed and maintained by a vendor for selling time to other company </li></ul><ul><li>Shown as a cloud in the map or diagram </li></ul><ul><li>User must have a leased line connecting to PSDN as point of presence (POP) </li></ul><ul><li>PSDN types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frame Relay with 56 kbps to 40 Mbps: slower and cost less but simple and easy to support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) with 1 to 156 Mbps: faster and cost more but transmitting data and voice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethernet with 10 to 40 Gpbs </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Wide Area Network Using PSDN
  31. 31. WAN – Virtual Private Network <ul><li>Virtual private network (VPN): a private internet as a private point-to-point connection </li></ul><ul><li>Tunnel: a virtual, private pathway over a public or shared network from the VPN client to the VPN server </li></ul><ul><li>Encrypted message </li></ul><ul><li>Remote access </li></ul>
  32. 32. Remote Access Using VPN
  33. 33. Wide Area Network Using VPN
  34. 34. Network Comparison <ul><li>Setup costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment: lines, switches, routers, and access devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operational costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lease fees for line and equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISP charges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance: problem diagnosis, repair, and updating </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed: line and equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latency: transmission delay due to congestion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability: service outages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss rate: transmission problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transparency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance guarantee: availability, error rate, speed, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Growth potential </li></ul><ul><li>Contract commitment period </li></ul><ul><li>Management time </li></ul><ul><li>Financial risk </li></ul><ul><li>Technical risk </li></ul>
  35. 35. Summary of LAN and WAN Networks
  36. 36. Internet <ul><li>Network address </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical or MAC address in Layer 2 program: permanent and unique </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical or IP address in Layers 3, 4, and 5: not permanent, such as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public IP address used on the Internet to major institutions in blocks assigned by Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Private IP address used within private networks and internets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DHCP server has Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) to assign a temporary IP address for accessing the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Network Address Translation (NAT): The process of changing public IP addresses into private IP addresses, and the reverse </li></ul>
  37. 37. Domain Name System <ul><li>Convert user-friendly name into their IP address </li></ul><ul><li>domain name: any registered, valid name with ICANN </li></ul><ul><li>resolving the domain name: the process of changing a name into its IP address </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ICANN has 13 computer as root servers for maintaining a list of IP addresses of servers to resolve each type of TLD in the world </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Top-level domain (TLD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-U.S. is the two letter abbreviation for the country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. is the type of organization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uniform resource locator (URL): document’s address on the Web </li></ul><ul><li>Domain name resolvers store the correspondence of domain names and IP address </li></ul>
  38. 38. IP Addressing Schemes <ul><li>IPv4 and </li></ul><ul><li>IPv4 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>32 bits divided into four groups of 8 bits, and a decimal number represents each group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The largest decimal number between the period is 255 (0 – 255) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IPv6 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>128 bits due to the growth of the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Currently both IPv4 and IPv6 are used on the Internet </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Security <ul><li>Encryption algorithms: DES, 3DES, AES </li></ul><ul><li>Key </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Symmetric encryption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asymmetric encryption: public key and private key </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HTTPS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secure Socket Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public key, private key and symmetric encryption </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Summary <ul><li>TCP/IP-OSI five layers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Application layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data link layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical layer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Public switched data network (PSDN) </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) to assign a temporary IP address for accessing the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Domain name </li></ul>
  41. 41. Discussion <ul><li>Problem solving (121a-b) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the new opportunities for the business generated by the Internet? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the new threats for the business generated by the Internet? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Opposing forces (129a-b) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State your opinions related to the negative impact on the society when everyone is connect through the Internet. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Security (133a-b) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State the impacts on the society and business from the government having an decryption method to decode everything over the Internet. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethics (141a-b) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State the impacts from the employee’s private usage of company’s computer facility. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reflections (143a-b) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How should you react properly from not getting lost from this Internet age? </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Case Study <ul><li>Case 5-1 (148-149) Network Services: questions 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, and 10 </li></ul>
  43. 43. Points to Remember <ul><li>Network Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Communication Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>TCP/IP-OSI Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Network Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LAN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WAN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Switched Data Network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual Private Network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Network Comparison </li></ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Domain Name System </li></ul><ul><li>IP Addressing Schemes </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion and Case Study </li></ul>