Figure 4.7 (p. 175) A photograph of the Hewlett-Packard HP8510B Network Analyzer. This test instrument is used to measure the scattering parameters (magnitude and phase) of a one- or two-port microwave network from 0.05 GHz to 26.5 GHz. Built-in microprocessors provide error correction, a high degree of accuracy, and a wide choice of display formats. This analyzer can also perform a fast Fourier transform of the frequency domain data to provide a time domain response of the network under test. Courtesy of Agilent Technologies.
Figure 4.8 (p. 176) A matched 3B attenuator with a 50 Ω Characteristic impedance (Example 4.4).
Figure 4.9 (p. 181) Shifting reference planes for an N -port network.
Figure 4.10 (p. 181) An N -port network with different characteristic impedances.
Figure 4.11 (p. 184) ( a ) A two-port network; ( b ) a cascade connection of two-port networks.
Figure 4.12 (p. 188) A coax-to-microstrip transition and equivalent circuit representations. ( a ) Geometry of the transition. ( b ) Representation of the transition by a “black box.” ( c ) A possible equivalent circuit for the transition .
Figure 4.13 (p. 188) Equivalent circuits for a reciprocal two-port network. ( a ) T equivalent. ( b ) π equivalent.
Figure 4.14 (p. 189) The signal flow graph representation of a two-port network. ( a ) Definition of incident and reflected waves. ( b ) Signal flow graph.
Figure 4.15 (p. 190) The signal flow graph representations of a one-port network and a source. ( a ) A one-port network and its flow graph. ( b ) A source and its flow graph.
Figure 4.16 (p. 191) Decomposition rules. ( a ) Series rule. ( b ) Parallel rule. ( c ) Self-loop rule. ( d ) Splitting rule.
Figure 4.17 (p. 192) A terminated two-port network.
Figure 4.18 (p. 192) Signal flow path for the two-port network with general source and load impedances of Figure 4.17.
Figure 4.19 (p. 192) Decompositions of the flow graph of Figure 4.18 to find Γ in = b 1 / a 1 and Γ out = b 2 / a 2 . ( a ) Using Rule 4 on node a 2 . ( b ) Using Rule 3 for the self-loop at node b 2 . ( c ) Using Rule 4 on node b 1 . ( d ) Using Rule 3 for the self-loop at node a 1 .
Figure 4.20 (p. 193) Block diagram of a network analyzer measurement of a two-port device.
Figure 4.21a (p. 194) Block diagram and signal flow graph for the Thru connection.
Figure 4.21b (p. 194) Block diagram and signal flow graph for the Reflect connection.
Figure 4.21c (p. 194) Block diagram and signal flow graph for the Line connection.
Figure 4.23 (p. 199) Some common microstrip discontinuities. ( a ) Open-ended microstrip. ( b ) Gap in microstrip. ( c ) Change in width. ( d ) T-junction. ( e ) Coax-to-microstrip junction.
Figure 4.24 (p. 200) Geometry of an H -plane step (change in width) in rectangular waveguide.
Figure 4.25 (p. 203) Equivalent inductance of an H-plane asymmetric step.
Figure on page 204 Reference: T.C. Edwards, Foundations for Microwave Circuit Design, Wiley, 1981.
Figure 4.26 (p. 205) An infinitely long rectangular waveguide with surface current densities at z = 0.
Figure 4.27 (p. 206) An arbitrary electric or magnetic current source in an infinitely long waveguide.
Figure 4.28 (p. 208) A uniform current probe in a rectangular waveguide.
Figure 4.29 (p. 210) Various waveguide and other transmission line configurations using aperture coupling. ( a ) Coupling between two waveguides wit an aperture in the common broad wall. ( b ) Coupling to a waveguide cavity via an aperture in a transverse wall. ( c ) Coupling between two microstrip lines via an aperture in the common ground plane. ( d ) Coupling from a waveguide to a stripline via an aperture.
Figure 4.30 (p. 210) Illustrating the development of equivalent electric and magnetic polarization currents at an aperture in a conducting wall ( a ) Normal electric field at a conducting wall. ( b ) Electric field lines around an aperture in a conducting wall. (c) Electric field lines around electric polarization currents normal to a conducting wall. ( d ) Magnetic field lines near a conducting wall. ( e ) Magnetic field lines near an aperture in a conducting wall. (f) Magnetic field lines near magnetic polarization currents parallel to a conducting wall.
Figure 4.31 (p. 213) Applying small-hole coupling theory and image theory to the problem of an aperture in the transverse wall of a waveguide. ( a ) Geometry of a circular aperture in the transverse wall of a waveguide. ( b ) Fields with aperture closed. ( c ) Fields with aperture open. ( d ) Fields with aperture closed and replaced with equivalent dipoles. ( e ) Fields radiated by equivalent dipoles for x < 0; wall removed by image theory. ( f ) Fields radiated by equivalent dipoles for z > 0; all removed by image theory.
Figure 4.32 (p. 214) Equivalent circuit of the aperture in a transverse waveguide wall.
Figure 4.33 (p. 214) Two parallel waveguides coupled through an aperture in a common broad wall.