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  • 1. Figure 4.1 (p. 163) Electric and magnetic field lines for an arbitrary two-conductor TEM line.
  • 2. Figure 4.2 (p. 163) Electric field lines for the TE 10 mode of a rectangular waveguide.
  • 3. Figure 4.3 (p. 167) Geometry of a partially filled waveguide and its transmission line equivalent for Example 4.2.
  • 4. Figure 4.4 (p. 168) An arbitrary one-port network.
  • 5. Figure 4.5 (p. 169) An arbitrary N -port microwave network.
  • 6. Figure 4.6 (p. 173) A two-port T-network.
  • 7. Figure 4.7 (p. 175) A photograph of the Hewlett-Packard HP8510B Network Analyzer. This test instrument is used to measure the scattering parameters (magnitude and phase) of a one- or two-port microwave network from 0.05 GHz to 26.5 GHz. Built-in microprocessors provide error correction, a high degree of accuracy, and a wide choice of display formats. This analyzer can also perform a fast Fourier transform of the frequency domain data to provide a time domain response of the network under test. Courtesy of Agilent Technologies.
  • 8. Figure 4.8 (p. 176) A matched 3B attenuator with a 50 Ω Characteristic impedance (Example 4.4).
  • 9. Figure 4.9 (p. 181) Shifting reference planes for an N -port network.
  • 10. Figure 4.10 (p. 181) An N -port network with different characteristic impedances.
  • 11. Figure on page 183
  • 12. Figure 4.11 (p. 184) ( a ) A two-port network; ( b ) a cascade connection of two-port networks.
  • 13. Figure 4.12 (p. 188) A coax-to-microstrip transition and equivalent circuit representations. ( a ) Geometry of the transition. ( b ) Representation of the transition by a “black box.” ( c ) A possible equivalent circuit for the transition [6].
  • 14. Figure 4.13 (p. 188) Equivalent circuits for a reciprocal two-port network. ( a ) T equivalent. ( b ) π equivalent.
  • 15. Figure 4.14 (p. 189) The signal flow graph representation of a two-port network. ( a ) Definition of incident and reflected waves. ( b ) Signal flow graph.
  • 16. Figure 4.15 (p. 190) The signal flow graph representations of a one-port network and a source. ( a ) A one-port network and its flow graph. ( b ) A source and its flow graph.
  • 17. Figure 4.16 (p. 191) Decomposition rules. ( a ) Series rule. ( b ) Parallel rule. ( c ) Self-loop rule. ( d ) Splitting rule.
  • 18. Figure 4.17 (p. 192) A terminated two-port network.
  • 19. Figure 4.18 (p. 192) Signal flow path for the two-port network with general source and load impedances of Figure 4.17.
  • 20. Figure 4.19 (p. 192) Decompositions of the flow graph of Figure 4.18 to find Γ in = b 1 / a 1 and Γ out = b 2 / a 2 . ( a ) Using Rule 4 on node a 2 . ( b ) Using Rule 3 for the self-loop at node b 2 . ( c ) Using Rule 4 on node b 1 . ( d ) Using Rule 3 for the self-loop at node a 1 .
  • 21. Figure 4.20 (p. 193) Block diagram of a network analyzer measurement of a two-port device.
  • 22. Figure 4.21a (p. 194) Block diagram and signal flow graph for the Thru connection.
  • 23. Figure 4.21b (p. 194) Block diagram and signal flow graph for the Reflect connection.
  • 24. Figure 4.21c (p. 194) Block diagram and signal flow graph for the Line connection.
  • 25. Figure 4.22 (p. 198) Rectangular waveguide discontinuities.
  • 26. Figure 4.23 (p. 199) Some common microstrip discontinuities. ( a ) Open-ended microstrip. ( b ) Gap in microstrip. ( c ) Change in width. ( d ) T-junction. ( e ) Coax-to-microstrip junction.
  • 27. Figure 4.24 (p. 200) Geometry of an H -plane step (change in width) in rectangular waveguide.
  • 28. Figure 4.25 (p. 203) Equivalent inductance of an H-plane asymmetric step.
  • 29. Figure on page 204 Reference: T.C. Edwards, Foundations for Microwave Circuit Design, Wiley, 1981.
  • 30. Figure 4.26 (p. 205) An infinitely long rectangular waveguide with surface current densities at z = 0.
  • 31. Figure 4.27 (p. 206) An arbitrary electric or magnetic current source in an infinitely long waveguide.
  • 32. Figure 4.28 (p. 208) A uniform current probe in a rectangular waveguide.
  • 33. Figure 4.29 (p. 210) Various waveguide and other transmission line configurations using aperture coupling. ( a ) Coupling between two waveguides wit an aperture in the common broad wall. ( b ) Coupling to a waveguide cavity via an aperture in a transverse wall. ( c ) Coupling between two microstrip lines via an aperture in the common ground plane. ( d ) Coupling from a waveguide to a stripline via an aperture.
  • 34. Figure 4.30 (p. 210) Illustrating the development of equivalent electric and magnetic polarization currents at an aperture in a conducting wall ( a ) Normal electric field at a conducting wall. ( b ) Electric field lines around an aperture in a conducting wall. (c) Electric field lines around electric polarization currents normal to a conducting wall. ( d ) Magnetic field lines near a conducting wall. ( e ) Magnetic field lines near an aperture in a conducting wall. (f) Magnetic field lines near magnetic polarization currents parallel to a conducting wall.
  • 35. Figure 4.31 (p. 213) Applying small-hole coupling theory and image theory to the problem of an aperture in the transverse wall of a waveguide. ( a ) Geometry of a circular aperture in the transverse wall of a waveguide. ( b ) Fields with aperture closed. ( c ) Fields with aperture open. ( d ) Fields with aperture closed and replaced with equivalent dipoles. ( e ) Fields radiated by equivalent dipoles for x < 0; wall removed by image theory. ( f ) Fields radiated by equivalent dipoles for z > 0; all removed by image theory.
  • 36. Figure 4.32 (p. 214) Equivalent circuit of the aperture in a transverse waveguide wall.
  • 37. Figure 4.33 (p. 214) Two parallel waveguides coupled through an aperture in a common broad wall.