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Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Chapter 10
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Chapter 10

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  • The only one in use today is Full-Duplex
  • MAC address is cradle to grave, can't be changed. TCP/IP address can be changed.
  • Ring subject to failures – if any segment goes down, the whole ring is down.
  • The categories are IEEE specifications for quality of transmission. Cat 5 meets a certain set of requirements, and so on… Given the same environmental circumstances, you can have a longer run of higher cat cable.
  • A poor connection causes a lot of packet re-transmissions, dropping perceived speed.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Chapter 10 Network Fundamentals
    • 2. Network Definition <ul><li>Two or more computers connected together to share information (e.g., files) or resources (e.g., printers) </li></ul>
    • 3. Network Services <ul><li>File Services – Allows multiple users access to sets of files for distribution or collaboration. </li></ul><ul><li>Print Services – Allows multiple users to connect to, and use centralized printers. </li></ul><ul><li>Mail Services (including IM) – A server on the network acts as an E-mail server, receiving all E-mail for the domain. </li></ul>
    • 4. Network Services <ul><li>Directory and Name Services – Enables users to connect to particular files and devices without knowing the physical location of the resource. </li></ul>
    • 5. The Internet <ul><li>A network of networks </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet itself is nothing more than a set of facilities that connect separate, little networks together into one gigantic network. </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet doesn't provide the information you're looking for, one of the smaller networks does. </li></ul>
    • 6. Network Administration <ul><li>Setting up user accounts and services </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring network performance </li></ul><ul><li>Repairing network failures </li></ul><ul><li>Enforcing security </li></ul><ul><li>Providing fault tolerance (backing up) </li></ul>
    • 7. Network Modes of Transmission <ul><li>Simplex – One direction only </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over the air television </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burglar, Fire Alarms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Half-Duplex – One direction at a time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two-way radios </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Full-Duplex – Transmit & Receive at the same time. Network connections allow full-duplex transmission. </li></ul>
    • 8. Types of Networks <ul><li>Peer-To-Peer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All computers are equal partners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each user responsible for access to resources on his/her computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each workstation acts as either a server or a client in each transaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to install and operate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No extra equipment or software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because each person controls access, network security can be a problem. </li></ul></ul>
    • 9. Types of Networks <ul><li>Client-Server </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Centralized administration of resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Users must authenticate themselves to use network resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Server is equipped to handle requests from multiple users at the same time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is a cost for ease of administration (software, hardware, a trained staff) </li></ul></ul>
    • 10. Types of Networks <ul><li>Local Area Network (LAN) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers connected over a relatively small geographic area (a home, an office, a building or a campus). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wide Area Network (WAN) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed to work over a larger area than a LAN, across a city, state, country or the planet. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use either a circuit-switched or packet-switched network. </li></ul></ul>
    • 11. Connecting a Computer to a Network <ul><li>Network Interface Card (NIC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different cards for different types of network (Ethernet or Token Ring) and for different types of media. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each card has a particular Media Access Control (MAC) address. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each card is programmed with a TCP/IP address so that other computers can connect to it. </li></ul></ul>
    • 12. TCP/IP Address <ul><li>Four series of numbers from 0 – 255 </li></ul><ul><li>Every network-connected device has to have a unique address. </li></ul><ul><li>There are only 4.3 Billion addresses available. </li></ul>
    • 13. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) <ul><li>On large networks, you can run into problems if you let everyone administer their own IP addresses. </li></ul><ul><li>DHCP centralizes the administration of IP addresses on the network. </li></ul><ul><li>A DHCP server doles out unique IP’s to requesting computers. </li></ul><ul><li>The IP is leased to the device for a specified period of time. </li></ul>
    • 14. Domain Name System <ul><li>When a network is connected to the Internet, it’s difficult to remember the IPs of all the computers you want to connect to. </li></ul><ul><li>Hosts are identified by human-friendly names (www.nku.edu, support.microsoft.com). </li></ul><ul><li>A DNS server translates the name into the IP address. </li></ul>
    • 15. Physical Network Characteristics <ul><li>Network Topologies </li></ul><ul><li>Networking Media </li></ul><ul><li>Common Network Devices </li></ul>
    • 16. Network Topologies <ul><li>Star – Each device is connected to a centralized point, like spokes in a wheel. </li></ul><ul><li>Extended Star – Additional networking devices added to some spokes. Typical in schools, large corporations. </li></ul><ul><li>Bus – Single cable running from server. All workstations connect to cable </li></ul>
    • 17. Network Topologies <ul><li>Ring – Devices connected in a circle. A signal (token) is passed from device to device, and only the device with the token may transmit. </li></ul><ul><li>Double Ring – Two complete circles. Provides for fault tolerance. If one circle gets broken, the other takes over. </li></ul>
    • 18. Networking Media <ul><li>Coaxial Cable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to video cable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum speed is 100 MB/s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum run is 500 meters. </li></ul></ul>
    • 19. Networking Media <ul><li>Shielded Twisted Pair </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pairs of wires are twisted together and have a foil shield around them for noise and interference cancellation. </li></ul></ul>
    • 20. Networking Media <ul><li>Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The most common LAN cabling. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Category 3 used for telephone service. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Categories 5, 5e, 6 used for networks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rely solely on twisting for interference cancellation. </li></ul></ul>
    • 21. Networking Media <ul><li>Fiber Optic Cable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmits beams of light instead of electrical impulses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Much higher bandwidth, less subject to electrical interference. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Much more expensive to deal with. </li></ul></ul>
    • 22. Networking Media <ul><li>When any kind of wiring is going to be too expensive, wireless connections are the answer. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless connections come with a whole new set of security concerns. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Home wireless routers and equipment should not be used in a commercial environment. </li></ul></ul>
    • 23. Network Devices <ul><li>Hubs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connect multiple network clients together. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not very smart, send everything to everyone. </li></ul></ul>
    • 24. Network Devices <ul><li>Switches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to a hub, but intelligent. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Switches know the IP addresses of the devices attached to it, and send the message only to the correct device. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bridges – connect segments of a network together. </li></ul><ul><li>Routers – connect different types of networks together, like LAN to WAN. </li></ul>
    • 25. Network Utilities <ul><li>ping – Test connectivity to another computer. </li></ul><ul><li>arp – Displays mapping between IP addresses and MACs. </li></ul><ul><li>nslookup – Displays IP address for a given host name. </li></ul><ul><li>netstat – Displays information about active network connections. </li></ul><ul><li>ipconfig – Displays TCP/IP configuration information. </li></ul>
    • 26. Connecting to the Internet <ul><li>Dialup </li></ul><ul><li>DSL </li></ul><ul><li>Cable </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite </li></ul>
    • 27. Connecting to the Internet <ul><li>Dialup </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not always on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer does not get an IP address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicates with ISP via low speed modem. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISP groups many low speed connections together for transmission to the internet. </li></ul></ul>
    • 28. Connecting to the Internet <ul><li>Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High speed connection using telephone lines. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally, customer must be within 18,000 feet of a telco central office. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer becomes a remote computer on the ISP's network, and does get an IP address. </li></ul></ul>
    • 29. Connecting to the Internet <ul><li>Cable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally, anyone who has cable TV service can get cable high speed internet, but not all cable companies provide service. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Like DSL, always on, customer becomes a remote computer on ISP's network, gets an IP address. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All customers in your neighborhood share the same bandwidth. </li></ul></ul>
    • 30. Connecting to the Internet <ul><li>Satellite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provided by satellite TV companies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good for people in rural areas who can't get cable or DSL service. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because satellite TV is really one way service, extra stuff has to be added to make service 2-way. Upload speeds are one tenth of download speeds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul></ul>

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