Also, more research needs to be done in order to understand information-processing roles played by artifacts and how they interact with information-processing activities of their users.
Donald Norman investigated artifacts that mediate directly between the person and the object, orpresent a virtual object or world upon which operations are performed, eventually to be reflected onto a real object; the object might actually exist outside the computer, but be created or operated upon through the virtual world of the artifact; in these cases there are several layers of representation: (a) the representation itself; (b) the represented world of the real object; (c) the representing world within the artifact; (d) the way the artifact displays the virtual world; and (e) the mental (or symbolic gestural and performative) representations of the human.
Constructing a modal representationpotentially involves a reactivation of patterns of neural activity in the perceptual and motor areas of the brain that were activated in the initial experience of drawing or performing. The ability to develop an image in the mind's eye from which to give form to artifacts in the outer world, by means of discovering appropriate states of continuously manipulated materials, should be far better acknowledged aspect of electronic art, digital craft, and computer-aided design. Gesture presents us with a generative structure upon which to successfully integrate cognitive and sociocultural accounts, to demonstrate how cognition occurs both externally between people and between people and artifacts as well as internally within individuals.
Generative structure is the beginnings of a medium largely because it invites manipulation… The structures we manipulate are more than collections of elements: they are dense notational contexts for action. (McCullough p. 99) In a generative system, symbolic processing of data structures establishes an underlying structure, which under proper conditions can take on aspects of a medium. Explorations of generative structure obtain power from hand, eye, and tools. They arise from personal knowledge, practice, and commitment of the sort in traditional handicrafts, now applied to symbolic systems… Through the abstraction of symbolic representation, practiced, playful talent finds new outlets and develops new kinds of appreciation. p. 102
One of the things that makes graffiti tags different from other types of drawing or painting is that graffiti – due to the environment in which it is created – engages fast, associative, automatic and supple gestures to create the work.Increasingly computing shows promise of becoming the medium that could reunite visual thinking with manual dexterity and practiced knowledge.Walter Benjamin's notion of the “cinematic apparatus” offers a "thoroughgoing permeation of reality with mechanical equipment" and an "aspect of reality which free of all equipment." To pursue this reality we must first master the technology to the point where it becomes more transparent (ex.Kinect for Xbox) which also allows the mind and body to work without any external action or apparatus.
A number of recent studies have found that ordinary listeners can reliably ‘read’ gesture when it conveys different information from speech, even when gesture is unedited and fleeting, as it is in natural communication.(Goldin-Meadow) Motion-based tags can be overlaid on or projected onto objects in natural settings, through displays within the device itself, or on buildings. This data visualization is concentrated not on ink or spray paint but on the motion (performance) of writing the tag. (Evan Roth) Visual computing has expanded our capacity to visualize abstract symbolic structures as physical images. Many high-level abstractions are made visual and dynamic by computing. Visual production demands, and visual computing increasingly supports a cultivated practice of abstraction based on direct manipulation of graphical symbols.
One of the things that makes basic graffiti different from other types of painting is that graffiti – due to the environment in which it is created – engages fast, associative, automatic and supple gestures to create the work. Recent investigations explore how themanipulation of gesture is likely to involve perceptual and motor processing.EyeWriter requires the disabled user/artist TEMPT1 to make use of his working memory to generate virtual graffiti tags, he is also, simultaneously, calling forth "stored representations" in his long-term memory that come from his participation as a graffiti writer. A well-designed interface reflects a variety of psychological factors, such as workspace context, orchestration in time, and the development of clear mental models. (McCullough p. 115)
The crew is an important community of practice. Group projects are planned at crew meetings, the occasion for crew members also to use and create tools. There are stages in practice and in learning: novices learn by participating in peripheral form or by observation (Lave, 1990). To learn graffiti they begin by doing tags, then bombs, thentry 3-D’s and finally, do realistic pieces.Graffiti artists experiment constantly with supplies and new tools/supplies. They also appropriate or create new techniques for creating representations. Projects like Graffiti Analysis and EyeWriter merge two communities: graffiti/street art and D.I.Y. maker culture.
Here, I return to Goodwin’s description of a “hybrid space”: Human cognition is a historically constituted, socially distributed process encompassing tools as well as human bodies situated in a socially organized space within which there is a "constellation" of relevant tasks and tools. This domain can help cognitive scientists address how situated practices, mental models and schemas, and artifacts extend or enhance human cognition in collaborative communities. These activities are extremely useful as far as demonstrating cognitive models of science and technology. Additionally, this research may be helpful to designers of software and human-computer interfaces. Through the abstraction of symbolic (gesture-based)representation, practiced, playful talent finds new outlets and develops new kinds of appreciation. (McCulloughp. 102)
Free culture and open innovation – as social, techno-scientific platforms and paradigms for idea generation – engage a variety of audiences, including artists, activists, game developers, audio programmers, application developers, etc. Through research we can answer the question of how local hacking behavior and a “making do” approach to innovation is connected to socioeconomic and cultural domains in under-resourced communities, i.e. through “ground up,” not “top down” practices. This work provides insights into role of design, participation, or collaboration that are situated in historical, collectively defined, socially produced, culturally constructed activities, with a meaningful, holistic intent towards their surroundings.
Cogntive ARtifacts Presentation
Cognitive ARTifactsExamining sociocultural and cognitive dimensions in STS practicesthrough urban subcultures, as a basis for researching new modes/modelsthat construct meaning.CS 7697 Cognitive Models of Science and TechnologyInvestigator: Nettrice R. Gaskins
General Problem StatementFor many years, the importance of cognitive artifacts – artificial devices designedto serve a representational function – and their use to enhance human abilities hasbeen ignored within much of cognitive science despite earlier scientific inroads.Cognitive scientists have paid little attention to how artifacts are invented,acquired, or transmitted across individuals or generations, especially in groupsoutside of accepted criterion applied in a particular branch of learning.
The Cognitive-Computer ArtifactA cognitive artifact is an artificial device designed to maintain, display, oroperate upon information in order to serve a representational function.
The RepresentationGesturing is a robust phenomenon, foundacross cultures, ages, and tasks. SusanGoldin-Meadow examines the gesture when itstands on its own, substituting for speech andclearly serving a communicative function.Here, artist/performer Doze Green performsthe motion of an “s,” a modal symbol (analogrepresentation) that retains perceptual aspectsof all "s" letter forms, such as the generaloutline shape.Gesture-based technologies and interfaces canre-engage the use of the body, i.e. hands, aswell as the eye. Green also uses other parts ofhis body to perform symbolic gestures.
The Representing WorldThe computer interface provides userswith ways to generate representationsof their world. More specifically, thispaper investigates the virtual creationof symbolic or representationalgestures and movement of the body inphysical space.Graffiti Analysis demonstrates the “rawform of human motion with code ontop,” as a data visualization. The linequality is based on speed; the fasterthe user moves or gestures the thinnerthe line gets.
Displays of the Representing WorldSusan Goldin-Meadow suggests thatgestures (artifacts) serve both as a toolfor communication for listeners, and atool for thinking for speakers.There are several ways in whichartifacts display the virtual world,including the presentation of a virtualobject, iconic representation, or worldupon which operations are performed,eventually to be reflected or overlaidonto real objects – where they can beread by others.
Graffiti Research & Software Design The letter "s", one of the more commonly written letters in graffiti –this simple, single line gesture shows the way hundreds of different writers all treat the letter to see the diversity of thought and intent in a community of practice. When disabled graffiti artist TEMPT1 creates a letter with the motion of his eyes he is, in fact, constructing modal representations that reactivate parts of his brain that recall experiences when he was able bodied, in his graffiti crew in Los Angeles.
Communities of Practice A recent academic study of graffiti crews in southern Mexico City reveal certain characteristics with gangs or urban tribes, but more with „„communities of practice‟‟: they live in the „„figured world‟‟ of graffiti, a community of practice at the local and global level. Through participation, group members learn the language, technical and social skills, and values of this figured world.
Shared Repertoires Effective community design is built on the collective experience of community members. Only an insider can appreciate the issues at the heart of the domain, the knowledge that is important to share, the challenges their field faces, and the latent potential in emerging ideas, tools and techniques. This requires more than community "input." It requires a deep understanding of community issues.
Free Culture & Open InnovationEyeWriter enabled disabled graffitiartist TEMPT1 (Tony Quan) tocontribute work to “Getting Upper,” aposter project and exhibition thatexamines how typography, languageand communication continue to affectand be infected by theories arounddeconstruction and the visualexperience of graffiti and streetart. This work was recently on view atthe Pasadena Museum of CaliforniaArt.