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    Fridgend report Fridgend report Document Transcript

    • I541—Human Computer Interaction I Midterm Project Report The smartest fridge and friend Team 1 Yachung Cheng Tianjiao Liu Demonstration Website: http://netting.wix.com/fridgend 20 October 2013
    • TABLE OF CONTENTS I. Problem Space ........................................................................................................................... 5 A. Context ................................................................................................................................... 5 B. Use .......................................................................................................................................... 7 C. People ..................................................................................................................................... 8 1. Experience of Users ...................................................................................................... 8 2. Categories of Users ....................................................................................................... 9 D. Usability and Experience Goals of the Users....................................................................... 10 II. Conceptualizing...................................................................................................................... 11 A. Designing a representation of the target system............................................................. 11 B. Building objects and actions (defined abstractly and broadly) ...................................... 11 C. General proposal of the product’s objects and interactions ........................................... 13 1. General Concept, Appearance, and Interface Metaphor ................................................... 13 2. Physical Components ........................................................................................................ 15 III. Needs and Requirements ..................................................................................................... 16 A. Target Audience and Needs ........................................................................................... 16 B. Requirement Analysis .................................................................................................... 16 1. User Requirements ..................................................................................................... 16 2. Usability Requirements .............................................................................................. 16 3. Functional Requirements ............................................................................................ 17 4. Data Requirements ..................................................................................................... 17 5. Content Requirement .................................................................................................. 18 C. Task Scenarios................................................................................................................ 19 IV. Design and Prototypes .......................................................................................................... 21 A. Concept Design .............................................................................................................. 21 1. Product Concept ......................................................................................................... 21 2. Multiple Sketches ....................................................................................................... 21 3. Low-fidelity Prototypes .............................................................................................. 21 B. High-fidelity Prototype .................................................................................................. 22 1. Digital Illustrations ..................................................................................................... 22 2. Explanation of Interaction and Interface Design Components ................................... 22 V. Evaluation the Design ............................................................................................................ 24 A. Usability Study ............................................................................................................... 24 1. Interview/Questionnaire ............................................................................................. 24 2
    • 2. Internal Walkthrough .................................................................................................. 24 3. Walkthrough Tasks ..................................................................................................... 24 B. Assessment of Findings .................................................................................................. 26 1. The Overall Prototypical System Is Useful and Effective. ......................................... 26 2. Food Expiring in Two Days Are Not Obvious ........................................................... 26 3. Users Confused about Icons ....................................................................................... 26 4. Users Need Better Way to Send Shopping List to Mobile ......................................... 27 5. Concerns about Price .................................................................................................. 27 C. Revised Interactive Prototype: ....................................................................................... 27 1. Obvious Display for Expiring Food in Two Days ...................................................... 27 2. Added Function Names under Major Icons ................................................................ 28 3. Added “Send Shopping List by Text Message ” Function ......................................... 29 VI. Appendix ............................................................................................................................... 30 Appendix A: Sketches Examples .............................................................................................. 30 Appendix B: System Architecture ............................................................................................ 32 Appendix C: Low-fidelity Paper Prototypes Examples ............................................................ 33 Appendix D: Digital Illustration Examples .............................................................................. 38 Appendix E: Usability Questionnaire ....................................................................................... 41 Appendix F: Questionnaire Results Raw Data ......................................................................... 44 Appendix G: Internal Walkthrough Raw Data ......................................................................... 56 3
    • TABLE OF FIGURES Table 1 Usability and Experience Goals of the Users .................................................................. 10 Figure 1 Hardware Support ........................................................................................................... 12 Figure 2 “Fridgend” System Appearance ..................................................................................... 14 Figure 3 Sketch Examples ............................................................................................................ 21 Figure 4 Main Touch Screen Home Page ..................................................................................... 22 Figure 5 Expiring Food before Change ........................................................................................ 28 Figure 6 Expiring Food after Change ........................................................................................... 28 Figure 7 Major Icons before Change .......................................................................................... 28 Figure 8 Major Icons after Change ............................................................................................... 28 Figure 9 Send Shopping List before Changes............................................................................... 29 Figure 10 Send Shopping List after Changes ............................................................................... 29 Figure 11 Adding Items by Inserting Receipt ............................................................................... 38 Figure 12 Food Locate Function ................................................................................................... 38 Figure 13 Search Recipes by Key Words .................................................................................... 39 Figure 14 Search Recipes by Magic Spoon .................................................................................. 39 Figure 15 Shopping List................................................................................................................ 40 Figure 16 Place an Online shopping Order ................................................................................... 40 4
    • I. Problem Space A. Context With the development of technology and smart devices, the amount of smart appliances has grown up in these years. Refrigerator (colloquially fridge) is a common household appliance that allows modern family to keep food in fresh. Features of a refrigerator relate to the quality of life for a family, as it is used frequently. Through user interviews on four participates, we found that users are dissatisfied with the features that existing refrigerators provide for them. Here are three major problems we found in user interviews. ● No Time or No Car to Go Shopping User G (first letter of first name) is a post doctor in IUPUI, who came from China. He lives in Indianapolis and he doesn’t have a vehicle. “Markets are too far away.” He tried to ride bike to Walmart twice a week. Usually, it takes him about half hour to get there. “It is a painful experience,” he said. User X is a graduate student in IUPUI, who has a car. He often goes shopping with friends who have vehicles. He has 12 credits this semester and he works 20 hours per week as a research assistant. “Each time, I have to spend about 2 hours in shopping. It wastes time.” He likes online shopping. He usually buys outfits online. “It is much more convenient and efficient. Press an order button, and then all I need to do is waiting at home”, he said. ● Easily Forget Foods in Fridge Like most of other people who are busy working, User G, often forgets what he has in the fridge. “Every time I go to market, I bought a lot of food and put them all in the fridge. Most of time, I just forget what I have in fridge. Eggs and vegetables easily go bad before I noticed. It is a waste of food and money,” he said. Other participates, user B and User X also mentions the problem. They sometime forget what they have in fridge and the expiration date of foods. ● Difficult to Find an Item 5
    • All of our participants described their difficulties in looking for items in fridge. “I shared fridge with my roommate. Our fridge is full of foods. It is always difficult to find something in the fridge. Every time, I have to move things around and look for what I want,” User X said. When users have lots of food in fridge, it is not easy for them to know the location of each item. Inefficient Shopping List One of participant, User X, expressed his problem, “I don’t know exactly what to buy when I am shopping, because I forget what I have in my fridge. I can’t write everything on a checklist. It wastes time. ” Check lists and notes are not good enough to help people remember all things to buy. When people go shopping, they may easily purchase foods they already have in fridge, or miss something they need. User B and User M also point out the problem. They said they may need another way to remember the shopping list. The old way is sticking on the door and hand writing. They wish their fridge could be smarter and generate shopping list for them. How to Cook? Through the interview, we found that students who just started independent life have the demands to learn how to cook. Besides, our participants showed interest in making use of foods in fridge, especially the items that are expiring. “Sometimes, I know some vegetables are expiring, but I don’t know what to do with them. I have to Google recipes to cook them,” user X said. Healthy recipes also help users to keep healthy life. Cooking recipes recommendation might be a good way for users to learn how to cook, at the same time, make good use of ingredients in the fridge. “Instead of an ice box, I need a smarter fridge,” User G said. There should be better hardware and application to help people solve the above problems. In order to make use of refrigerator and improve user experience, multiple smart fridge ideas were proposed. Several existing smart fridge took advantage of built-in touch screen tablet as interactive dashboard. Infinity I-Kitchen, which was developed by Electrolux’s Brazilian, used touch screen tablet in fridge’s gate1. It allows users to control a variety of fridge functions like 1 Ben Bower, Infinity I-Kitchen sports Linux-based touch screen computer, kitchen sink still not included, http://www.engadget.com/2010/11/30/infinity-i-kitchen-sports-linux-based-touch-screen-computer-kit 6
    • internal temperature in addition to running apps for notes, calendars, contacts, photos, and recipes. Siemens proposed its idea of connecting fridge and users’ shopping activities has been proposed by Siemens. In a European electronic show, Siemens presented a smart fridge with built-in camera takes a photo whenever users open and close the fridge door2. So that users can check-in remotely to see what they have in fridge. Then users can decide what they want to add to shopping list. However, shopping lists cannot be generated by fridge automatically. They system doesn’t support online shopping function. Sometimes we may think if there are more functions in the refrigerator could solve some existing problems. Based on literature review and user interview, we found that the existing smart fridges cannot solve all the problems that we found in user interview. Cooking recipe and shopping list have already been proposed and developed in the existing solutions. However, there are no existing solutions for users’ needs in online shopping, automatically generated shopping lists, and food expiration remainder and food locating function. B. Use The design of “Fridgend” (Fridge + Friend) focuses on improving users’ life quality and user experience on fresh food shopping and storage. The product will consist of a smart refrigerator with touch screen and sensors. Fridge door can be used as a large screen to show what users have in their fridges. Even if a user doesn’t open the fridge door, (s)he will know see what they have in their fridge. “Fridgend” has the function to calculate expiration of foods. When an item expires soon, it will mark the food with red background color to remind users to use the item before it expires. “Fridgend” has intelligence to learn users’ shopping habits based on their shopping activities. Then it recommends shopping list for users based on detecting what they have in fridge. “Fridgend” also provide freedom for users to edit shopping lists. By pressing confirm button, users can easily place order online, or send the shopping list to their mobile phones, email boxes, or other applications. 2 Matthew Zahnzinger, Hisense brings a novel approach to the smart fridge. http://refrigerators.reviewed.com/features/hands-on-with-hisense-the-android-fridge.htm 7
    • “Fridgend” also has the function to recommend recipes. Recipe function helps users to make a good use of the food that expires soon. Different recipes will also help users to improve their cooking skills. Recipes are recommended by detecting what users have in fridge. The recipe function is connected with food expiration calculation function, to help users make use of the expiring foods. The smart refrigerator is supposed to have the following main features: Food detection, expiration date calculation, shopping list generation, fresh food online shopping, and recipe recommendation. C. People The Smart Refrigerator will be designed mainly for the users who have difficulties in managing foods in fridge, shopping fresh food in market, cooking. Our users may also demonstrates one or more of the following characteristics, live far away from markets, don’t have vehicle, or don’t have enough time to shop in markets, have needs in improving cooking skills, have difficulties in locating items in fridge, and have difficulties in remembering food expiration date. Our design goals are helping users manage/use foods in fridge smartly and allowing users to buy fresh food online effortlessly. 1. Experience of Users Presently, the target users for the Smart Refrigerator system would have the following profiles: • Work experience: All levels. From computer professionals to non-tech-specific work experience. • General computer experience: Understand basic smart phone control and touch screen interaction. • Specific computer experience: No specific computer experience is necessary unless a user wants to control the system as an administrator. Experiences using browser navigation will be helpful for users to get familiar with the system. • Experience with this product: None necessary, but it takes time and experience for user to become a system expert. 8
    • • Experience with similar products: Using the following products will help users understand the Smart Refrigerator system, touch screen smart phone/tablet, automated checkout machine, and online shopping website/applications. • Experience with the content or activity supported by the product: Experience with the following content or activity will help users understand the Smart Refrigerator system: online shopping activity, checking out using automated checkout machine, and debit card/credit card using experience. 2. Categories of Users The Smart Refrigerator system will support the following categories of users.  Primary users: People who use home refrigerators and have difficulties in managing foods in fridge, shopping fresh food in market, or cooking.  Secondary users: Other average refrigerator user who have experience in using refrigerator in their private life or working environment.  User communities: o Students who don’t have vehicle/driver’s license to go to markets. o Residents who live far away from markets. o Workers who don’t have enough time shopping in markets and managing items in fridge. o Undergraduate students who just start independent life and need to improve cooking skills.  Excluded Users: o Children under 9-year-old who cannot take fully responsibility for all their actions. o People who have seriously bad credit score. 9
    • D. Usability and Experience Goals of the Users Effectiveness The “Fridgend” system will help users to manage their fresh food, and then recommend shopping list for users for them to do online shopping. Cooking recipes will be recommended to help users to improve cooking skills and make good use of expiring foods. Multiple functions and information are displayed in a single and easy to use interface. Efficiency The system will provide right information for users to allow them to perform necessary actions, thus to enhance their life quality. Safety Users would be notified when potential hazards such as payment information leaking, simple password. To avoid stealing others’ payment information, the system will send conformation text to users’ phone after each online shopping. Utility The “Fridgend” system’s functionalities will focus on what users need. More functionality than what users need will not be provided within system. Learnability The system will have intuitive and user-friendly interface to help users to learn how to use the system. User guide will be provided for users to help them to get familiar with the interface and features of the system. Memorability The system will provide consistent user interface, to help users to memorize the interface. Visual cues will be provided for users to identify the right actions within system. Table 1 Usability and Experience Goals of the Users 10
    • II. Conceptualizing A. Designing a representation of the target system Based on the problems what we found before, the conception of “Fridgend” is as easy as a smart householder. The idea of “Fridgend” is proposed to make users’ live easier. The main features of smart fridge include food detection, expiration date calculation, shopping list generation, fresh food online shopping and recipe recommendation. Descriptions of each feature are going to be extended in the following part. Two parts of hardware is going to be used to support the system. Firstly, the main hardware is the refrigerator. The fridge has a large touch screen on its door, LED status light, speaker, sensors and video detectors. It also has internet connection to access the server. The hardware allows users to do interaction directly. Secondly, the server controls the data exchange between the fridge and the user. The cloud server makes data flow easier. The manufacture also uses the cloud server to update firewall and expiration data base. B. Building objects and actions (defined abstractly and broadly) The design of “Smart Refrigerator” focuses on improving users’ life quality and user experience on fresh food shopping and storage. Fridge door is going to be used as a large display that allows users to do interaction. There is no existing solution provided by existed products for users’ needs in detecting foods, automatically generated shopping lists, and online shopping. 1. Hardware Support As the description of representation, the whole “Fridgend” system has two main objects. Users can interact directly with the fridge touch screen door. Users are allowed to send information to their PC/mobile or cloud application. Figure 2.1 demonstrates how hardware works. 11
    • Figure 1 Hardware Support 2. Main Functions The smart fridge is proposed to have five main functions: food detection, expiration date calculation, shopping list generation, fresh food online shopping and recipe recommendation. Details of each function are described as follows. a. Food Detection The smart refrigerator will generate item list by scanning shopping receipt. When a user removes an item from refrigerator, the refrigerator will detect the item by Video Image Detection (VID) technology. b. Expiration Date Calculation An expiration database will be built into the refrigerator system. Expiration for each unique kind of food has been set in the system. After a shopping receipt is scanned, the system will start to calculate. When an item is close to its expiration date, the system will warn user. Expiration calculation function is connected with food recipe function. To help users make a good use of the expiring foods, related recipes are recommended. Users can click to view recipe details and instructions. 12
    • c. Shopping List Generation “Fridgend” generates shopping list with users’ shopping habits and detecting the stock by artificial intelligence. The system concludes a user’s shopping habits by saving and comparing foods in fridge. Users have the freedom to edit shopping list if they want. They can also choose to send the shopping list to their mobile phones, email boxes, cloud applications or other mobile/PC applications. d. Fresh Food Online Shopping The system supports online shopping function, by connecting to e-commerce providers, such as peapods.com and amazonfresh.com. After users finished editing shopping lists, they can choose to do place a shopping order and select a shopping website. e. Recipe Recommendation Recipe function helps users to make a good use of the food that expires soon. Different recipes will also help users to improve their cooking skills. Recipes are mainly generated based on three factors, cooking style, foods in fridge and foods expire soon. Users can set up their cooking style and choose from different recipes. After detecting foods in the fridge and expiring foods, “Fridgend” will search in its database and then find out healthy recipes that can make good use of the foods. Users have two ways to search recipes, normal search and “Magic Spoon”. Normal search allows users to search recipes by key words. “Magic Spoon” allows users to search recipes by dragging items from the touch screen on fridge door. After dragging multiple items into “Magic Spoon”, users will be able to view recipes including those items as ingredients. C. General proposal of the product’s objects and interactions 1. General Concept, Appearance, and Interface Metaphor  General Concept: The main “Fridgend” system is built in a refrigerator, supporting touch input method and display functions (screen and status lights). Fridge door is going to be used as a large touch screen that allows users to do interaction. The visible interface is based on functional design, with an easier interaction with the system. The system not only allows users to storage and organizes food in 13
    • fridge, but also calculate food expiration and recommend shopping list and recipes for them intelligently. After users confirm online shipping orders, the system will help them to place the order automatically. Recipe function helps users to make a good use of food especially the expiring food. Data about users shopping habits and food storage are stored in server database, which provides a reliable backup for the main system. It also provides interaction intermediary for the user and system. The system can be automatically updated to server. The manufacture also update the database (food expiration data, food nutrition fact data) to the server to make sure the system gets the latest version every day.  Appearance: LED Lights (turn on when food expire or shows location) Allow users to insert receipts here. Figure 2 “Fridgend” System Appearance  Interface Metaphor: 14
    • o Shopping list: It is like shopping list which users may use while shopping in markets. Users may add items or remove items from a shopping list. o Fridge Shelf: It is like the shelf inside fridge. By displaying items in each shelf, “Fridgend” system shows the exact location of each item. 2. Physical Components  Screen (fridge door): A large, bright, touchable screen is necessary for a basic input interface for the system.  LED status light: The LED lights are turned on in different situations, including displaying expiring food, displaying food location, or alerting doors aren’t closed, etc. The LED lights have different colors. Users can set LED light color themselves for different situation and messages.  Speaker: The mono speaker provides notice sound (food expiration, and alerting status). It happens when the user open the fridge door.  Door / Video detector / Sensors: The sensors and video detector records the food with VID (Video identify detection) technology. When user open and close the door, VID system will auto detect the difference. If there are items have been removed, the system will generate message on the screen for users to confirm. The system also has learning module, it figures out the difference from the items in its database. 15
    • III. Needs and Requirements A. Target Audience and Needs The “Fridgend” system will be designed mainly for the users who have difficulties in managing foods in fridge, shopping fresh food in market, cooking. The difficulties may be caused by one or more of the following reasons, living far away from markets, don’t have vehicle, or don’t have enough time to shop in markets, have needs in improving cooking skills, have difficulties in locating items in fridge, and have difficulties in remembering food expiration date. From user interview, we find that the problem mainly exist among three user groups, international students who live in United States, users don’t have driving licenses, busy workers who don’t have enough time shopping in market, and undergraduate students who need to learn basic cooking skills. The users of the product can also be other average refrigerator users who have experience in using fridge in their life or working environment. B. Requirement Analysis 1. User Requirements  Ability to have and use a refrigerator.  Have general computer using experience.  Some familiarity with touch screen and smart phone.  Some experience with online shopping activities will help users get familiar with the product.  Children under 9-year-old, who cannot take fully responsibility for all their behavior competence is excluded.  Ability to pay online by proper payment methods, such as credit/debit card and paypal. People with seriously bad credit score are excluded. 2. Usability Requirements Effectiveness:  Simple and neat interface that allows users to complete tasks. Efficiency:  Allow users to complete a task with a minimum of steps.  System navigation needs to give users clues and help them know where they are. 16
    •  System interface should be easily learnable. Safety:  The system should protect personal payment information.  Users would be notified when potential hazards such as payment information leaking, simple password.  The system should check for data accuracy.  The system cannot delete information accidentally. Utility:  More functionality than what users’ need will not be provided within system. Learnability:  User guide will be provided for users to help them to get familiar with the interface and system features.  Interface should be user-friendly and help users to learn how to use the system. Memorability  System interface should be consistent and help users to memorize. 3. Functional Requirements  Retrieve, input and display data.  Connect to internet and database.  Collect and calculate data.  Retrieve, update and write firmware.  Generate shopping list and confirm.  Motion detection and capture video.  Identify video data and storage.  Display results and accept users’ feedback.  Analysis data and has Artificial Intelligence (AI) learning behavior.  Notice users via auditory and visual hardware. 4. Data Requirements 17
    •  Artificial Intelligence (AI) learning behavior has a learning curve. The system retrieves and storages data and it also knows how many members are using the appliance. The system calculates the input and output to simulate the possible result of in stock. Most of users have their shopping behavior. The cycle can be learned and forecasted. When the users’ shopping behavior be already realized, confirmed, and learned, the system can predict needs and generate shopping list well.  Video Image Detection (VID) technology has three parts: o Motion sensors (Accelerometer) will be built in the door. o CCDs are located on the corner inside the refrigerator. o The central processing unit retrieves data, calculate and display result on screen. Here is an example: A user is going to get an apple from the fridge. When he opens the door, the motion sensors call up the CCDs. The CCDs start to shot in 3fps. These shots are sent to CPU. The CPU calculates the movement in different frames to compare the items which are recorded in its database. After user closes the door, the motion sensors notice CPU to announce the calculate result. The result is showed on the display and confirmed to the user “Did you take an apple?” If it is “yes”, the system locates it successful. If not, “Fridgend” provides other options for users to choose, such as tomato, cherry, onion, or something is in red color.  The data between system and server is a based on XML, text data. It means the processing of video data detection is processed in client and server. The text only data could reduce transmission loading time and error. 5. Content Requirement  Food Type: All kinds of fresh food can be stored in the smart refrigerator. After an item has been put in the fridge, the fridge system will detect it, add it into database, and start to calculate its expiration date.  Information Needs to be provided: The system should provide the following information for users: food that are in fridge, expiring food and their expiration dates, shopping list, online shopping site and order details (price, shopping cart, order confirmation and so on ), cooking recipes. Each kind of information is discussed as follows. 18
    • o Detect Food: After users put food in fridge, “Fridgend” will generate item list by scanning shopping receipt. When a user removes an item from the fridge, the fridge will detect the item by Video Image Detection technology. o Record expiration: “Fridgend” will record food’s expiration and notice users when an item is close to expiration date. An expiration database is built into the fridge system. Expiration for each kind of food has been set in the system. After an item is placed in the fridge, the system will start to calculate. o Generate Shopping List: “Fridgend” should have the intelligent to summarize users’ shopping habits and recommend shopping list for users. o Fresh Food Online Shopping: The system needs to connect to e-commerce providers, and allows users to purchase fresh food online. o Cooking Recipe: “Fridgend” should have the functionality to recommend recipes for users. Users are allowed to choose recipes from the recommended recipes. Recipes are listed alphabetically. Users can search recipes using normal search bar by typing in key words. They can also search and filter recipes using “Magic Spoon”, which allows them drag ingredients from fridge door to “Magic Spoon” and then get related recipes. C. Task Scenarios Scenario 1- Typical Target User Who Has Difficulties in Shopping, Finding food, and Cooking Xiaoli is a first year undergraduate student in IUPUI. She came from China. It is her first semester. She doesn’t have a driver’s license or a vehicle. It is not easy to go shopping for fresh food. She has to go with friends who have cars or by bus. She lives in an apartment near campus, with three roommates. They shared a fridge together. Usually they have a lot of food in the fridge. Sometimes, it is difficult to find an item. Before coming to US, she lived with parents in China. She didn’t know how to cook. After came to US, she has to learn to cook herself. Her apartment bought “Fridgend” and she started to use the smart fridge. Online shopping function allows her to shop fresh food without stepping out her apartment. Food location function allows her to find an item easily without moving things around and search for what she wants. She also likes recipe function, which helps her to improve her cooking skills and keep a healthy life. 19
    • Scenario 2 – Typical Target User Who Has Difficulties in Shopping List Wu is a 22-year old international student who just arrived at IUPUI. He lives in dorm with other international students. Wu has 9 credits every week, so he can go to shop with his friends when he is available. Thus, the shopping time is not fixed. Sometime he can go shopping every week, sometimes not. If he runs out food, he needs to spend more money and diner in. The other problem what he meets is, sometimes he goes shopping provisionally and no shopping list. He easily forgets something or purchases something he has already had. One day, the dorm is going to maintenance the appliance and has options to change the smart fridge. After use “Fridgend”, Wu enjoyed generating shopping list, and purchasing food online. Usually he uses “Fridgend” to generate a shopping list. Sometimes, he places order online, while sometimes he likes to print the shopping list our or send it to his mobile phone before shopping in market. “Fridgend” helps him shop efficiently. He is satisfied with functions of the smart fridge. 20
    • IV. Design and Prototypes A. Concept Design 1. Product Concept “Fridgend” will serve as a new platform for users to check stocks, get expiration dates information, do online shopping, search and view recipes. To construct such a product, we developed both paper prototypes sketches and digital high-fidelity prototypes. 2. Multiple Sketches Figure 3 Sketch Examples Please see Appendix A for sketches examples of our smart fridge. 3. Low-fidelity Prototypes Low-fidelity prototypes for smart refrigerator includes sketches and low fidelity paper prototypes. a. System Architecture Please see Appendix B for details on smart fridge system architecture. b. Low-fidelity Paper Prototypes We use Photoshop to create a fridge background and create paper prototypes using stickers and color markers. Please see Appendix C for low-fidelity paper prototypes. 21
    • B. High-fidelity Prototype The smart fridge’s high-fidelity prototype was designed using Axure RP, an interactive wireframe software & mockup tool. High-fidelity prototype can be found at the following URL: https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/735093/fridgend/index.html 1. Digital Illustrations Please see Appendix D for illustrations of Smart Fridge’s high-fidelity prototype. Figure 4 Main Touch Screen Home Page 2. Explanation of Interaction and Interface Design Components The main functions and the associated user tasks are listed as follows.  Screen turned on while users are around. Fridge door screen are darken when users are not around. When users come closer to the fridge door, the screen light on. On the fridge door, users are able to see multiple foods that are placed in the same location inside the fridge.  “Fridgend” allows users to input items by inserting recipes, and confirm the inputting activity by press confirm button.  “Fridgend” checks and displays what users remove from the fridge, every time users open and close fridge door. 22
    •  Main screen that displays icons for main functions, as well as expiring items, daily deals, and recommended recipes.  Setting function and its UI allow users to set network, LED light color, sound, and update system.  Food locate function and its UI allow users to search items and shows the specific location of the item by flashing the LED light and highlight the food on fridge screen.  Shopping list function and its UI recommends shopping list for users and allows them to add items to shopping list and delete items from the list. After modification, users can make online order, print shopping list or send the shopping list to their mobile application or email, so that they can do online shopping later using their laptop or mobile.  Recipe function and its UIs allow users search and view. The smart fridge provide them with two options, normal key words search box, and “Magic Spoon”: o Normal Search Box: this function allows users to view recipes alphabetically, and search recipes by key words. o Magic spoon: users can drag one or multiple food items from fridge door screen into “Magic Spoon” to search for recipes that contains this (these) item(s) as ingredient(s). 23
    • V. Evaluation the Design A. Usability Study 1. Interview/Questionnaire The design team conducted usability test and interview on four test subjects. Each subject was suggested to fill out a questionnaire after the test. The questionnaire include both close and open questions, and questions covered participants’ demographic information, usability of each function and overall usability of the whole system. Please see Appendix F for details of the questionnaire used to evaluate smart fridge prototype. 2. Internal Walkthrough In order to test the usability of smart fridge prototype, we conducted internal walkthrough with six subjects. Before they do the tasks, we introduced the basic design idea and main functions of the smart fridge. Then we asked the users to complete several tasks that need them to explore the functionalities and interface of the prototype. We encouraged our subjects to think aloud and observe them while they were doing the tasks. We first invited two HCI students to participant in our walkthroughs, and we made several changes to our prototypes before conducting the other four walkthroughs. 3. Walkthrough Tasks Task 1: Insert items into the system 1. Touch fridge door to wake up the fridge. 2. Insert receipt into the fridge. 3. Check the items on the screen. 4. You don’t need to remove any item. 5. Submit your input activity. Task 2: Remove an item from the fridge 1. Open the door and take a slice of cheese out of the fridge. 2. Close fridge door and check the status on the door. 3. If there is no problem in the status, please finish the remove activity and go back to the home screen. 24
    • Task 3: Online shopping 1. Review “Daily deals”, add “milk” into shopping list. 2. Add “tomato” into shopping list, using shopping list function. 3. Shop items on the list online. 4. Review and check the order detail. 5. Confirm the order. Task 4: Email/print/save shopping list After finish editing your shopping list, please: 1. Email the shopping list to your email box john34@gmail.com. 2. Print the list 3. Save the list to Evernote (an application that allows you to open the list in mobile, tablet or PC ) Task5: Look for an item 1. From the home page, look for a button/link that allows you to look for items. 2. Use search function to find the item “apple” 3. Use category function to find the item “apple” 4. Check its location (Where is the item?) 5. Add the item, “apple” into shopping list Task6: Use normal search box to search a recipe 1. Search a recipe that has “potato” in it. 2. Check details of the recipe “Super Taco” Task7: Use “Magic Spoon” to search a recipe Please use “Magic Spoon” to search a recipe that has cheese and apple in it. 1. Select “Magic Spoon”. 2. Add “cheese” into magic spoon. 3. Add “apple” into magic spoon. 4. Check details of the recipe “Super Taco”. 25
    • B. Assessment of Findings During the study, we observed their activities, conversations, as well as facial expressions. After analyzing of our evaluation data we got valuable suggestions and discovered several usability problems. Please see Appendix G for details of questionnaire results raw data, and Appendix H for details of internal walkthrough raw data. 1. The Overall Prototypical System Is Useful and Effective. In usability test, we observed that all the users finished all the tasks successfully. Three functions that are valued by participants are foods locate, online shopping, and Magic Spoon. Based on interview, we found that three out of four participants thought foods locate function is useful for them to find items, especially when they have a lot of foods inside the fridge. And all the participants in internal walkthroughs Online shopping functions are preferred by two kinds of participants, participants who don’t have cars and participants who are busy with work or study. Online shopping function may help them save time and get fresh food without going to markets. Three participants mentioned that they had fun while playing with Magic Spoon. And they said they liked the drag and drop interaction methods. One participant said she could learn while playing. Another participant said the steps and interaction methods are easy and intuitive. There is one participant thought the visual effect of “Magic Spoon” was too fancy and animated for her to use. She thought normal recipe search function was enough for her to use in daily life. 2. Food Expiring in Two Days Are Not Obvious In the original high-fidelity prototype, we don’t have border outside each expiring food. Food expiring today, tomorrow, and 3 days later, all look the same. During interviews, we found out that users prefer food expiring in two days displaying in a more obvious way. One of our participant suggested different text colors and different border color would emphasis food expiring in two days. 3. Users Confused about Icons 26
    • We tried to use some reasonable icons in prototype. Several users still asked for the meaning of icons. The solution could be adding brief description when use hover the icons. In most of systems, there’re common ideas with “Main Menu”, “Help”, “Setting”. While there’s no common sense with “Recipe”, “Shopping list”, and “Food Locate” in widely used application. Name or tag under each icon may help users to understand the meaning of an icon. Besides, one of the participants expected a navigation icon change color when she was using the specific function, allowing her to know where she is. Visual effect of an icon when users touch it may provide interaction. When users are using a function, the related icon should also has a visual effect, like change color, letting users know their location and status. 4. Users Need Better Way to Send Shopping List to Mobile Evernote is a popular cloud note service, that’s the reason why to choose that for the syncing application. We thought many people should know it, but not. During interviews, only one out of four participants knew Evernote. The rest of five participants asked us what Evernote is. The lesson what we learned was “choosing famous application is important, but not everyone uses that”. It could be a wrong position if we spend more time and money on a function that users have lack usage. While trying to send shopping list to mobile, one participant expressed her preference on text message. Text message could be a normal and widely used way to send information to mobile. 5. Concerns about Price During interviews, three participants showed the concerns about the possible price. They believed high technology always brought high costs. They thought the system was advance guard, ideal and even impossible (the whole touch screen and VID technology). C. Revised Interactive Prototype: Based on the above findings we got from usability study, we made several changes to our prototypes. 1. Obvious Display for Expiring Food in Two Days 27
    • To display food that are expiring in two days, we changed the text color and added a border outside the food icons. Items that expire today have red color and red text, and items that expire tomorrow have black border. Figure 5 Expiring Food before Change Figure 6 Expiring Food after Change 2. Added Function Names under Major Icons To help users have a better understanding on our icons, we added function names under the major icons, such as “recipe”, “shopping list”, and “food locate”. Figure 7 Major Icons before Change Figure 8 Major Icons after Change 28
    • 3. Added “Send Shopping List by Text Message ” Function Since users are not familiar with Evernote, they need a better way to send shopping list to mobile. As one of the participants suggested, text message could be a normal and widely used way to send information to mobile. We accepted this suggestion and added a new function, which allows users to send shopping list by text message. Figure 9 Send Shopping List before Changes Figure 10 Send Shopping List after Changes 29
    • VI. Appendix Appendix A: Sketches Examples 30
    • 31
    • Appendix B: System Architecture 32
    • Appendix C: Low-fidelity Paper Prototypes Examples 33
    • 34
    • 35
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    • Appendix D: Digital Illustration Examples Figure 11 Adding Items by Inserting Receipt Figure 12 Food Locate Function 38
    • Figure 13 Search Recipes by Key Words Figure 14 Search Recipes by Magic Spoon 39
    • Figure 15 Shopping List Figure 16 Place an Online shopping Order 40
    • Appendix E: Usability Questionnaire Usability Questionnaire Date: Part 1: User Demographic & User experience (Circle one for each) 1. Occupation : 2. Age: 21 or under 22-25 26-35 36-45 45 or over 3. Gender : Female / Male 4. Please select the frequency you use fridge (home and work) per day. 1 time or less 2-3 times 4-5 times 6-7 times 8 times or more 5. Do you have experience with online shopping? Yes No 6. Please select the amount of time you spend on grocery shopping each week. (include traffic) Less than 1 hour 1-2 hours 3-4 hours 5 hours or more Part 2: System Usability Please check the opinion that applies to your feelings about the smart fridge system (You can skip questions if not applicable) Main Menu Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Disagree Agree The main menu was easy to understand Navigating the system was easy Information on screen was well organized Terminologies were easy to understand Fonts used throughout the system were easy to read Icons used throughout the system were 41
    • helpful in exploring the system It is easy to learn to operate the system It is easy to find the food which is expired soon It is easy to check the on sale information Food locate Function Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Disagree Agree The food locate function was easy to understand Find the food was easy Information on screen was well organized Terminologies were easy to understand Fonts used throughout the system were easy to read Icons used throughout the system were helpful in exploring the system Shopping List Function Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Disagree Agree The shopping list was easy to understand Navigating the function was easy Information on screen was well organized Terminologies were easy to understand Fonts used throughout the system were easy to read Icons used throughout the system were helpful in exploring the system It is easy to add item into shopping list It is easy to remove item from the list The email list function was useful The print function was useful The sync function with Evernote was useful Recipe Function 42
    • Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Disagree Agree The recipe function was easy to understand Navigating the function was easy Information on screen was well organized Terminologies were easy to understand Fonts used throughout the system were easy to read Icons used throughout the system were helpful in exploring the system It is easy to learn to use magic spoon Settings and Overall of the system Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Disagree Agree The settings was easy to understand It was easy to Change the LED light Set up the internet function was easy to use I’m satisfied with the system This is a friendly fridge I’ll recommend my friend to try this fridge Navigating the function was easy Information on screen was well organized Terminologies were easy to understand Fonts used throughout the system were easy to read Please include any comments that would help us in making a better user interface. Thank you very much for your participation. 43
    • Appendix F: Questionnaire Results Raw Data Usability Questionnaire 1 Date: 10/08/2013 Part 1: User Demographic & User experience (Circle one for each) 1. Occupation : Student 2. Age: 21 or under 22-25 26-35 36-45 45 or over 3. Gender : Female / Male 4. Please select the frequency you use fridge (home and work) per day. 1 time or less 2-3 times 4-5 times 6-7 times 8 times or more 5. Do you have experience with online shopping? Yes No 6. Please select the amount of time you spend on grocery shopping each week. (include traffic) Less than 1 hour 1-2 hours 3-4 hours 5 hours or more Part 2: System Usability Please check the opinion that applies to your feelings about the smart fridge system (You can skip questions if not applicable) Main Menu The main menu was easy to understand Navigating the system was easy Information on screen was well organized Terminologies were easy to understand Fonts used throughout the system were easy to read Icons used throughout the system were helpful in exploring the system It is easy to learn to operate the system It is easy to find the food which is expired soon Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Disagree Agree √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ 44
    • √ It is easy to check the onsale information Food locate Function The food locate function was easy to understand Find the food was easy Information on screen was well organized Terminologies were easy to understand Fonts used throughout the system were easy to read Icons used throughout the system were helpful in exploring the system Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Disagree Agree √ √ √ √ √ √ Shopping List Function The shopping list was easy to understand Navigating the function was easy Information on screen was well organized Terminologies were easy to understand Fonts used throughout the system were easy to read Icons used throughout the system were helpful in exploring the system It is easy to add item into shopping list It is easy to remove item from the list The email list function was useful The print function was useful The sync function with Evernote was useful Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Disagree Agree √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ Recipe Function The recipe function was easy to understand Navigating the function was easy Information on screen was well organized Terminologies were easy to understand Fonts used throughout the system were Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Disagree Agree √ √ √ √ √ 45
    • easy to read Icons used throughout the system were helpful in exploring the system It is easy to learn to use magic spoon √ √ Settings and Overall of the system Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Disagree Agree √ √ √ The settings was easy to understand It was easy to Change the LED light Set up the internet function was easy to use I’m satisfied with the system This is a friendly fridge I’ll recommend my friend to try this fridge Navigating the function was easy Information on screen was well organized Terminologies were easy to understand Fonts used throughout the system were easy to read √ √ √ √ √ √ √ Please include any comments that would help us in making a better user interface.  Allow users to go back and edit online shopping orders after they placed the orders.  Language setting in setting function.  I like the Magic Spoon function. I had a lot of fun while playing with it. Thank you very much for your participation. 46
    • Usability Questionnaire 2 Date: 10/09/2013 Part 1: User Demographic & User experience (Circle one for each) 7. Occupation: Student 8. Age: 21 or under 22-25 26-35 36-45 45 or over 9. Gender : Female / Male 10. Please select the frequency you use fridge (home and work) per day. 1 time or less 2-3 times 4-5 times 6-7 times 8 times or more 11. Do you have experience with online shopping? Yes No 12. Please select the amount of time you spend on grocery shopping each week. (include traffic) Less than 1 hour 1-2 hours 3-4 hours 5 hours or more Part 2: System Usability Please check the opinion that applies to your feelings about the smart fridge system (You can skip questions if not applicable) Main Menu The main menu was easy to understand Navigating the system was easy Information on screen was well organized Terminologies were easy to understand Fonts used throughout the system were easy to read Icons used throughout the system were helpful in exploring the system It is easy to learn to operate the system It is easy to find the food which is expired soon It is easy to check the onsale information Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Disagree Agree √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ 47
    • Food locate Function The food locate function was easy to understand Find the food was easy Information on screen was well organized Terminologies were easy to understand Fonts used throughout the system were easy to read Icons used throughout the system were helpful in exploring the system Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Disagree Agree √ √ √ √ √ √ Shopping List Function The shopping list was easy to understand Navigating the function was easy Information on screen was well organized Terminologies were easy to understand Fonts used throughout the system were easy to read Icons used throughout the system were helpful in exploring the system It is easy to add item into shopping list It is easy to remove item from the list The email list function was useful The print function was useful The sync function with evernote was useful Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Disagree Agree √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ Recipe Function The recipe function was easy to understand Navigating the function was easy Information on screen was well organized Terminologies were easy to understand Fonts used throughout the system were easy to read Icons used throughout the system were Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Disagree Agree √ √ √ √ √ √ 48
    • helpful in exploring the system It is easy to learn to use magic spoon √ Settings and Overall of the system Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Disagree Agree √ √ √ The settings was easy to understand It was easy to Change the LED light Set up the internet function was easy to use I’m satisfied with the system This is a friendly fridge I’ll recommend my friend to try this fridge Navigating the function was easy Information on screen was well organized Terminologies were easy to understand Fonts used throughout the system were easy to read √ √ √ √ √ √ √ Please include any comments that would help us in making a better user interface.  Information about food expiration is really useful.  The Magic Spoon concept is interesting and fun way to find recipes using my available resources. Thank you very much for your participation. 49
    • Usability Questionnaire-3 Date: 2013/10/09 Part 1: User Demographic & User experience (Circle one for each) 1. Occupation : Dentist 2. Age: 35 21 or under 22-25 26-35 36-45 45 or over 3. Gender :Male 4. Please select the frequency you use fridge (home and work) per day. 8 times or more 5. Do you have experience with online shopping? Yes 6. Please select the amount of time you spend on grocery shopping each week. (include traffic) 3-4 hours Part 2: System Usability Please check the opinion that applies to your feelings about the smart fridge system (You can skip questions if not applicable) Main Menu The main menu was easy to understand Navigating the system was easy Information on screen was well organized Terminologies were easy to understand Fonts used throughout the system were easy to read Icons used throughout the system were helpful in exploring the system It is easy to learn to operate the system It is easy to find the food which is expired soon It is easy to check the onsale information Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Disagree Agree √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ 50
    • Food locate The food locate function was easy to understand Find the food was easy Information on screen was well organized Terminologies were easy to understand Fonts used throughout the system were easy to read Icons used throughout the system were helpful in exploring the system Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Disagree Agree √ √ √ √ √ √ Shopping list The shopping list was easy to understand Navigating the function was easy Information on screen was well organized Terminologies were easy to understand Fonts used throughout the system were easy to read Icons used throughout the system were helpful in exploring the system It is easy to add item into shopping list It is easy to remove item from the list The email list function was useful The print function was useful The sync function with evernote was useful Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Disagree Agree √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ Recipe The recipe function was easy to understand Navigating the function was easy Information on screen was well organized Terminologies were easy to understand Fonts used throughout the system were easy to read Icons used throughout the system were Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Disagree Agree √ √ √ √ √ √ 51
    • helpful in exploring the system It is easy to learn to use magic spoon √ Settings and Overall The settings was easy to understand It was easy to Change the LED light Set up the internet function was easy to use I’m satisfied with the system This is a friendly fridge I’ll recommend my friend to try this fridge Navigating the function was easy Information on screen was well organized Terminologies were easy to understand Fonts used throughout the system were easy to read Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Disagree Agree √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ Please include any comments that would help us in making a better user interface.  Recipe: I love this f function.  Shopping list: Can I order pizza or JimmyJohn’s online? Thank you very much for your participation. 52
    • Usability Questionnaire-4 Date: 2013/10/09 Part 1: User Demographic & User experience (Circle one for each) 1. Occupation : House wife 2. Age: 31 21 or under 22-25 26-35 36-45 45 or over 3. Gender : Female 4. Please select the frequency you use fridge (home and work) per day. 8 times or more 5. Do you have experience with online shopping? No 6. Please select the amount of time you spend on grocery shopping each week. (include traffic) 3-4 hours Part 2: System Usability Please check the opinion that applies to your feelings about the smart fridge system (You can skip questions if not applicable) Main Menu The main menu was easy to understand Navigating the system was easy Information on screen was well organized Terminologies were easy to understand Fonts used throughout the system were easy to read Icons used throughout the system were helpful in exploring the system It is easy to learn to operate the system It is easy to find the food which is expired soon It is easy to check the onsale information Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Disagree Agree √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ 53
    • Food locate The food locate function was easy to understand Find the food was easy Information on screen was well organized Terminologies were easy to understand Fonts used throughout the system were easy to read Icons used throughout the system were helpful in exploring the system Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Disagree Agree √ √ √ √ √ √ Shopping list The shopping list was easy to understand Navigating the function was easy Information on screen was well organized Terminologies were easy to understand Fonts used throughout the system were easy to read Icons used throughout the system were helpful in exploring the system It is easy to add item into shopping list It is easy to remove item from the list The email list function was useful The print function was useful The sync function with evernote was useful Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Disagree Agree √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ Recipe The recipe function was easy to understand Navigating the function was easy Information on screen was well organized Terminologies were easy to understand Fonts used throughout the system were easy to read Icons used throughout the system were helpful in exploring the system Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Disagree Agree √ √ √ √ √ √ 54
    • √ It is easy to learn to use magic spoon Settings and Overall The settings was easy to understand It was easy to Change the LED light Set up the internet function was easy to use I’m satisfied with the system This is a friendly fridge I’ll recommend my friend to try this fridge Navigating the function was easy Information on screen was well organized Terminologies were easy to understand Fonts used throughout the system were easy to read Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Disagree Agree √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ Please include any comments that would help us in making a better user interface.  Foods locate function: Why I need to use this function? I can open the door to check it.  Shopping list: I don’t know about Evernote, never use that.  Recipe: If there is more than 1 item in same place, how do I drag the item which is not in the first row to magic spoon? Thank you very much for your participation. 55
    • Appendix G: Internal Walkthrough Raw Data User 1 Persona: First year master student majoring in HCI, School of Informatics and Computing, IUPUI. She doesn’t have a car. Going shopping in markets is not easy for her. Usually she has to go shopping with her roommate or friends who have cars. She came to US in August, 2013. When she just came to US, she doesn’t know how to cook. She used online recipes to learn cooking. She shares a fridge with three roommates. Their fridge is always full with a lot of things inside. Sometimes, it is difficult for her to find an item. Date: 10/03/2013 Usability Test Feedback: Overall:  She doesn’t have difficulties using the prototypical system to finish all the tasks.  She need a home button that allows to go back to home page (we fixed this problem after the test).  She has never heard about Evernote. She asked us what it is and the functions of Evernote.  She likes the recipe function. “It would be helpful for me to learn how to cook.” Home Page:  She doesn’t know the meaning of “deals”. (After the test, we provide brief deal information on home page to help users understand).  Items that expire soon, in 1-2 days are not obvious. (After the test, we changed the font color to red, and made a red border around the items expire soon to help users to recognize those items). Foods Locate Function:  This function is helpful for her to know the specific location of an item. Sometimes it is difficult for her to find an item, because she share a fridge with three roommates and their fridge always has a lot of things inside. Online Shopping Function: 56
    •  This function is very useful for her, because it is difficult for her to do shopping in markets. She doesn’t have a car. When she wants to go shopping, she has to go with friends or roommates. Online shopping can help her buy fresh food at home. Recipe Function:  She loves the magic spoon function, because this function helps her learn how to cook with simple and easy steps. “It is so fancy and useful.” Setting:  She has no difficulty finish tasks. No specific comment on this function. 57
    • User 2 Persona: He is an undergraduate student majoring in Biomedical Engineer, IUPUI. He has a car to go shopping. He doesn’t have enough time go shopping because he has to spend a lot of time studying. He has six classes (17 credits) this semester. He came to US in 2009. He cooks at home. Though he has already learned how to cook a lot of dishes, he has the need to know new recipes. Date: 10/08/2013 Usability Test Feedback: Overall:  The prototypical system is usable and satisfying.  Online shopping function is useful for him, because he often doesn’t have enough time doing shopping in market.  He loves “Magic Spoon” feature. He thinks it is a useful function and has fun playing with it.  Expiration information is useful.  He would to have a close button to close the window. Home Page:  He prefers the system to have a sleep mode that shows photos, animations or other visual effects. Online Shopping Function:  Online shopping function is useful for him, because he often doesn’t have enough time doing shopping in market.  He expects a confirmation message after he sends shopping list to email box.  After submit online shopping order, he expects the system to allow him to go back and edit order.  He needs to know the weight information about items, such as LB of meat. Recipe Function: 58
    •  He loves “Magic Spoon” feature. He thinks it is a useful function and has fun playing with it.  “Magic Spoon” function: After dragging multiple items to the spoon, users should have a way to see what they have in spoon, such as “Cheese + Apple”. Setting:  “Change LED color” function: He expects the system to let him see effect before save the changes. The changes will apply after he presses save button.  He prefers to have a language setting functions to allow users speak different languages to use the system. 59
    • User 3 Persona: She is a master student majoring in Media Arts and Science, School of Informatics and Computing, IUPUI. She is a US permanent resident. She has a car. Usually she drives to shop fresh food in markets with her boyfriend once a week. She is graduating this semester. Homework and final project keep her busy. Sometimes, she forgot what she has in fridge. A lot of times, her food expire before she eats them. Date: 10/09/2013 Usability Test Feedback: Overall:  The smart fridge idea and concept is useful.  The prototypical system is usable, and efficient.  Information about food expiration is useful.  The Magic Spoon concept is an interesting and fun way to find recipes using my available resources.  She would to have a close button to close the window.  She expects navigation icons change colors when she was using the specific function, allowing her to know where she is. Home Page:  She would to have “Welcome message” and “Date & Time” Separate.  Really like expiration information. “That is useful. This function helps me know which food expire soon. I always forgot what I have in my fridge. With this function, I won’t forget to eat my food.”  “Recipes you may like” is not intuitive enough. She prefers “Recipe recommended”. Foods Locate Function:  This function is helpful for her to know the specific location of foods. Sometimes when she has a lot of things in fridge, it is difficult for her to find something. Online Shopping Function: 60
    •  “Add item” is a little confusing. She likes “Add new item”.  She wants a new function that allows her to send shopping list as text message to her phone. Recipe Function:  She loves the magic spoon function. “Very cool. I love the concept and idea.”  Wording mistake, “gradient” should be “ingredient”.  She also wants some detailed information on recipes, such as time to cook, nutrition information, and difficulty level. Daily Deals:  She would to know how much exactly the item is.  Too many detailed content on the daily deal page for her to read. Setting:  Network doesn’t have a done button. It only has a cancel button.  She would the “Date & Time” break into columns, year, month and day.  “Sounds” setting should have different tones for different alert messages, expiration food and daily deals. 61
    • User 4 Persona: Liu is a housewife and uses fridge very often. She cooks for over 5 years and has some complains with the current fridge. The biggest problem she meets is how to remember all the items in it. When she goes grocery shopping, she usually uses a note to remember the list. It’s classical but useful. She also is not a tech-person. She has no smartphone and lack internet usage. Date: 10/09/2013 Usability Test Feedback Overall:  She was satisfied with the prototype.  It solves some problems that she has.  She mentioned that she would purchase if the cost is reasonable. Home Page:  She likes the “daily deals” part, because it’s like the ads and coupons that she need to remind.  She also agrees that “expiration information” is very useful to help her remember and manager the fridge. Food Locate Function:  She doubts the meaning of this function. She said “I can open the door and check the items.”, “I organize well and always find everything.” Shopping List:  She likes the print function.  She asked us about how the fridge generates list and gave a suggestion. The suggestion is that we can built a wish list and open to other householders, like her husband and son. They can enter something they’d like to eat and make the function more complicated. Recipe:  She had no special comment about recipe except the magic spoon.  She thought the drag function was too fancy. 62
    • User 5 Persona: John is a dentist and doesn’t like to cook. His fridge is filled by beer and to-go boxes. Sometimes he goes to supermarket and purchases some frozen food. The most serious problems that he has are he doesn’t know how to cook and he usually purchases items which are currently at home. Date: 10/09/2013 Usability Test Feedback Overall:  He had no special problem in usability test.  When I asked him if he would purchase this fridge, he gave negative answer. The reason was he thought the fridge would be expensive with these functions. He thought the main purposes with fridge were performance and price, he said “I agree with the fridge is so fancy, but I may not need every function with it”. Main Menu:  He was confusing with the color of expiration items. He said “Red color for today makes sense, but the black color for tomorrow is not”. Foods Locate Function:  He didn’t realize how to sort the foods in the same row, and can’t image if there are mass items in the fridge. He said “The door will be a mess if there are hundred ingredients inside.” Shopping list:  He knew Evernote but never used before, that’s the reason why he disagree with evernote syncing function was useful.  He also asked about the online shopping function, if there’s any food delivery service. Recipe:  There’s no negative comment. He said “I love this function. It should help me to cook more”. 63
    • User 6 Persona: Wu is a HCI graduate student. She likes to cook and uses fridge a lots. She doesn't live near to the grocery which she prefers to shop. The traffic time she spends every week to shop is more than 2 hours. Wu is also like to shop and discover recipe online. Date: 10/10/2013 Usability Test Feedback Overall:  The usability test is completed smoothly. Main Menu:  She mentions some icons (recipe, shopping list) are not understood by everyone.  She suggests to add some descriptions under the icons. Foods Locate Function:  She mentions the location of ingredients in same raw may confuse user.  She points out the question of one ingredient puts in different shelves, which usually happens. Shopping list:  User may be confused by “You should buy” and “You may buy”.  The wording should be changed to “Shopping list” and “You may also like”.  The location of dialog should be consistence. Recipe:  There’s no negative comment.  Magic spoon is useful, and easy to cook the ingredient which is going to expire soon. 64