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  • 1. LCD VS CRT Technology 1. Flat panel monitors use LCD technology and can handle either digital or analog video signals. CRT monitors use cathode ray tubes and analog video signals. Weight 2. Flat panel monitors weigh a fraction of what a comparable sized CRT monitor weighs. A single person can carry a 22-inch flat panel while it frequently took two people to carry a 21-inch CRT monitor. Space 3. Large CRT monitors take up large amounts of space on a desk while flat panel monitors take up very little. Placement 4. Many flat panel monitors have mounting holes on the back panel so they can be attached to a wall mount. CRT monitors were placed on the corners of desks or in the corner of a cubicle in order to minimize space. Power Consumption 5. CRT monitors use much more power than flat panel monitors. According to a test, a 20-inch CRT monitor had a 63 percent greater cost to run than a 21-inch flat panel monitor.
  • 2. Panel Monitors Vs. CRTs Space Consumption 1. It goes without question that panel monitors take less space than CRT monitors. Some panel monitors have brackets on the rear, allowing users to mount them to walls. CRT monitors are often placed in corners of desks and work areas so as to take up less space. Additionally, many newer computer desks are designed with panel monitors in mind. Weight 2. In addition to the difference in size, panel monitors are also much lighter than CRT monitors. This is not just because of the size difference but also because of a difference in materials used in their construction. Panel monitors boil down to a few cables, a lightweight screen and a main board. CRT monitors have the main board and wires, but also use a tube-styled screen that older televisions used. This makes CRT monitors extremely heavy. Resolution 3. One of the few areas where a CRT monitor is actually superior to the panel monitor is in regards to resolution and image quality . If a panel monitor is running at its native resolution (the default image size) the image is much more crisp and clear than a CRT. A CRT, however, will maintain its performance and image quality when the resolution is changed, while a panel monitor will lose a little bit of both quality and performance. Screen Glare 4. Because the CRT monitors use glass for their screens, they are more susceptible to glare from bright lights than panel monitors, which absorb that light. Panel monitors also allow for more adjustment than a CRT monitor, making them easier to view by giving people more space to turn and tilt. Price and Cost 5. In terms of immediate costs, panel monitors cost more than CRT monitors, in part because CRT monitors are on the way out as a viable computer monitor . Over the long run, panel monitors ultimately cost less than CRT monitors because panel monitors consume less energy than CRT screens while also having a longer shelf life.
  • 3. Power Consumption in CRT Vs. Flat Panel LCD Monitors CRT vs. LCD 1. CRT, short for cathode-ray tube, is represented by a technology that uses electron guns to fire electrons at a phosphor coating, creating the colored pixels that form the image to be displayed. LCD, short for liquid crystal display, uses two layers of polarizing material with liquid crystal solution between them. An electric current passing trough the liquid crystal display controls the movement and behavior of the crystals, either allowing light to pass through them or block it, thus creating the images. Power Consumption 2. Because of the newer and more advanced technology, LCDs are more economical than classic CRTs. An LCD monitor of the same size as a CRT monitor will consume less than half the power required for the CRT, making it a very profitable investment. For example, a 17" LCD monitor requires about 35W, very low consumption compared to the 90W requirement of a 17" CRT monitor. Pros and Cons 3. Each one, CRT or LCD, has their own advantages and disadvantages. If it comes to color quality and viewing angle, CRTs take the lead, but LCDs come with low radiation and distortion free images, unlike the bent CRT screens that may distort the image. Also, the physical size advantage is toward LCDs, as they are very slim compared to CRTs. Price 4. Although the power saving is quite significant for LCDs, they come at higher retail price. Therefore, it is important to make a plan and see how much youll use the computer daily, and see whether the power savings will compensate for the higher price. Alternatives 5. LCDs seem to remain in the lead when it comes to economy. The LED backlighting technology comes to deliver clearer and more uniform images to LCD screens, while also cutting down the power consumption.
  • 4. LCD vs. CRT EnergyLCD screens make computer monitors lighter and handier. CRT Technology 1. The cathode ray tube (CRT) is based on vacuum tube technology. An electron beam is swept across the inside of the CRT face, causing a phosphorous coating to emit light through the screen. The electron gun and beam-steering yoke use significant amounts of energy. The glass tube must be strong enough to hold a vacuum and the tube deep enough for the beam angle to sweep a large display face, making the assembly heavy and large. The CRT gives a brighter picture and is capable of greater resolution than current LCD types, so some design systems require them. LCD Technology 2. The liquid crystal display (LCD) is at its heart a semiconductor device. The display face uses polarized filters to pass or block light. Given a light source behind the panel, the LCD blocks or passes light to produce an image. The LCD screen is lighter in weight, less bulky and uses less power than the CRT. The LCD produces less brightness than a CRT and a lower pixel resolution due to the way it passes light through polarized filters. For most users, the difference in picture quality is slight enough to be outweighed by the LCD monitors advantages. Energy Usage 3. For a typical PC station monitor, a 15-inch LCD monitor uses 25 watts when on and 3 watts in standby mode. The 17-inch CRT equivalent monitor uses 80 watts when on and 5 watts in standby mode, a considerable difference. Effects of Energy Difference 4. For a CRT using more than 3 times the energy than its LCD equivalent, there are costs beyond that of electricity being used. The CRT gives a brighter picture, but also causes user fatigue more quickly, especially eye strain. Much of the CRT energy difference is given up as heat, adding to a home or workspace heat loading. The Future of LCD and CRT 5. The verdict of the market already gives the LCD monitor pride of place as the standard monitor for current systems and in the near future. CRT monitors will continue to see specialized use, but steady improvements in LCD technology will continue to erode the differences in picture quality. Beyond that the energy advantages of the lightweight LCD over the CRT clearly give it the lead.
  • 5. Projection TV Vs. LCDProjection or LCD TVs are an modern replacement to the CRT television. Screen Size 1. LCD televisions can be as small as 13 inches and as large as 65 inches. Projector televisions are able to reach sizes from 13 to 300 inches. Projector televisions may list the air screen size as a range because one projector can increase or decrease its size, as opposed to purchasing an LCD, which has a fixed screen size. Consumers usually purchase projection TVs that can reach 76 to 220 inches if they purchase screens that size. Projection TVs are also more portable; they can be carried to different locations and can project larger screen sizes. Viewing angle 2. The viewing angle in modern TVs may allow viewers to sit at any angle without compromising the image. LCD TVs were initially created for one viewer like a computer monitor. Newer LCD televisions can be viewed at 176 degrees, though there is still a specific spot that is optimal for the viewer. Viewing angles are not important with a projector television because the images are coming from the projector onto your screen or wall; therefore, you can view it from any angle. Burn In 3. Consumers interested in purchasing a plasma or LCD television have always feared pixels that burn in on the screen. Fortunately, LCD televisions do not burn in; however, they can have stuck pixels or issues that can cause unintentional glows. Projectors can also have pixels that no longer work, though manufacturers of projector televisions may have warranties available in case that happens. Consumers who purchase projectors should be more concerned about burned-out lamps, which can be replaced for a few hundred dollars. Lifespan 4. LCD televisions have backlights that can last up to 60,000 hours. Backlights can be replaced, but the cost may be so high its best to purchase another television. Projectors have lamps that may last up to 5,000 hours. LCDs may be more optimal for daily viewing, unless you are willing to replace the lamp on a projector TV more frequently because of regular use. Energy Efficiency 5. Because of utility costs, consumers may be concerned about whether LCD televisions or projectors use more energy. LCD televisions usually have a lower energy consumption. Smaller projectors may also require lower energy emissions. When projectors are turned off, they are completely turned off, and no energy is emitted. However, consumers may think that their LCD television is off, but it may actually be in a standby mode, which means it is still emitting energy.
  • 6. Cathode ray tubeFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaCutaway rendering of a color CRT:1. Three Electron guns (for red, green, and blue phosphor dots)2. Electron beams3. Focusing coils4. Deflection coils5. Anode connection6. Mask for separating beams for red, green, and blue part of displayed image7. Phosphor layer with red, green, and blue zones8. Close-up of the phosphor-coated inner side of the screenMagnified view of a shadow mask color CRTMagnified view of an aperture grille color CRT
  • 7. The Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube containing an electron gun (a source ofelectrons) and a fluorescent screen, with internal or external means to accelerate and deflect theelectron beam, used to create images in the form of light emitted from the fluorescent screen.The image may represent electrical waveforms (oscilloscope), pictures (television, computermonitor), radar targets and others.The CRT uses an evacuated glass envelope which is large, deep, heavy, and relatively fragile.HistoryA common CRT used in computer monitors and television setsThe earliest version of the CRT was invented by the German physicist Ferdinand Braun in 1897and is also known as the Braun tube.[1] It was a cold-cathode diode, a modification of theCrookes tube with a phosphor-coated screen.In 1907, Russian scientist Boris Rosing used a CRT in the receiving end of an experimentalvideo signal to form a picture. He managed to display simple geometric shapes onto the screen,which marked the first time that CRT technology was used for what is now known astelevision.[2]The first cathode ray tube to use a hot cathode was developed by John B. Johnson (who gave hisname to the term Johnson noise) and Harry Weiner Weinhart of Western Electric, and became acommercial product in 1922.OverviewA cathode ray tube is a vacuum tube which consists of one or more electron guns, possiblyinternal electrostatic deflection plates, and a phosphor target.[2] In television sets and computermonitors, the entire front area of the tube is scanned repetitively and systematically in a fixedpattern called a raster. An image is produced by controlling the intensity of each of the threeelectron beams, one for each additive primary color (red, green, and blue) with a video signal asa reference.[3] In all modern CRT monitors and televisions, the beams are bent by magneticdeflection, a varying magnetic field generated by coils and driven by electronic circuits aroundthe neck of the tube, although electrostatic deflection is commonly used in oscilloscopes, a typeof diagnostic instrument.[3]
  • 8. Electron gunOscilloscope CRTsIn oscilloscope CRTs, electrostatic deflection is used, rather than the magnetic deflectioncommonly used with television and other large CRTs. The beam is deflected horizontally byapplying an electric field between a pair of plates to its left and right, and vertically by applyingan electric field to plates above and below.[4][5][6]Phosphor persistenceVarious phosphors are available depending upon the needs of the measurement or displayapplication. The brightness, color, and persistence of the illumination depends upon the type ofphosphor used on the CRT screen. Phosphors are available with persistences ranging from lessthan one microsecond to several seconds.[7] For visual observation of brief transient events, along persistence phosphor may be desirable. For events which are fast and repetitive, or highfrequency, a short-persistence phosphor is generally preferable.[8]Microchannel plateWhen displaying fast one-shot events the electron beam must deflect very quickly, with fewelectrons impinging on the screen; leading to a faint or invisible display. Oscilloscope CRTsdesigned for very fast signals can give a brighter display by passing the electron beam through amicro-channel plate just before it reaches the screen. Through the phenomenon of secondaryemission this plate multiplies the number of electrons reaching the phosphor screen, giving asignificant improvement in writing rate (brightness), and improved sensitivity and spot size aswell.GraticulesMost oscilloscopes have a graticule as part of the visual display, to facilitate measurements. Thegraticule may be permanently marked inside the face of the CRT, or it may be a transparentexternal plate. External graticules are typically made of glass or acrylic plastic. An internalgraticule provides an advantage in that it eliminates parallax error. Unlike an external graticule,an internal graticule can not be changed to accommodate different types of measurements.[11]Oscilloscopes commonly provide a means for the graticule to be side-illuminated, whichimproves its visibility when used in a darkened room or when shaded by a camera hood.[12] Color CRTsSpectra of constituent blue, green and red phosphors in a common CRTColor tubes use three different phosphors which emit red, green, and blue light respectively.They are packed together in stripes (as in aperture grille designs) or clusters called "triads" (as inshadow mask CRTs).[13] Color CRTs have three electron guns, one for each primary color,arranged either in a straight line or in a triangular configuration (the guns are usually constructedas a single unit). A grille or mask absorbs the electrons that would otherwise hit the wrong
  • 9. phosphor.[14] A shadow mask tube uses a metal plate with tiny holes, placed so that the electronbeam only illuminates the correct phosphors on the face of the tube.[13] Another type of colorCRT uses an aperture grille to achieve the same result.[14][edit] Convergence in color CRTsThe three beams in color CRTs would not strike the screen at the same point withoutconvergence calibration. Instead, the set would need to be manually adjusted to converge thethree color beams together to maintain color accuracy.[15][edit] DegaussingMost CRT television sets and computer monitors have a built-in degaussing (demagnetizing)coil, which upon power-up creates a brief, alternating magnetic field which decays in strengthover the course of a few seconds. This degaussing field is strong enough to remove most cases ofshadow mask magnetization.[16][edit] Vector monitorsMain article: Vector monitorVector monitors were used in early computer aided design systems and in some late-1970s tomid-1980s arcade games such as Asteroids.[17] They draw graphics point-to-point, rather thanscanning a raster.[edit] CRT resolutionDot pitch defines the maximum resolution of the display, assuming delta-gun CRTs. In these, asthe scanned resolution approaches the dot pitch resolution, moiré appears, as the detail beingdisplayed is finer than what the shadow mask can render.[18] Aperture grille monitors do notsuffer from vertical moiré, however, because their phosphor stripes have no vertical detail. Insmaller CRTs, these strips maintain position by themselves, but larger aperture grille CRTsrequire one or two crosswise (horizontal) support strips.[19][edit] GammaCRTs have a pronounced triode characteristic, which results in significant gamma (a nonlinearrelationship in an electron gun between applied video voltage and light intensity).[20][edit] Other types of CRTs[edit] Cats eyeIn better quality tube radio sets a tuning guide consisting of a phosphor tube was used to aid thetuning adjustment. This was also known as a "Magic Eye" or "Tuning Eye". Tuning would beadjusted until the width of a radial shadow was minimized. This was used instead of a moreexpensive electromechanical meter, which later came to be used on higher-end tuners whentransistor sets lacked the high voltage required to drive the device.[21][edit] CharactronsSome displays for early computers (those that needed to display more text than was practicalusing vectors, or that required high speed for photographic output) used Charactron CRTs. Theseincorporate a perforated metal character mask (stencil), which shapes a wide electron beam toform a character on the screen. The system selects a character on the mask using one set ofdeflection circuits, but that causes the extruded beam to be aimed off-axis, so a second set ofdeflection plates has to re-aim the beam so it is headed toward the center of the screen. A thirdset of plates places the character wherever required. The beam is unblanked (turned on) briefly todraw the character at that position. Graphics could be drawn by selecting the position on themask corresponding to the code for a space (in practice, they were simply not drawn), which had
  • 10. a small round hole in the center; this effectively disabled the character mask, and the systemreverted to regular vector behavior. Charactrons had exceptionally-long necks, because of theneed for three deflection systems.[22][23][edit] NimoNimo tube BA0000-P31Nimo was the trademark of a family of small specialised CRTs manufactured by IndustrialElectronics Engineers. These had 10 electron guns which produced electron beams in the form ofdigits in a manner similar to that of the charactron. The tubes were either simple single-digitdisplays or more complex 4- or 6- digit displays produced by means of a suitable magneticdeflection system. Having little of the complexities of a standard CRT, the tube required arelatively simple driving circuit, and as the image was projected on the glass face, it provided amuch wider viewing angle than competitive types (e.g. nixie tubes).[24][edit] Zeus Thin CRT DisplaysIn the late 1990s and early 2000s Philips Research Laboratories experimented with a type of thinCRT known as the Zeus display which contained CRT-like functionality in a flatpanel.[25][26][27][28][29][30] The devices were demonstrated but never marketed.[edit] The future of CRT technology[edit] DemiseThe demand for CRT screens has been falling rapidly,[31] and producers are responding to thistrend. For example, in 2005, Sony announced that they would stop the production of CRTcomputer displays. It has been common to replace CRT-based televisions and monitors in aslittle as 5–6 years, although they generally are capable of satisfactory performance for a muchlonger time.The end of most high-end CRT production in the mid 2000s [32] (including high-end Sony andMitsubishi product lines) means an erosion of the CRTs capability.[33][34] Samsung did notintroduce any CRT models for the 2008 model year at the 2008 Consumer Electronics Show andon February 4, 2008 Samsung removed their 30" wide screen CRTs from their North Americanwebsite and has not replaced them with new models.[35] This demise, however, has been adaptedmore slowly in the developing world. According to iSupply, production in units of CRTs was notsurpassed by LCDs production until 4Q 2007, owing largely to CRT production at factories inChina.In the United Kingdom, DSG (Dixons), the largest retailer of domestic electronic equipment,reported that CRT models made up 80–90% of the volume of televisions sold at Christmas 2004and 15–20% a year later, and that they were expected to be less than 5% at the end of 2006.Dixons ceased selling CRT televisions in 2007.[36]
  • 11. [edit] CausesCRTs, despite recent advances, have remained relatively heavy and bulky and take up a lot ofspace in comparison to other display technologies, and this became a significant disadvantage asconsumers considered the thin and wall-mountable flat panels a selling point. CRT screens havemuch deeper cabinets compared to flat panels and rear-projection displays for a given screensize, and so it becomes impractical to have CRTs larger than 40 inches (102 cm).Generally, rear-projection displays and LCDs require more power per display area than CRTs fordisplays larger than 12", assuming the same per square meter² brightness and a modern aperturegrill design. Monochrome CRTs are even more efficient than color CRTs. This is because up to2/3rds of the backlight power of LCD and rear-projection displays are lost to the RGB stripefilter. Most LCDs also have poorer color rendition and can change color with viewing angle,though modern PVA and IPS LCDs have greatly attenuated these problems.[edit] Resurgence in specialized marketsIn the first quarter of 2008, CRTs retook the #2 technology position in North America fromplasma, due to the decline and consolidation of plasma display manufacturers. DisplaySearch hasreported that although in the 4Q of 2007 LCDs surpassed CRTs in worldwide sales, CRTs thenoutsold LCDs in the 1Q of 2008.[37][38]CRTs are useful for displaying photos with high pixels per unit area and correct color balance.LCDs, as currently the most common flatscreen technology, have generally inferior colorrendition (despite having greater overall brightness) due to the fluorescent lights commonly usedas a backlight.[39]CRTs are still popular in the printing and broadcasting industries as well as in the professionalvideo, photography, and graphics fields due to their greater color fidelity, contrast and betterviewing from off-axis (wider viewing angle). CRTs also still find adherents in video gamingbecause of their higher resolution per initial cost, fast response time, and multiple nativeresolutions.[40][edit] Health benefits[edit] Superior Anti-Glare coatingsCRTs such as the Sony Trinitron (1990s) employ a tinted anti-reflective coating which absorbsfar more reflected light than the etched glass used in almost all LCDs sold in 2010. CRT userscan sit in front of a large (20") screen for a full 8-hour day without getting tired eyes orheadaches.[41][edit] Health concernsSee also: Electronic waste[edit] Ionizing radiationCRTs can emit a small amount of X-ray radiation as a result of the electron beams bombardmentof the shadow mask/aperture grille and phosphors. The amount of radiation escaping the front ofthe monitor is widely considered unharmful. The Food and Drug Administration regulations in21 C.F.R. 1020.10 are used to strictly limit, for instance, television receivers to 0.5milliroentgens per hour (mR/h) (0.13 µC/(kg·h) or 36 pA/kg) at a distance of 5 cm (2 in) fromany external surface; since 2007, most CRTs have emissions that fall well below this limit.[42][edit] ToxicityColor and monochrome CRTs may contain toxic substances, such as cadmium, in thephosphors.[43][44] The rear glass tube of modern CRTs may be made from leaded glass, whichrepresent an environmental hazard if disposed of improperly.[45] By the time personal computers
  • 12. were produced, glass in the front panel (the viewable portion of the CRT) used barium ratherthan lead, though the rear of the CRT was still produced from leaded glass. Monochrome CRTstypically do not contain enough leaded glass to fail EPA tests.In October 2001, the United States Environmental Protection Agency created rules stating thatCRTs must be brought to special recycling facilities. In November 2002, the EPA began finingcompanies that disposed of CRTs through landfills or incineration. Regulatory agencies, localand statewide, monitor the disposal of CRTs and other computer equipment.[46]In Europe, disposal of CRT televisions and monitors is covered by the WEEE Directive.[47][edit] FlickerAt low refresh rates (below 50 Hz), the periodic scanning of the display may produce anirritating flicker that some people perceive more easily than others, especially when viewed withperipheral vision. A high refresh rate (above 72 Hz) reduces the effect. Computer displays andtelevisions with CRTs driven by digital electronics often use refresh rates of 100 Hz or more tolargely eliminate any perception of flicker.[48] Non-computer CRTs or CRT for sonar or radarmay have long persistence phosphor and are thus flicker free. If the persistence is too long on avideo display, moving images will be blurred.[edit] High-frequency noiseCRTs used for television operate with horizontal scanning frequencies of 15,734 Hz (for NTSCsystems) or 15,625 Hz (for PAL systems).[49] These frequencies are at the upper range of humanhearing and are inaudible to many people; some people will perceive a high-pitched tone near anoperating television CRT.[50] The sound is due to magnetostriction in the magnetic core of theflyback transformer.[edit] ImplosionA high vacuum exists within all cathode ray tubes. If the outer glass envelope is damaged, adangerous implosion may occur. Glass pieces may explode outwards at dangerous velocities.While modern CRTs used in televisions and computer displays have epoxy-bonded face-plates orother measures to prevent shattering of the envelope, CRTs removed from equipment must behandled carefully to avoid personal injury.[51][edit] Security concernsUnder some circumstances, the signal radiated from the electron guns, scanning circuitry, andassociated wiring of a CRT can be captured and used to remotely reconstruct what is shown onthe CRT, using a process called Van Eck phreaking.[52] Special TEMPEST shielding can mitigatethis effect. Such radiation of a potentially exploitable signal however occurs also with LCDs andwith all electronics in general.
  • 13. TFT LCDFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaA 19" LG flat panel computer display This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2009)Thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) is a variant of liquid crystal display(LCD) which uses thin-film transistor (TFT) technology to improve image quality (e.g.,addressability, contrast). TFT LCD is one type of active matrix LCD, though all LCD-screensare based on TFT active matrix addressing. TFT LCDs are used in television sets, computermonitors, mobile phones, handheld video game systems, personal digital assistants, navigationsystems, projectors, etc.[1]Contents[hide] 1 Construction 2 Types o 2.1 Twisted nematic (TN) o 2.2 In-plane switching (IPS) o 2.3 Advanced fringe field switching (AFFS) o 2.4 Multi-domain vertical alignment (MVA) o 2.5 Patterned vertical alignment (PVA) o 2.6 Advanced super view (ASV) 3 Display industry 4 Electrical interface 5 Safety o 5.1 Toxicity 6 See also 7 References 8 External links[edit] Construction
  • 14. A diagram of the pixel layoutSmall liquid crystal displays as used in calculators and other devices have direct driven imageelements – a voltage can be applied across one segment without interfering with other segmentsof the display. This is impractical for a large display with a large number of picture elements(pixels), since it would require millions of connections – top and bottom connections for eachone of the three colors (red, green and blue) of every pixel. To avoid this issue, the pixels areaddressed in rows and columns which reduce the connection count from millions to thousands. Ifall the pixels in one row are driven with a positive voltage and all the pixels in one column aredriven with a negative voltage, then the pixel at the intersection has the largest applied voltageand is switched. The problem with this solution is that all the pixels in the same column see afraction of the applied voltage as do all the pixels in the same row, so although they are notswitched completely, they do tend to darken. The solution to the problem is to supply each pixelwith its own transistor switch which allows each pixel to be individually controlled. The lowleakage current of the transistor prevents the charge applied to the pixel from leaking awaybetween refreshes to the display image. Each pixel is a small capacitor with a layer of insulatingliquid crystal sandwiched between transparent conductive ITO layers.The circuit layout process of a TFT-LCD is very similar to that of semiconductor products.However, rather than fabricating the transistors from silicon formed into a crystalline siliconwafer, they are made from a thin film of amorphous silicon deposited on a glass panel. Thesilicon layer for TFT-LCDs is typically deposited using the PECVD process[2]. Transistors takeup only a small fraction of the area of each pixel; the rest of the silicon film is etched away toallow light to pass through.Polycrystalline silicon is sometimes used in displays requiring higher TFT performance.Examples include small high-resolution displays such as those found in projectors or viewfinders. Amorphous silicon-based TFTs are by far the most common due to their lowerproduction cost, whereas polycrystalline silicon TFTs are more costly and difficult to produce[3].[edit] Types
  • 15. [edit] Twisted nematic (TN)TN display under a microscope, with the transistors visible at the bottomThe inexpensive twisted nematic display is the most common consumer display type. The pixelresponse time on modern TN panels is sufficiently fast to avoid the shadow-trail and ghostingartifacts of earlier production. The fast response time has been emphasised in advertising TNdisplays, although in most cases this number does not reflect performance across the entire rangeof possible color transitions.[citation needed] More recent use of RTC (Response Time Compensation/ Overdrive) technologies has allowed manufacturers to significantly reduce grey-to-grey (G2G)transitions, without significantly improving the ISO response time. Response times are nowquoted in G2G figures, with 4ms and 2ms now being commonplace for TN-based models. Thegood response time and low cost has led to the dominance of TN in the consumer market.[citationneeded]TN displays suffer from limited viewing angles, especially in the vertical direction. Colors willshift when viewed off-perpendicular. In the vertical direction, colors will shift so much that theywill invert past a certain angle.Also, most TN panels represent colors using only 6 bits per RGB color, or 18 bit in total, and areunable to display the 16.7 million color shades (24-bit truecolor) that are available from graphicscards. Instead, these panels display interpolated 24-bit color using a dithering method thatcombines adjacent pixels to simulate the desired shade. They can also use a form of temporaldithering called Frame Rate Control (FRC), which cycles between different shades with eachnew frame to simulate an intermediate shade. Such 18 bit panels with dithering are sometimesadvertised as having "16.2 million colors". These color simulation methods are noticeable tomany people and highly bothersome to some.[4] FRC tends to be most noticeable in darker tones,while dithering appears to make the individual pixels of the LCD visible. Overall, colorreproduction and linearity on TN panels is poor. Shortcomings in display color gamut (oftenreferred to as a percentage of the NTSC 1953 color gamut) are also due to backlightingtechnology. It is not uncommon for displays with CCFL (Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamps)-
  • 16. based lighting to range from 10% to 26% of the NTSC color gamut, whereas other kind ofdisplays, utilizing RGB LED backlights, may extend past 100% of the NTSC color gamut—adifference quite perceivable by the human eye.The transmittance of a pixel of an LCD panel typically does not change linearly with the appliedvoltage,[5] and the sRGB standard for computer monitors requires a specific nonlineardependence of the amount of emitted light as a function of the RGB value.[edit] In-plane switching (IPS)In-plane switching was developed by Hitachi Ltd. in 1996 to improve on the poor viewing angleand the poor color reproduction of TN panels at that time.[6] Its name comes from the maindifference from TN panels, that the crystal molecules move parallel to the panel plane instead ofperpendicular to it. This change reduces the amount of light scattering in the matrix, which givesIPS its characteristic wide viewing angles and good color reproduction.[7]Initial iterations of IPS technology were plagued with slow response time and a low contrastratio but later evolutions have made marked improvements to these shortcomings. Because of itswide viewing angle and accurate color reproduction (with almost no off-angle color shift), IPS iswidely employed in high-end monitors aimed at professional graphic artists, although with therecent fall in price it has been seen in the mainstream market as well. Hitachi IPS evolving technology[8] Transmittance/ Name Nickname Year Advantage Remarks contrast ratio Most panels also support true 8-bit per channel color. These improvements came at Wide viewing 100/100Super TFT IPS 1996 the cost of a slower response time, initially angle Base level about 50 ms. IPS panels were also extremely expensive. IPS has since been superseded by S-IPS Color shift (Super-IPS, Hitachi Ltd. in 1998), which hasSuper-IPS S-IPS 1998 100/137 free all the benefits of IPS technology with the addition of improved pixel refresh timing. AS-IPS, also developed by Hitachi Ltd. inAdvanced High 2002, improves substantially on the contrast AS-IPS 2002 130/250Super-IPS transmittance ratio of traditional S-IPS panels to the point where they are second only to some S-PVAs. The latest panel from IPS Alpha TechnologyIPS- High contrast with a wider color gamut and contrast ratio IPS-Pro 2004 137/313Provectus ratio matching PVA and ASV displays without off- angle glowing. LG IPS evolving technology Name Nickname Year Remarks LG.Philips remains as one of the main manufacturers of panels based onSuper-IPS S-IPS 2001 Hitachi Super-IPS.
  • 17. Advanced AS-IPS 2005 Increased contrast ratio with better color gamut.Super-IPS Improves contrast ratio by twisting electrode plane layout. Also introduces an optional Advanced True White polarizing film from NEC,Horizontal IPS H-IPS 2007 to make white look more natural. This is used in professional/photography LCDs. Wider aperture for light transmission, enabling the use of lower-power,Enhanced IPS E-IPS 2009 cheaper backlights. Improves diagonal viewing angle and further reduce response time to 5ms. Offer 1.07 billion colours (30-bit colour depth). More possibleProfessional P-IPS 2010 orientations per sub-pixel (1024 as opposed to 256) and produces aIPS better true colour depth.[edit] Advanced fringe field switching (AFFS)This is an LCD technology derived from the IPS by Boe-Hydis of Korea. Known as fringe fieldswitching (FFS) until 2003,[9] advanced fringe field switching is a technology similar to IPS or S-IPS offering superior performance and colour gamut with high luminosity. AFFS is developed byHYDIS TECHNOLOGIES CO.,LTD, Korea (formally Hyundai Electronics, LCD TaskForce).[10]AFFS-applied notebook applications minimize colour distortion while maintaining its superiorwide viewing angle for a professional display. Colour shift and deviation caused by light leakageis corrected by optimizing the white gamut which also enhances white/grey reproduction.In 2004, HYDIS TECHNOLOGIES CO.,LTD licenses AFFS patent to Japans Hitachi Displays.Hitachi is using AFFS to manufacture high end panels in their product line. In 2006, HYDIS alsolicenses AFFS to Sanyo Epson Imaging Devices Corporation.HYDIS introduced AFFS+ which improved outdoor readability in 2007.[edit] Multi-domain vertical alignment (MVA)Multi-domain vertical alignment was originally developed in 1998 by Fujitsu as a compromisebetween TN and IPS.[citation needed] It achieved pixel response which was fast for its time, wideviewing angles, and high contrast at the cost of brightness and color reproduction. Modern MVApanels can offer wide viewing angles (second only to S-IPS technology), good black depth, goodcolor reproduction and depth, and fast response times due to the use of RTC (Response TimeCompensation) technologies. When MVA panels are viewed off-perpendicular, colors will shift,but much less than for TN panels.There are several "next-generation" technologies based on MVA, including AU Optronics P-MVA and A-MVA, as well as Chi Mei Optoelectronics S-MVA. Analysts[who?] predicted thatMVA would dominate the mainstream market, but the less expensive and slightly faster TNovertook it. The pixel response times of MVAs rise dramatically with small changes inbrightness. Less expensive MVA panels can use dithering and FRC (Frame Rate Control).[edit] Patterned vertical alignment (PVA)Patterned vertical alignment and super patterned vertical alignment (S-PVA) are alternativeversions of MVA technology offered by Samsungs and Sonys joint venture S-LCD. Developedindependently, they offer similar features to MVA, but with higher contrast ratios of up to3000:1. Less expensive PVA panels often use dithering and FRC, while S-PVA panels all use atleast 8 bits per color component and do not use color simulation methods. S-PVA also largely
  • 18. eliminated off angle glowing of solid blacks and reduced the off angle gamma shift. Some newerS-PVA panels offered by Eizo offer 16-bit color internally, which enables gamma and othercorrections with reduced color banding. Some high end Sony BRAVIA LCD-TVs offer 10bitand xvYCC color support.[citation needed] PVA and S-PVA offer the best black depth of any LCDtype along with wide viewing angles.[citation needed] S-PVA also offers fast response times usingmodern RTC technologies.[edit] Advanced super view (ASV)Advanced super view, also called axially symmetric vertical alignment was developed by Sharp.It is a VA mode where liquid crystal molecules orient perpendicular to the substrates in the offstate. The bottom sub-pixel has continuously covered electrodes, while the upper one has asmaller area electrode in the center of the subpixel.When the field is on, the liquid crystal molecules start to tilt towards the center of the sub-pixelsbecause of the electric field; As a result, a continuous pinwheel alignment (CPA) is formed; theazimuthal angle rotates 360 degrees continuously resulting in an excellent viewing angle. TheASV mode is also called CPA mode.[11][edit] Display industry This section is missing citations or needs footnotes. Please help add inline citations to guard against copyright violations and factual inaccuracies. (December 2008)Due to the very high cost of building TFT factories, there are few major OEM panel vendors forlarge display panels. The glass panel suppliers are as follows: LCD glass panel suppliersPanel Company Remarkstype Solely for LCD TV markets andIPS- Panasonic known as IPS Alpha TechnologyPro Ltd.[12]H-IPS LG Display Hannstar ChuangwaS-IPS Picture Tubes, They also produce other type of TFT Ltd. panels such as TN for OEM marketsA- AU Optronics such as mobile, monitor,MVA automotive, portable AV andS- Chi Mei industrial panels.MVA Optoelectronics S-LCDS-PVA (Samsung/Sony joint venture) For small and medium size specialAFFS Samsung project.
  • 19. SharpASV Solely for LCD TV markets CorporationRaw LCD TFT panels are usually factory-sorted into three categories, with regard to the numberof dead pixels, backlight evenness and general product quality.[citation needed] Additionally, theremay be up to +/- 2ms maximum response time differences between individual panels that cameoff the same assembly line on the same day. The poorest-performing screens are then sold to no-name vendors or used in "value" TFT monitors (often[citation needed] marked with letter V behindthe type number), the medium performers are incorporated in gamer-oriented or home officebound TFT displays (sometimes marked with the capital letter S), and the best screens areusually reserved for use in "professional" grade TFT monitors (often marked with letter P or Safter their type number).[edit] Electrical interfaceExternal consumer display devices like a TFT LCD feature one or more analog VGA, DVI,HDMI, or DisplayPort interface, with many featuring a selection of these interfaces. Insideexternal display devices there is a controller board that will convert CVBS, VGA, DVI, HDMIetc. into digital RGB at the native resolution of the display panel. In a laptop the graphics chipwill directly produce a signal suitable for connection to the built-in TFT display. A controlmechanism for the backlight is usually included on the same controller board.The low level interface of STN, DSTN, or TFT display panels use either single ended TTL 5Vsignal for older displays or TTL 3.3V for slightly newer displays that transmits Pixel clock,Horizontal sync, Vertical sync, Digital red, Digital green, Digital blue in parallel. Some modelsalso feature input/display enable, horizontal scan direction and vertical scan direction signals.New and large (>15 in) TFT displays often use LVDS or TMDS signaling that transmits thesame contents as the parallel interface (Hsync, Vsync, RGB) but will put control and RGB bitsinto a number of serial transmission lines synchronized to a clock at 1/3 of the data bitrate.Usually with 3 data signals and one clock line. Transmitting 3x7 bits for one clock cycle giving18-bpp. An optional 4th signal enables 24-bpp.Backlight intensity is usually controlled by varying a few volts DC, or generating a PWM signal,or adjusting a potentiometer or simply fixed. This in turn controls a high-voltage (1.3 kV) DC-AC inverter or a matrix of LEDs.The bare display panel will only accept a digital video signal at the resolution determined by thepanel pixel matrix designed at manufacture. Some screen panels will ignore color LSB bits topresent a consistent interface (8bit->6bit/color).The reason why laptop displays cant be reused directly with an ordinary computer graphics cardor as a television, is mainly because it lacks a hardware rescaler (often using some discretecosine transform) that can resize the image to fit the native resolution of the display panel.[citationneeded] With analogue signals like VGA the display controller also needs to perform a highspeedanalog to digital conversion. With digital input signals like DVI or HDMI some simple bitstuffing is needed before feeding it to the rescaler if input resolution doesnt match the displaypanel resolution. For CVBS (TV) usage a tuner and color decode from a quadrature amplitudemodulation (QAM) to Luminance (Y), Blue-Y (U), Red-Y (V) representation which in turn istransformed into Red, Green Blue is needed.[citation needed]
  • 20. Liquid crystal displayFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, searchReflective twisted nematic liquid crystal display. 1. Polarizing filter film with a vertical axis to polarize light as it enters. 2. Glass substrate with ITO electrodes. The shapes of these electrodes will determine the shapes that will appear when the LCD is turned ON. Vertical ridges etched on the surface are smooth. 3. Twisted nematic liquid crystal. 4. Glass substrate with common electrode film (ITO) with horizontal ridges to line up with the horizontal filter. 5. Polarizing filter film with a horizontal axis to block/pass light. 6. Reflective surface to send light back to viewer. (In a backlit LCD, this layer is replaced with a light source.)A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a thin, flat electronic visual display that uses the lightmodulating properties of liquid crystals (LCs). LCs do not emit light directly.They are used in a wide range of applications including: computer monitors, television,instrument panels, aircraft cockpit displays, signage, etc. They are common in consumer devicessuch as video players, gaming devices, clocks, watches, calculators, and telephones. LCDs havedisplaced cathode ray tube(CRT) displays in most applications. They are usually more compact,lightweight, portable, less expensive, more reliable, and easier on the eyes. They are available ina wider range of screen sizes than CRT and plasma displays, and since they do not usephosphors, they cannot suffer image burn-in.LCDs are more energy efficient and offer safer disposal than CRTs. Its low electrical powerconsumption enables it to be used in battery-powered electronic equipment. It is anelectronically-modulated optical device made up of any number of pixels filled with liquidcrystals and arrayed in front of a light source (backlight) or reflector to produce images in colouror monochrome. The earliest discovery leading to the development of LCD technology, thediscovery of liquid crystals, dates from 1888.[1] By 2008, worldwide sales of televisions withLCD screens had surpassed the sale of CRT units.Contents[hide] 1 Overview 2 Illumination 3 Passive-matrix and active-matrix addressed LCDs
  • 21. 4 Active matrix technologies o 4.1 Twisted nematic (TN) o 4.2 In-plane switching (IPS) o 4.3 Advanced fringe field switching (AFFS) o 4.4 Vertical alignment (VA) o 4.5 Blue Phase mode 5 Military use of LCD monitors 6 Quality control 7 Zero-power (bistable) displays 8 Color displays 9 Brief history 10 Specifications 11 See also 12 References 13 External links o 13.1 General information[edit] Overview This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2009)LCD alarm clockEach pixel of an LCD typically consists of a layer of molecules aligned between two transparentelectrodes, and two polarizing filters, the axes of transmission of which are (in most of the cases)perpendicular to each other. With no actual liquid crystal between the polarizing filters, lightpassing through the first filter would be blocked by the second (crossed) polarizer. In most of thecases the liquid crystal has double refraction.[citation needed]The surface of the electrodes that are in contact with the liquid crystal material are treated so asto align the liquid crystal molecules in a particular direction. This treatment typically consists ofa thin polymer layer that is unidirectionally rubbed using, for example, a cloth. The direction ofthe liquid crystal alignment is then defined by the direction of rubbing. Electrodes are made of atransparent conductor called Indium Tin Oxide (ITO).Before applying an electric field, the orientation of the liquid crystal molecules is determined bythe alignment at the surfaces of electrodes. In a twisted nematic device (still the most commonliquid crystal device), the surface alignment directions at the two electrodes are perpendicular toeach other, and so the molecules arrange themselves in a helical structure, or twist. This reduces
  • 22. the rotation of the polarization of the incident light, and the device appears grey. If the appliedvoltage is large enough, the liquid crystal molecules in the center of the layer are almostcompletely untwisted and the polarization of the incident light is not rotated as it passes throughthe liquid crystal layer. This light will then be mainly polarized perpendicular to the secondfilter, and thus be blocked and the pixel will appear black. By controlling the voltage appliedacross the liquid crystal layer in each pixel, light can be allowed to pass through in varyingamounts thus constituting different levels of gray. This electric field also controls(reduces)double refraction properties of the liquid crystal.[citation needed]LCD with top polarizer removed from device and placed on top, such that the top and bottom polarizersare parallel.The optical effect of a twisted nematic device in the voltage-on state is far less dependent onvariations in the device thickness than that in the voltage-off state. Because of this, these devicesare usually operated between crossed polarizers such that they appear bright with no voltage (theeye is much more sensitive to variations in the dark state than the bright state). These devices canalso be operated between parallel polarizers, in which case the bright and dark states arereversed. The voltage-off dark state in this configuration appears blotchy, however, because ofsmall variations of thickness across the device.Both the liquid crystal material and the alignment layer material contain ionic compounds. If anelectric field of one particular polarity is applied for a long period of time, this ionic material isattracted to the surfaces and degrades the device performance. This is avoided either by applyingan alternating current or by reversing the polarity of the electric field as the device is addressed(the response of the liquid crystal layer is identical, regardless of the polarity of the appliedfield).When a large number of pixels are needed in a display, it is not technically possible to drive eachdirectly since then each pixel would require independent electrodes. Instead, the display ismultiplexed. In a multiplexed display, electrodes on one side of the display are grouped andwired together (typically in columns), and each group gets its own voltage source. On the otherside, the electrodes are also grouped (typically in rows), with each group getting a voltage sink.The groups are designed so each pixel has a unique, unshared combination of source and sink.The electronics, or the software driving the electronics then turns on sinks in sequence, anddrives sources for the pixels of each sink.[edit] IlluminationAs LCD panels produce no light of their own, they require an external lighting mechanism to beeasily visible. On most displays, this consists of a cold cathode fluorescent lamp that is situatedbehind the LCD panel. Passive-matrix displays are usually not backlit, but active-matrix displaysalmost always are, with a few exceptions such as the display in the original Gameboy Advance.
  • 23. Recently, two types LED backlit LCD displays have appeared in some televisions as analternative to conventional backlit LCDs. In one scheme, the LEDs are used to backlight theentire LCD panel. In another scheme, a set of green red and blue LEDs is used to illuminate asmall cluster of pixels, which can improve contrast and black level in some situations. Forexample, the LEDs in one section of the screen can be dimmed to produce a dark section of theimage while the LEDs in another section are kept bright. Both schemes also allows for a slimmerpanel than on conventional displays.[edit] Passive-matrix and active-matrix addressed LCDs This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2009)A general purpose alphanumeric LCD, with two lines of 16 characters.LCDs with a small number of segments, such as those used in digital watches and pocketcalculators, have individual electrical contacts for each segment. An external dedicated circuitsupplies an electric charge to control each segment. This display structure is unwieldy for morethan a few display elements.Small monochrome displays such as those found in personal organizers, electronic weighingscales, older laptop screens, and the original Gameboy have a passive-matrix structureemploying super-twisted nematic (STN) or double-layer STN (DSTN) technology—the latter ofwhich addresses a colour-shifting problem with the former—and colour-STN (CSTN)—whereincolour is added by using an internal filter. Each row or column of the display has a singleelectrical circuit. The pixels are addressed one at a time by row and column addresses. This typeof display is called passive-matrix addressed because the pixel must retain its state betweenrefreshes without the benefit of a steady electrical charge. As the number of pixels (and,correspondingly, columns and rows) increases, this type of display becomes less feasible. Veryslow response times and poor contrast are typical of passive-matrix addressed LCDs. Colorpassive-matrix displays exist, although they are limited to 16 colors.Monochrome passive-matrix LCDs were standard in most early laptops (although a few usedplasma displays). The commercially unsuccessful Macintosh Portable (released in 1989) was oneof the first to use an active-matrix display (though still monochrome), but passive-matrix was thenorm until the mid-1990s, when color active-matrix became standard on all laptops.High-resolution colour displays such as modern LCD computer monitors and televisions use anactive matrix structure. A matrix of thin-film transistors (TFTs) is added to the polarizing andcolour filters. Each pixel has its own dedicated transistor, allowing each column line to accessone pixel. When a row line is activated, all of the column lines are connected to a row of pixels
  • 24. and the correct voltage is driven onto all of the column lines. The row line is then deactivatedand the next row line is activated. All of the row lines are activated in sequence during a refreshoperation. Active-matrix addressed displays look "brighter" and "sharper" than passive-matrixaddressed displays of the same size, and generally have quicker response times, producing muchbetter images.[edit] Active matrix technologiesA Casio 1.8 in colour TFT liquid crystal display which equips the Sony Cyber-shot DSC-P93A digitalcompact camerasMain articles: Thin film transistor liquid crystal display and Active-matrix liquid crystal display[edit] Twisted nematic (TN)See also: twisted nematic field effectTwisted nematic displays contain liquid crystal elements which twist and untwist at varyingdegrees to allow light to pass through. When no voltage is applied to a TN liquid crystal cell, thelight is polarized to pass through the cell. In proportion to the voltage applied, the LC cells twistup to 90 degrees changing the polarization and blocking the lights path. By properly adjustingthe level of the voltage almost any grey level or transmission can be achieved.[edit] In-plane switching (IPS)In-plane switching is an LCD technology which aligns the liquid crystal cells in a horizontaldirection. In this method, the electrical field is applied through each end of the crystal, but thisrequires two transistors for each pixel instead of the single transistor needed for a standard thin-film transistor (TFT) display. With older versions of IPS, before LG Enhanced IPS wasintroduced in 2009, the additional transistor resulted in blocking more transmission area, thusrequiring a brighter backlight, which consumed more power, and made this type of display lessdesirable for notebook computers. This technology can be found in the Apple iMac, iPad, andiPhone 4, as well as the Hewlett-Packard EliteBook 8740w. Currently Panasonic is using anenhanced version eIPS for their large size LCD-TV products.[edit] Advanced fringe field switching (AFFS)Known as fringe field switching (FFS) until 2003,[2] advanced fringe field switching is atechnology similar to IPS or S-IPS offering superior performance and colour gamut with highluminosity. AFFS is developed by HYDIS TECHNOLOGIES CO.,LTD, Korea (formallyHyundai Electronics, LCD Task Force).[3]
  • 25. AFFS-applied notebook applications minimize colour distortion while maintaining its superiorwide viewing angle for a professional display. Colour shift and deviation caused by light leakageis corrected by optimizing the white gamut which also enhances white/grey reproduction.In 2004, HYDIS TECHNOLOGIES CO.,LTD licenses AFFS patent to Japans Hitachi Displays.Hitachi is using AFFS to manufacture high end panels in their product line. In 2006, HYDIS alsolicenses AFFS to Sanyo Epson Imaging Devices Corporation.HYDIS introduced AFFS+ which improved outdoor readability in 2007.[edit] Vertical alignment (VA)Vertical alignment displays are a form of LCDs in which the liquid crystal material naturallyexists in a vertical state removing the need for extra transistors (as in IPS). When no voltage isapplied, the liquid crystal cell remains perpendicular to the substrate creating a black display.When voltage is applied, the liquid crystal cells shift to a horizontal position, parallel to thesubstrate, allowing light to pass through and create a white display. VA liquid crystal displaysprovide some of the same advantages as IPS panels, particularly an improved viewing angle andimproved black level.[citation needed][edit] Blue Phase modeMain article: Blue Phase Mode LCDBlue phase LCDs do not require a liquid crystal top layer. Blue phase LCDs are relatively new tothe market, and very expensive because of the low volume of production. They provide a higherrefresh rate than normal LCDs, but normal LCDs are still cheaper to make and actually providebetter colours and a sharper image.[neutrality is disputed][citation needed][edit] Military use of LCD monitorsLCD monitors have been adopted by the military instead of CRT displays due to being smaller,lighter and more efficient, although monochrome plasma displays are also used, notably in M1Abrams tanks. Using night vision imaging systems with an LCD monitor is needed to have themonitor be compliant with MIL-L-3009 (formerly MIL-L-85762A). These LCD monitors gothrough extensive certification so that they pass the standards for the military. These includeMIL-STD-901D - High Shock (Sea Vessels), MIL-STD-167B - Vibration (Sea Vessels), MIL-STD-810F – Field Environmental Conditions (Ground Vehicles and Systems), MIL-STD-461E/F– EMI/RFI (Electromagnetic Interference/Radio Frequency Interference), MIL-STD-740B –Airborne/Structureborne Noise, and TEMPEST - Telecommunications Electronics MaterialProtected from Emanating Spurious Transmissions.[4][edit] Quality controlSome LCD panels have defective transistors, causing permanently lit or unlit pixels which arecommonly referred to as stuck pixels or dead pixels respectively. Unlike integrated circuits (ICs),LCD panels with a few defective pixels are usually still usable. It is claimed that it iseconomically prohibitive to discard a panel with just a few defective pixels because LCD panelsare much larger than ICs, but this has never been proven. Manufacturers policies for theacceptable number of defective pixels vary greatly. At one point, Samsung held a zero-tolerancepolicy for LCD monitors sold in Korea.[5] Currently, though, Samsung adheres to the lessrestrictive ISO 13406-2 standard.[6] Other companies have been known to tolerate as many as 11dead pixels in their policies.[7] Dead pixel policies are often hotly debated between manufacturersand customers. To regulate the acceptability of defects and to protect the end user, ISO releasedthe ISO 13406-2 standard.[8] However, not every LCD manufacturer conforms to the ISOstandard and the ISO standard is quite often interpreted in different ways.
  • 26. LCD panels are more likely to have defects than most ICs due to their larger size. For example, a300 mm SVGA LCD has 8 defects and a 150 mm wafer has only 3 defects. However, 134 of the137 dies on the wafer will be acceptable, whereas rejection of the LCD panel would be a 0%yield. Due to competition between manufacturers quality control has been improved. An SVGALCD panel with 4 defective pixels is usually considered defective and customers can request anexchange for a new one. Some manufacturers, notably in South Korea where some of the largestLCD panel manufacturers, such as LG, are located, now have "zero defective pixel guarantee",which is an extra screening process which can then determine "A" and "B" grade panels. Manymanufacturers would replace a product even with one defective pixel. Even where suchguarantees do not exist, the location of defective pixels is important. A display with only a fewdefective pixels may be unacceptable if the defective pixels are near each other. Manufacturersmay also relax their replacement criteria when defective pixels are in the center of the viewingarea.LCD panels also have defects known as clouding (or less commonly mura), which describes theuneven patches of changes in luminance. It is most visible in dark or black areas of displayedscenes.[9][edit] Zero-power (bistable) displaysSee also: Ferro Liquid DisplayThe zenithal bistable device (ZBD), developed by QinetiQ (formerly DERA), can retain animage without power. The crystals may exist in one of two stable orientations ("Black" and"White") and power is only required to change the image. ZBD Displays is a spin-off companyfrom QinetiQ who manufacture both grayscale and colour ZBD devices.A French company, Nemoptic, has developed the BiNem zero-power, paper-like LCDtechnology which has been mass-produced in partnership with Seiko since 2007.[10] Thistechnology is intended for use in applications such as Electronic Shelf Labels, E-books, E-documents, E-newspapers, E-dictionaries, Industrial sensors, Ultra-Mobile PCs, etc.Kent Displays has also developed a "no power" display that uses Polymer Stabilized CholestericLiquid Crystals (ChLCD). A major drawback of ChLCD screens are their slow refresh rate,especially at low temperatures[citation needed]. Kent has recently demonstrated the use of a ChLCDto cover the entire surface of a mobile phone, allowing it to change colours, and keep that coloureven when power is cut off.[11]In 2004 researchers at the University of Oxford demonstrated two new types of zero-powerbistable LCDs based on Zenithal bistable techniques.[12]Several bistable technologies, like the 360° BTN and the bistable cholesteric, depend mainly onthe bulk properties of the liquid crystal (LC) and use standard strong anchoring, with alignmentfilms and LC mixtures similar to the traditional monostable materials. Other bistabletechnologies (i.e. Binem Technology) are based mainly on the surface properties and needspecific weak anchoring materials.[edit] Color displays This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2009)
  • 27. Subpixels of a colour LCDComparison of the OLPC XO-1 display (left) with a typical colour LCD. The images show 1×1 mm of eachscreen. A typical LCD addresses groups of 3 locations as pixels. The XO-1 display addresses each locationas a separate pixel.Example of how the colours are generated (R-red, G-green and B-blue)Photo showing subpixels in detail
  • 28. An example of a modern LCD displayIn colour LCDs each individual pixel is divided into three cells, or subpixels, which are colouredred, green, and blue, respectively, by additional filters (pigment filters, dye filters and metaloxide filters). Each subpixel can be controlled independently to yield thousands or millions ofpossible colours for each pixel. CRT monitors employ a similar subpixel structures viaphosphors, although the electron beam employed in CRTs do not hit exact subpixels.[edit] Brief history 1888: Friedrich Reinitzer (1858–1927) discovers the liquid crystalline nature of cholesterol extracted from carrots (that is, two melting points and generation of colours) and published his findings at a meeting of the Vienna Chemical Society on May 3, 1888 (F. Reinitzer: Beiträge zur Kenntniss des Cholesterins, Monatshefte für Chemie (Wien) 9, 421-441 (1888)).[13] 1904: Otto Lehmann publishes his work "Flüssige Kristalle" (Liquid Crystals). 1911: Charles Mauguin first experiments of liquids crystals confined between plates in thin layers. 1922: Georges Friedel describes the structure and properties of liquid crystals and classified them in 3 types (nematics, smectics and cholesterics). 1936: The Marconi Wireless Telegraph company patents the first practical application of the technology, "The Liquid Crystal Light Valve". 1962: The first major English language publication on the subject "Molecular Structure and Properties of Liquid Crystals", by Dr. George W. Gray.[14] 1962: Richard Williams of RCA found that liquid crystals had some interesting electro-optic characteristics and he realized an electro-optical effect by generating stripe-patterns in a thin layer of liquid crystal material by the application of a voltage. This effect is based on an electro- hydrodynamic instability forming what is now called “Williams domains” inside the liquid crystal.[15] 1964: George H. Heilmeier, then working in the RCA laboratories on the effect discovered by Williams achieved the switching of colours by field-induced realignment of dichroic dyes in a homeotropically oriented liquid crystal. Practical problems with this new electro-optical effect made Heilmeier continue to work on scattering effects in liquid crystals and finally the achievement of the first operational liquid crystal display based on what he called the dynamic scattering mode (DSM). Application of a voltage to a DSM display switches the initially clear transparent liquid crystal layer into a milky turbid state. DSM displays could be operated in transmissive and in reflective mode but they required a considerable current to flow for their
  • 29. operation.[16][17][18] George H. Heilmeier was inducted in the National Inventors Hall of Fame and credited with the invention of LCD.[19] 1960s: Pioneering work on liquid crystals was undertaken in the late 1960s by the UKs Royal Radar Establishment at Malvern, England. The team at RRE supported ongoing work by George Gray and his team at the University of Hull who ultimately discovered the cyanobiphenyl liquid crystals (which had correct stability and temperature properties for application in LCDs). 1970: On December 4, 1970, the twisted nematic field effect in liquid crystals was filed for patent by Hoffmann-LaRoche in Switzerland, (Swiss patent No. 532 261) with Wolfgang Helfrich and Martin Schadt (then working for the Central Research Laboratories) listed as inventors.[16] Hoffmann-La Roche then licensed the invention to the Swiss manufacturer Brown, Boveri & Cie who produced displays for wrist watches during the 1970s and also to Japanese electronics industry which soon produced the first digital quartz wrist watches with TN-LCDs and numerous other products. James Fergason while working with Sardari Arora and Alfred Saupe at Kent State University Liquid Crystal Institute filed an identical patent in the USA on April 22, 1971.[20] In 1971 the company of Fergason ILIXCO (now LXD Incorporated) produced the first LCDs based on the TN-effect, which soon superseded the poor-quality DSM types due to improvements of lower operating voltages and lower power consumption. 1972: The first active-matrix liquid crystal display panel was produced in the United States by Westinghouse, in Pittsburgh, PA.[21] 1996 Samsung develops the optical patterning technique that enables multi-domain LCD. Multi- domain and IPS subsequently remain the dominant LCD designs through 2010. [22] 1997 Hitachi resurrects the In Plane Switching (IPS) technology producing the first LCD to have the visual quality acceptable for TV application. 2007: In the 4Q of 2007 for the first time LCD televisions surpassed CRT units in worldwide sales.[23] 2008: LCD TVs become the majority with a 50% market share of the 200 million TVs forecast to ship globally in 2008 according to Display Bank.[24]A detailed description of the origins and the complex history of liquid crystal displays from theperspective of an insider during the early days has been published by Joseph A. Castellano inLiquid Gold: The Story of Liquid Crystal Displays and the Creation of an Industry.[25] Anotherreport on the origins and history of LCD from a different perspective has been published byHiroshi Kawamoto, available at the IEEE History Center.[26][edit] SpecificationsImportant factors to consider when evaluating a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD): Resolution versus Range: Fundamentally resolution is the granularity (or number of levels) with which a performance feature of the display is divided. Resolution is often confused with range or the total end-to-end output of the display. Each of the major features of a display has both a resolution and a range that are tied to each other but very different. Frequently the range is an inherent limitation of the display while the resolution is a function of the electronics that make the display work. Spatial Performance LCDs come in a variety of sizes for a variety of applications and a variety of resolutions within each of those applications. LCD spatial performance is also sometimes described in terms of a “dot pitch”. The size (or spatial range) of an LCD is always described in terms of the diagonal distance from one corner to its opposite. This is a historical aspect from the early days of CRT TV when CRT screens were manufactured on the bottoms of a glass bottle. The diameter of the bottle determined the size of the screen. Later, when TVs went to a more
  • 30. square format, the square screens were measured diagonally to compare with the older round screens. [27]The spatial resolution of an LCD is expressed in terms of the number of columns and rows ofpixels (e.g., 1024×768). This had been one of the few features of LCD performance that waseasily understood and not subject to interpretation. Each pixel is usually composed of a red,green, and blue sub pixel. However there are newer schemes to share sub-pixels among pixelsand to add additional colors of sub-pixels. So going forward, spatial resolution may be moresubject to interpretation.One external factor to consider in evaluating display resolution is the resolution of your owneyes. For a normal person with 20/20 vision, the resolution of your eyes is about one minute ofarc. In practical terms that means for an older standard definition TV set the ideal viewingdistance was about 8 times the height (not diagonal) of the screen away. At that distance theindividual rows of pixels merge into a solid. If you were closer to the screen than that, you wouldbe able to see the individual rows of pixels. If you are further away, the image of the rows ofpixels still merge, but the total image becomes smaller as you get further away. For an HDTV setwith slightly more than twice the number of rows of pixels, the ideal viewing distance is abouthalf what it is for a standard definition set. The higher the resolution, the closer you can sit to theset or the larger the set can usefully be sitting at the same distance as an older standard definitiondisplay.For a computer monitor or some other LCD that is being viewed from a very close distance,resolution is often expressed in terms of dot pitch or pixels per inch. This is consistent with theprinting industry (another form of a display). Magazines, and other premium printed media areoften at 300 dots per inch. As with the distance discussion above, this provides a very solidlooking and detailed image. LCDs, particularly on mobile devices, are frequently much less thanthis as the higher the dot pitch, the more optically inefficient the display and the more power itburns. Running the LCD is frequently half, or more, of the power consumed by a mobile device.An additional consideration in spatial performance are viewing cone and aspect ratio. The Aspectratio is the ratio of the width to the height (for example, 4:3, 5:4, 16:9 or 16:10). Older, standarddefinition TVs were 4:3. Newer, HDTV’s are 16:9 as are most new notebook computers. Moviesare often filmed in much different (wider) aspect ratios which is why there will frequently still beblack bars at the top and bottom of a HDTV screen.The Viewing Angle of an LCD may be important depending on its use or location. The viewingangle is usually measured as the angle where the contrast of the LCD falls below 10:1. At thispoint, the colors usually start to change and can even invert, red becoming green and so forth.Viewing angles for LCDs used to be very restrictive however, improved optical films have beendeveloped that give almost 180 degree viewing angles from left to right. Top to bottom viewingangles may still be restrictive, by design, as looking at an LCD from an extreme up or downangle is not a common usage model and these photons are wasted. Manufacturers commonlyfocus the light in a left to right plane to obtain a brighter image here. Temporal/Timing Performance: Contrary to spatial performance, temporal performance is a feature where smaller is better. Specifically, the range is the pixel response time of an LCD, or how quickly you can change a sub-pixel’s brightness from one level to another. For LCD monitors, this is measured in btb (black to black) or gtg (gray to gray). These different types of measurements make comparison difficult.[28] Further, this number is almost never published in sales advertising.
  • 31. Refresh rate or the temporal resolution of an LCD is the number of times per second in which thedisplay draws the data it is being given. Since activated LCD pixels do not flash on/off betweenframes, LCD monitors exhibit no refresh-induced flicker, no matter how low the refresh. rate.[29]High-end LCD televisions now feature up to 240 Hz refresh rate, which requires advanceddigital processing to insert additional interpolated frames between the real images to smooth theimage motion. However, such high refresh rates may not be actually supported by pixel responsetimes and the result can be visual artifacts that distort the image in unpleasant ways.Temporal performance can be further taxed if it is a 3D display. 3D displays work by showing adifferent series of images to each eye, alternating from eye to eye. For a 3D display it mustdisplay twice as many images in the same period of time as a conventional display andconsequently the response time of the LCD becomes more important. 3D LCDs with marginalresponse times, will exhibit image smearing.The temporal resolution of human perception is about 1/100th of a second. It is actually greaterin your black and white vision (the rods in your eye) than in color vision (the cones). You aremore able to see flicker or any sort of temporal distortion in a display image by not lookingdirectly at it as your rods are mostly grouped at the periphery of your vision. Color Performance There are many terms to describe color performance of an LCD. They include color gamut which is the range of colors that can be displayed and color depth which is the color resolution or the resolution or fineness with which the color range is divided. Although color gamut can be expressed as three pairs of numbers, the XY coordinates within color space of the reddest red, greenest green, and bluest blue, it is usually expressed as a ratio of the total area within color space that a display can show relative to some standard such as saying that a display was “120% of NSC”. NTSC is the National Television Standards Committee, the old standard definition TV specification. Color gamut is a relatively straight forward feature. However with clever optical techniques that are based on the way humans see color, termed color stretch .[30], colors can be shown that are outside of the nominal range of the display. In any case, color range is rarely discussed as a feature of the display as LCDs are designed to match the color ranges of the content that they are intended to show. Having a color range that exceeds the content is a useless feature.Color Depth or color support is sometimes expressed in bits, either as the number of bits per sub-pixel or the number of bits per pixel. This can be ambiguous as an 8-bit color LCD can be 8 totalbits spread between red, green, and blue or 8 bits each for each color in a different display.Further, LCDs sometimes use a technique called dithering which is time averaging colors toe getintermediate colors such as alternating between two different colors to get a color in between.This doubles the number of colors that can be displayed; however this is done at the expense ofthe temporal performance of the display. Dithering is commonly used on computer displayswhere the images are mostly static and the temporal performance is unimportant.When color depth is reported as color support, it is usually stated in terms of number of colorsthe LCD can show. The number of colors is the translation from the base 2-bit numbers intocommon base-10. For example, s 8-bit, in common terms means 2 to the 8th power or 256colors. 8-bits per color or 24-bits would be 256 x 256 x 256 or over 16 Million colors. The colorresolution of the human eye depends on both the range of colors being sliced and the number ofslices; but for most common displays the limit is about 28-bit color. LCD TVs commonly displaymore than that as the digital processing can introduce color distortions and the additional levelsof color are needed to ensure true colors.There are additional aspects to LCD color and color management such as white point and gammacorrection which basically describe what color white is and how the other colors are displayed
  • 32. relative to white. LCD televisions also frequently have facial recognition software whichrecognizes that an image on the screen is a face and both adjust the color and the focusdifferently from the rest of the image. These adjustments can have important impact to theconsumer but are not easily quantifiable; people like what they like and everyone does not likethe same thing. There is no substitute for looking at the LCD you are going to buy before buyingit. Portrait film, another form of display, has similar adjustments built in to it. Many years ago,Kodak had to overcome initial rejection of its portrait film in Japan because of these adjustments.In the US, people generally prefer a more color facial image than is reality (higher colorsaturation). In Japan, consumers generally prefer a less saturated image. The film that Kodakinitially sent to Japan was biased in exactly the wrong direction for Japanese consumers. TV setshave their built in biases as well. Brightness and Contrast ratio: Contrast Ratio is the ratio of the brightness of a full-on pixel to a full-off pixel and, as such, would be directly tied to brightness if not for the invention of the blinking backlight. The LCD itself is only a light valve, it does not generate light; the light comes from a backlight that is either a florescent tube or a set of LEDs. The blinking backlight was developed to improve the motion performance of LCDs by turning the backlight of while the liquid crystals were in transition from one image to another. However, a side benefit of the blinking backlight was infinite contrast. The contrast reported on most LCDs is what the LCD is qualified at, not it’s actual performance. In any case, there are two large caveats to contrast ratio as a measure of LCD performance.The first caveat is that contrast ratios are measured in a completely dark room. In actual use, theroom is never completely dark as you will always have the light from the LCD itself. Beyondthat, there may be sunlight coming in through a window or other room lights that reflect off ofthe surface of the LCD and degrade the contrast. As a practical matter, the contrast of an LCD, orany display, is governed by the amount of surface reflections not by the performance of thedisplay.The second caveat is that the human eye can only image a contrast ratio of a maximum of about200:1. Black print on a white paper is about 15-20:1. That is why viewing angles are specified tothe point where the fall below 10:1. A 10:1 image is not great, but is discernable.Brightness is usually stated as the maximum output of the LCD. In the CRT era, Trinitron CRTshad a brightness advantage over the competition so brightness was commonly discussed in TVadvertising. With current LCD technology, brightness, though important, is usually the samefrom maker to maker and is consequently not discussed much except for notebook LCDs andother displays that will be viewed in bright sunlight. In general, brighter is better but there isalways a trade-off between brightness and battery life in a mobile device.