Global point of view hhes us-1


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Global point of view hhes us-1

  1. 1. Global Point of ViewAP Environmental ScienceHeathwood Hall Episcopal SchoolColumbia, South Carolina
  2. 2. Definition of ProblemGlobal Status Quo• Population increases have contributed excessivegreenhouse gas emission, waste, and degradation ofnatural capital• Current climate trend has resulted in warmer and drierconditions• Increase in extreme weather events such as droughts andheat waves• A decrease in precipitation affects natural resources,human health, and water resources
  3. 3. Definition of ProblemGlobal Status Quo• Shorter duration of snowfall each year• Water levels are rising, particularly in more isolated bodies of water,like the Baltic Sea• Plants have moved northwards due to the warmer climate•The economy has suffered serious losses in the past twenty yearsbecause of extreme weather events•―Climate models predict that the average temperature at the Earthssurface could increase from 3.2 to 7.2ºF above 1990 levels by the end ofthis century‖ (
  4. 4. Definition of ProblemGlobal Target Situation •‖By decreasing use of other fossil fuels, and improving agricultural and forestry practices around the world, scientists believe we could get back below 350 by mid- century. But the longer we remain in the danger zone—above 350— the more likely that we will see disastrous and irreversible climate impacts.‖ – James Hansen, NASA
  5. 5. Reasons and Causes of the ProblemGlobal•Government laws are in place to reduce CO2 emissions, but they areavoidable to a point because of weak enforcement•Factories, large cities, cars, landfills, waste treatment methods, theimportation of many goods, farmyard animals cause the burning ofharmful fossil fuels
  6. 6. Consequences of the ProblemGlobal• Rising sea levels• Hotter summers• Serious health hazards for humans caused by increase in SO2• Changes in precipitation• Possible natural disasters• Wind currents could change• Delicate ecosystems could be irreversibly damaged• Decrease in biodiversity
  7. 7. Possible CountermeasuresGlobal• Switch to renewable forms of energy such ashydroelectricity, wind, and solar• Government laws that would enforce stricterregulations on greenhouse gas emissions• Greener and smarter transport systems• Creation of cap-and-trade programs forgreenhouse gas emissions
  8. 8. North AmericaDEFINITION OF PROBLEM REASONS AND CAUSES• 2nd Highest fossil fuel and CO2 • Cities like Mexico City and Newemitting continent in the world York City contribute to highbehind Asia greenhouse gas emissions•Air pollution from the United • Highly developed and rapidlyStates is carried in wind patterns developing economies with largeacross borders and damages the industrial sectorsentire continent•Emission levels peaked in 2005,and have decreased slightly sincethen
  9. 9. North AmericaCONSEQUENCES POSSIBLE COUNTERMEASURES•Winds blow pollution from •Promote and provide taxMexico and United States to incentives when trading withCanada, destroying ecosystems North American countries inand biodiversity NAFTA agreement
  10. 10. South AsiaDEFINITION OF PROBLEM REASONS AND CAUSES• Large population of 1.3 billion • Growing industrial sectorwhich contributes to excessive • Large agriculture sectorgreenhouse gas emission, waste, • Enormous population thatand degradation of natural capital continues to grow• Agriculture, area’s largest • Lack of environmental protectioneconomic activity, is also legislation and industrial pollutionthreatened by the issue of water regulationsscarcity
  11. 11. South AsiaCONSEQUENCES POSSIBLE COUNTERMEASURES• Rising water levels have the • Governmental regulation ofdemonstrated potential greenhouse gas and otherto completely submerge islands pollutant emissionsoff the Indian coast, and continue • Building support forto threaten coastal regions environmental initiatives at a local• Natural disasters (floods, level, with regards to conservingdroughts, typhoons) will continue resources and reducing waterto increase in intensity each year pollution• Industry/Agriculture contributeto climate change
  12. 12. EuropeDEFINITION OF PROBLEM REASONS AND CAUSES• Southern Europe and the Arctic • Germany and the Unitedhave been particularly affected by Kingdom are the largestrising temperatures contributors to European• The carbon dioxide levels in the pollutionatmosphere have increased to 375 • Milan, Amsterdam, Frankfurt areppm from the pre-industrial level the most polluted areas ofof 280 ppm Europe, mainly due to Europe’s steel and coal industries
  13. 13. EuropeCONSEQUENCES POSSIBLE COUNTERMEASURES• Wildfires, reduced forest area, • Countermeasures such as greenreduced water availability and transport and cap-and-tradereduced crop yield programs would implemented by•In central and eastern areas national governments butconsequences are heat waves, enforced by local governmentsreduced summer rainfall anddecreased forest productivity•In the north there will be benefitssuch as reduced heating demand,milder winters and increased cropyields
  14. 14. United States of AmericaDEFINITION OF PROBLEM REASONS AND CAUSES• US supports 300 million people • Industrialized cities such as New• To keep the economy up York and Los Angeles which haverequires large amounts of energy, a lot of pavement, buildings, andand most of these sources are cars, absorbing heat andnon-renewable inhibiting wind flow • US is biggest emitter of greenhouse gases in world
  15. 15. United States of AmericaCONSEQUENCES POSSIBLE COUNTERMEASURES• Rising sea level - The Atlantic • ―President Barack Obama willOcean attend the U.N. climate summit• Delicate ecosystems all over next month in Denmark, takingcountry could be irreversibly with him a target to reduce U.S.damaged greenhouse gas " • ―We need to reduce our emissions and implement more green technology. We should take advantage of the use of solar panels and other renewable energy sources, such as wind and hydroelectric power‖ ( 4147586/)
  16. 16. Southeast United StatesDEFINITION OF PROBLEM REASONS AND CAUSES•CO2 emissions for 2007: •The addition of greenhouse • Virginia- 127.95 ppm gasses into the atmosphere from • Alabama- 145.24 ppm • Large cities such as Atlanta, • Mississippi- 67.81 ppm Houston, Dallas • Georgia- 184.04 ppm • Factories • Louisiana- 194.93 ppm • Florida- 256.27 ppm • Automobiles • North Carolina- 153.56 ppm • Arkansas- 63.70 ppm • Kentucky-156.80 ppm•Overall average is 150.033 ppm
  17. 17. Southeast United StatesCONSEQUENCES POSSIBLE COUNTERMEASURES• Shoreline retreat and inundation • Improving transportationof inland areas • Conversion to cleaner air• Rising sea temperatures are • Promotion of energyexpected to increase the conservationfrequency and strength of • Find and utilize alternativehurricanes energy source• Stronger storms with higher • hydroelectricwind speeds, more intense rainfall • wind powerand more powerful surges areexpected to cause a lot more • solar powerdamage • biomass • geothermal
  18. 18. South CarolinaDEFINITION OF PROBLEM REASONS AND CAUSES• After 1957, the annual average • Each South Carolina resident, pertemperature increased by nearly population average, produces1°F when compared to the approximately 20 Tons of Carbonaverage Dioxide each year• Precipitation decreased 6% • #27th highest Carbon Dioxideprimarily due to lower than polluting state in the Unitedaverage springtime rainfall States( ( ate_detail.php?id=1136)pacts.php)
  19. 19. South CarolinaCONSEQUENCES POSSIBLE COUNTERMEASURES• With warmer temperatures, crops • Gov. Sanford formed the Climate,like corn would cease to be profitable Energy and Commerce Advisoryin the Southeast, while heat-tolerant Committee (CECAC) in 2007, whichcrops like cotton could make a come recommendedback. • A voluntary reduction in state• The forestry industry will have a carbon emissions to five percentdieback of the forests in the next 30 below the 1990 level by 80 years, a loss of biodiversity, • Focus on bringing renewable nuclear fuel generators to theconversion of forests to grasslands, stateand increased vulnerability to disease Expand bike and pedestrianand pests • opportunities, alternative fuel infrastructure, mass transit and carpooling options • Begin forestland conservation and methane reclamation projects ( /8-22-08.htm)
  20. 20. QuestionsGermany•Can you currently see the effects of climate change in your country?•What policies would you want the government to enforce to cutgreenhouse gas emissions?•How often do you use public transportation as opposed toautomobiles? How far do you drive each week?•How many km does your car get per liter? How much does gas costper liter?•What percentage of your domestic waste is recycled?•Which renewable energy source has the most potential in your region?
  21. 21. QuestionsIndia•Can you currently see the effects of climate change in your country?•What policies would you want the government to enforce to cutgreenhouse gas emissions?•What forms of renewable energy do you view to be the most viablefor building a "greener" economy in your country?•Do you think that historical Western usage of nonrenewable resourcesjustifies India’s current usage as the economy develops, given thecurrent knowledge of the environmental impacts?