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Production Managerial Economics
 

Production Managerial Economics

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    Production Managerial Economics Production Managerial Economics Presentation Transcript

    • PRODUCTION, PRODUCTION FUNCTION PRODUCTION IN THE SHORT RUN
    • PRODUCTION  Production process involves the transformation of inputs into output. The inputs could be land, labour, capital, entrepreneurship etc. and the output could be goods or services.  An entrepreneur must put together resources -land, labour, capital -- and produce a product people will be willing and able to purchase
    • In a production process managers take four types of decisions:  (a) whether to produce or not,  (b) how much output to produce,  (c) what input combination to use,  (d) what type of technology to use. 
    • PRODUCTION FUNCTION  States the relationship between inputs and outputs  A production function is the functional relationship between inputs and output. It shows the maximum output which can be obtained for a given combination of inputs.
    •  It expresses the technological relationship between inputs and output of a product  In general, we can represent the production function for a firm as:Q = f (x1, x2, ….,xn)  Where Q is the maximum quantity of output, x1, x2, ….,xn are the quantities of various inputs, and f stands for functional relationship between inputs and output. For the sake of clarity, let us restrict our attention to only one product produced using either one input or two inputs. If there are only two inputs, capital (K) and labour (L), we write the production function as = f (L, K)
    •  Inputs – the factors of production classified as:  Land – all natural resources of the earth   Labour – all physical and mental human effort involved in production   Price paid to acquire land = Rent Price paid to labour = Wages Capital – buildings, machinery and equipment not used for its own sake but for the contribution it makes to production  Price paid for capital = Interest
    • Inputs Process Land Labour Capital Product or service generated – value added Output
    • PRODUCTION IN THE SHORT RUN  Short run is a period just short enough that at least one resource (input-industrial plant, machines) cannot be changed -- is fixed or inelastic. thus in the short run production of a commodity can be increased by increasing the use of only variable inputs like labour and raw materials.
    • Short Run Plant size is fixed, labor is variable
    • DEFINITION OF SHORT RUN  Short run is a period of time over which at least one factor must remain fixed. For most of the firms, the fixed resource or factors which cannot be increased to meet the rising demand of the good is capital i.e., plant and machinery.  Short run, then, is a period of time over which output can be changed by adjusting the quantities of resources such as labour, raw material, fuel but the size or scale of the firm remains fixed.
    • ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTION FUNCTION: SHORT RUN In the short run at least one factor fixed in supply but all other factors capable of being changed  Reflects ways in which firms respond to changes in output (demand)  Can increase or decrease output using more or less of some factors but some likely to be easier to change than others  Increase in total capacity only possible in the long run 
    • PRODUCTION FUNCTION SHORT RUN In times of rising sales (demand) firms can increase labour and capital but only up to a certain level – they will be limited by the amount of space. In this example, land is the fixed factor which cannot be altered in the short run.
    • PRODUCTION FUNCTION SHORT RUN If demand slows down, the firm can reduce its variable factors – in this example it reduces its labour and capital but again, land is the factor which stays fixed.
    • PRODUCTION FUNCTION SHORT RUN If demand slows down, the firm can reduce its variable factors – in this example, it reduces its labour and capital but again, land is the factor which stays fixed.
    • PRODUCTION FUNCTION SHORT RUN
    • PRODUCTION FUNCTION SHORT RUN Unit of capital No Of labours Total out put AP MP 1 1 3 3 3 1 2 8 4 5 1 3 12 4 4 1 4 14 3.5 2 1 5 14 2.8 0 1 6 12 2 -2